Vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone and an endoskeleton.

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1 Vertebrates Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone and an endoskeleton. The backbone replaces the notochord and contains bones called vertebrae. An endoskeleton is an internal skeleton that protects and supports the animal s body.

2 Vertebrates Vertebrates include: Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

3 Fishes Fishes are cold-blooded vertebrates that live in water. Cold-blooded means their body temperature changes with the surrounding temperature.

4 Fishes Most fish have scales that protect their bodies and fins to help them swim.

5 Feeding Fishes Fishes can be herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders and detritus feeders.

6 This image cannot currently be displayed. Respiration Fishes Fish breathe using gills, which are structures used to breathe in the water. As water moves past the gill-filaments, oxygen is transferred from the water to the blood-stream.

7 Circulation Fishes Fish have a closed circulatory system. A two-chambered heart pumps blood around the fish s body in a single loop.

8 Fishes Fishes can sense gentle vibrations and movement in the water using a receptor called the lateral line.

9 Groups of Fishes All fish are classified into three groups: Jawless fishes Cartilaginous fishes Bony fishes

10 Jawless Fishes Traits of jawless fishes: No true teeth or jaws. Skeletons made of cartilage. Not covered with scales. No vertebrae.

11 Jawless Fishes Types of jawless fishes: Lampreys Contain a large circular sucking disk on their head. Attach to fishes, whales, and dolphins and suck out blood and body fluids.

12 Jawless Fishes Types of jawless fishes: Hagfish Contain tentacles around their mouth Feed on dead and dying fish. Secrete slime, have six hearts but no eyes, and often tie themselves into knots!

13 Cartilage Fishes Traits of cartilage fishes Entire skeleton is made of cartilage. Have jaws, toothlike scales, and paired fins. Include sharks, skates, and rays.

14 Sharks Cartilage Fishes There are over 350 species of sharks. Most have torpedo shaped bodies, curved tails, and pointed snouts. Many sharks have thousands of teeth arranged in several rows.

15 Skates and rays Cartilage Fishes Have flat bodies and live on the ocean floor. Eat fish and invertebrates. Move by flapping large, wing-like fins.

16 Bony Fishes Traits of bony fishes: Skeletons made of bone. Most have smooth, bony scales covered with a slimy coating. Have a flap that protects the gills.

17 Amphibians An amphibian is a vertebrate that lives part of its life in water and another part on land. Traits of amphibians: Cold-blooded. Have moist skin that contains mucus glands. Lack scales and claws.

18 Feeding Amphibians Adult amphibians are mostly carnivores. They will eat almost any living thing they can catch and swallow.

19 Amphibians Respiration Young amphibians live in the water and breathe using gills. Most adult amphibians develop lungs to replace their gills. Amphibians can also exchange gases through their skin.

20 Circulation Amphibians Amphibians have three-chambered hearts which pump blood to the lungs and then to the rest of the body.

21 Reproduction Amphibians Female amphibians lay eggs in the water and the male fertilizes them externally.

22 Amphibians Amphibians hear through tympanic membranes (ear drums) on the sides of their heads.

23 Groups of Amphibians There are three groups of amphibians: Salamanders Frogs and Toads Caecilians

24 Salamanders Traits of salamanders: Long bodies and tails. Four legs. Carnivorous. Live in moist woods, under rocks or rotting logs.

25 Frogs and Toads Traits of frogs and toads: Lack tails. Powerful legs used for jumping. Live in ponds, streams, moist woods, and even deserts.

26 Traits of caecilians: Legless amphibians. Caecilians Live in water or burrow in moist soil and sediment. Feed on small invertebrates.

27 Reptiles A reptile is a vertebrate that has dry, scaly skin and can live on land. Traits of reptiles: Cold-blooded. Have a backbone and endoskeleton.

28 Feeding Reptiles Some reptiles are herbivores and some are carnivores.

29 Respiration Reptiles Reptiles have well-developed lungs for breathing air on land. Reptiles cannot exchange gases through their skin like amphibians.

