Sec KEY CONCEPT Reptiles, birds, and mammals are amniotes.

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1 Thu 4/27 Learning Target Class Activities *attached below (scroll down)* Website: my.hrw.com Username: bio678 Password:a4s5s Activities Students will describe the evolutionary significance of amniotic eggs. (26.1) Students will summarize key anatomical and circulatory differences among amniotes. Students will explain tow strategies for regulating body temperature. (26.1) Students will describe the diversity and evolution of reptiles. (26.2) Chpt 25 review game * Notes & study guide WS* Water plants can take plants home Sec KEY CONCEPT Reptiles, birds, and mammals are amniotes. Biology Sec & 26.2 Notes Amniote embryos develop in a fluid-filled sac. The amniotic sac contains everything an embryo needs to grow. some develop inside mother s body some develop inside a tough, semipermeable shell The amniotic egg allowed vertebrates to reproduce on land. Anatomy and circulation differ among amniotes. The first animals walked in a sprawl. Other amniotes, including dinosaurs, evolved a more upright stance. All amniotes have two circuits of blood vessels. pulmonary circuit moves blood from the heart to the lungs Holt McDougal Biology 0 A Closer Look at Amniotes

2 systemic circuit moves blood from the heart to the rest of the body Amniotes have a three- or four-chambered heart. reptiles hearts have three chambers birds and mammals hearts have four chambers Amniotes can be ectothermic or endothermic. Amniotes manage body heat in different ways. Ectotherms have body temperatures determined by the surrounding environment. Endotherms use metabolic heat to keep tissues warm. Endotherms can live in a wider range of climates than ectotherms. Sec KEY CONCEPT Reptiles were the first amniotes. Reptiles are a diverse group of amniotes. Reptiles share several characteristics. ectotherms covered with dry scales reproduce by laying or retaining amniotic eggs three-chambered heart cloaca Reptiles have two reproductive strategies. Oviparous reptiles deposit eggs into an external nest. Viviparous reptiles retain eggs and give birth to live offspring. Holt McDougal Biology 1 A Closer Look at Amniotes

3 Reptiles have been evolving for millions of years. Over time, amniotes evolved into three different groups. synapsids anapsids diapsids The diversity of ancient reptiles led to the evolution of modern reptiles, birds, and mammals. There are four modern groups of reptiles. Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins are the remaining anapsids. bony shell encases body 200 species Sphenodonts are closely related to lizards. diapsids primitive characteristics two species Snakes and lizards are very closely related and share a number of features. diapsids shed skin at regular intervals flexible skull Jacobson s organ Crocodilians are more closely related to birds than other diapsids. diapsids semi-aquatic predators Holt McDougal Biology 2 A Closer Look at Amniotes

4 23 species KEY CONCEPT Reptiles, birds, and mammals are amniotes. VOCABULARY pulmonary circuit systemic circuit ectotherm endotherm MAIN IDEA: Amniote embryos develop in a fluid-filled sac. Fill in the blank with the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 1. An amniotic egg shell is semi-permeable. This means that such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are able to pass through the shell, but is held inside to prevent the embryo from drying out. 2. The development of the amniotic egg was an important adaptation, because it allowed amniotes to on land. Complete the following sentences describing each type of membrane found within an amniotic egg. Membrane Description 3. allantois Holds as the embryo grows. 4. amnion Protects and the embryo. 5. chorion Allows with the outside environment. 6. yolk sac Contains the for the growing embryo. Holt McDougal Biology 3 A Closer Look at Amniotes

5 continued MAIN IDEA: Anatomy and circulation differ among amniotes. 7. Place a check mark in the appropriate box to indicate whether the following characteristics are true of amniotes with a sprawling stance or of amniotes with an upright stance. Characteristic a. Animals can breathe and run at the same time because different muscle groups are used for each activity. b. Animals cannot run and breathe at the same time because the same muscles are used for both activities. Sprawling Stance Upright Stance c. Less energy is used to walk. d. More energy is used to walk. e. The body sways side to side when walking. f. The legs swing forward and back like a pendulum. Circle the word or phrase that best completes the statement. 8. The pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit differ. The pulmonary circuit moves oxygen-poor / oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the lungs and oxygen-poor / oxygen-rich blood back to the heart. The systemic circuit moves oxygen-poor / oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Holt McDougal Biology 4 A Closer Look at Amniotes