30 Circulation Reptiles Reptiles have three or four-chambered hearts for pumping blood to the lungs and then to the rest of the body.

31 Reproduction Reptiles All reptiles reproduce by internal fertilization. Female produces eggs with a tough, leathery shell for survival on land.

32 Groups of Reptiles Groups of reptiles are: Lizards and snakes Crocodilians Turtles and tortoises Tuataras

33 Lizards Lizards have legs, clawed toes, external ears, and moveable eyelids.

34 Snakes Snakes are legless reptiles that are efficient predators. Some snakes produce toxic venom.

35 Crocodilians Include crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gavials. Traits of crocodilians: Long, broad snout Fierce carnivores. Live in tropics or subtropics

36 Turtles and Tortoises Traits of turtles and tortoises: A hard shell built into their skeleton. Horny ridges covering their jaws. Strong limbs for walking.

37 Tuataras Live on islands near New Zealand. Resemble lizards, but lack external ears and have primitive scales. Contain a third eye with no known function.

38 Birds Birds are vertebrates that have wings, a beak, scaly legs, clawed toes, and a covering of feathers.

39 Birds Many believe birds evolved from dinosaurs. The oldest fossil of a bird-like animal is of Archaeopteryx, which looked like a small dinosaur that was covered in feathers.

40 Birds Birds are warm-blooded. This means they maintain a constant internal body temperature, no matter what the temperature of the surroundings.

41 Birds Most birds are well-adapted for flying. They have hollow bones, powerful muscles, and aerodynamic wings.

42 Feeding Birds Birds beaks or bills are adapted to what they eat. Some birds eat insects, some eat seeds, some drink nectar, and others eat rodents.

43 Respiration Birds Birds have well-developed lungs and a complex system of tubes and air sacs. This system ensures a constant one-way flow of oxygen-rich air through the bird s lungs.

44 Reproduction Birds Both sexes in birds have internal sex organs which press together during mating. Bird eggs are similar to reptile eggs, but have a tough outer shell.

45 Groups of Birds There are over 30 orders of birds. Groups of birds include: Pelicans and their relatives Parrots Birds of prey Perching birds (over 5000 species) Herons and their relatives Cavity-nesting birds Ostriches and their relatives

46 Mammals Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates that have hair and feed milk to their young.

47 Mammals Females mammals have mammary glands, which produce milk for their young.

48 Feeding Mammals Mammals can be herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Mammals have specialized teeth and powerful jaws for processing food.

49 Respiration Mammals Mammals have well-developed lungs and a powerful muscle called a diaphragm for inhaling and exhaling.

50 Circulation Mammals Mammals have four-chambered hearts that pump blood to the lungs and then to the rest of the body.

51 Movement Mammals Depending on their adaptations, mammals may run, walk, climb, burrow, hop, pounce, swing, fly, leap, or swim.

52 Reproduction Mammals reproduce by internal fertilization. Some mammals lay eggs and others have live-births. Parental care is very important for mammals. Mammals

53 Mammals Mammals have the most highly developed brains of any animal group.

54 Groups of Mammals Groups of mammals are: Monotremes Marsupials Placental mammals

55 Monotremes Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs. Have reproductive systems similar to reptiles. Eggs have soft shells like reptile eggs. Includes duckbill platypus and echidnas

56 Marsupials Marsupials are mammals bearing live young that complete their development in an external pouch. The embryo drinks milk in the mother s pouch until large enough to survive on its own. Include kangaroos, koalas, and wombats.

57 Placental Mammals Placental mammals completely develop their young inside of the mother. The embryo joins with the mother through an internal structure called a placenta. After birth, placental mammals care for their young and feed them by nursing.

58 Placental Mammals There are over 4000 different species of placental mammals divided into 12 orders. Humans are placental mammals in the order primate.

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