6 continued 9. Place the statements below into the Venn diagram to show the differences between the circulatory system of a reptile and the circulatory system of a mammal. a. Animal can adjust blood flow in response to oxygen needs b. Centralized heart c. Four-chambered heart d. Increased control over body temperature e. Large and constant supply of oxygen available f. Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood kept separate g. Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood pumped into single ventricle h. Pulmonary circuit i. Systemic circuit j. Three-chambered heart k. Two atria and one ventricle l. Two atria and two ventricles Reptile Circulatory System Both Mammal Circulatory System MAIN IDEA: Amniotes can be ectothermic or endothermic. Complete the sentence with either the word ectotherm or the word endotherm. 10. A(n) s body temperature is determined by the surrounding environment, so its body temperature changes with the environment. 11. A(n) regulates its body temperature by changing its behavior. Holt McDougal Biology 5 A Closer Look at Amniotes

7 continued 12. A(n) uses its own metabolic heat to keep its tissues warm. 13. A(n) s body temperature stays relatively constant all the time, because it regulates metabolic activity. For each type of amniote, indicate whether it is an ectotherm or an endotherm. 14. garter snake 15. peregrine falcon 16. your biology teacher Vocabulary Check Circle the word that best completes the statement. 17. The word system is part of the term systemic and can help you to remember the difference between the systemic circuit and the pulmonary circuit: The systemic / pulmonary circuit moves oxygen-rich blood from the heart throughout the rest of the body systems. The systemic / pulmonary circuit takes oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs. 18. The prefix endo- means inner and the prefix ecto- means outer. These two meanings are related to the definition of endotherm and ectotherm: An endotherm controls its temperature by regulating its metabolic energy inside / outside its body. An ectotherm uses the inner / outer environment to regulate its body temperature. Holt McDougal Biology 6 A Closer Look at Amniotes

8 Section 2: Reptiles KEY CONCEPT Reptiles were the first amniotes. VOCABULARY reptile oviparous viviparous MAIN IDEA: Reptiles are a diverse group of amniotes. 1. Circle all of the characteristics that describe a reptile. a. ectothermic b. endothermic c. covered with dry scales or plates d. have hollow bones to make them light weight e. produce milk from mammary glands to feed their young f. reproduce by laying or retaining amniotic eggs 2. Identify which of the following statements describes oviparous reptiles and which one describes viviparous reptiles. Reptiles deposit their eggs into an external nest and the eggs develop independently of the adult. Reptiles hold the eggs inside their body throughout development and give birth to live offspring. Fill in the blank with the word that best completes the sentence. 3. Reptiles regulate their body temperature using the environment. They warm up by and cool down by. The dry or on a reptile s body also absorb energy and help retain heat to maintain normal body functions. Holt McDougal Biology 7 A Closer Look at Amniotes

9 continued MAIN IDEA: Reptiles have been evolving for millions of years. Choose the word from the box below that best fits the description. anapsid diapsid synapsid 4. Reptiles with one hole in each temporal region have this type of skull. 5. Reptiles that have two holes in each temporal region, one above the other, have this type of skull. 6. Reptiles that do not have any temporal holes have this type of skull. Fill in the blank with the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 7. Dinosaurs first appeared in the fossil record million years ago. All walking dinosaurs went extinct million years ago. 8. The first vertebrates to evolve powered flight were the. MAIN IDEA: There are four modern groups of reptiles. Use the descriptions listed below to complete the chart on the next page about the four modern groups of reptiles. 9. a. 2 species b. 23 species c. 200 species d. shed their skin e. are semi-aquatic f. have a flexible skull g. are ambush predators h. are closely related to lizards and snakes i. have a bony shell that covers the entire body j. have a Jacobson s organ, which is used to locate prey k. have primitive characteristics such as a diapsid skull and an eyespot in the center of the head Holt McDougal Biology 8 A Closer Look at Amniotes

10 continued Group Description Examples Turtles Box turtle, desert tortoise, terrapin Sphenodonts Tuatara Snakes and lizards Rattlesnake, gecko Crocodilians Crocodiles, caimans, alligators Vocabulary Check Word Part -parous ovivivi- Meaning to give birth egg alive Use the word parts in the table above to identify the difference between oviparous and viviparous reptiles. 10. reptiles lay eggs, and reptiles give birth to live young. Holt McDougal Biology 9 A Closer Look at Amniotes

11 Holt McDougal Biology 10 A Closer Look at Amniotes

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