Let s Learn About: Vertebrates & Invertebrates. Informational passages, graphic organizers, study guide, flashcards, and MORE!

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1 Let s Learn About: Vertebrates & Invertebrates Informational passages, graphic organizers, study guide, flashcards, and MORE!

2 Let s Learn About Vertebrates The animal kingdom is comprised of two main categories of animals; vertebrates and invertebrates. Animals that have backbones and spinal cords are known as vertebrates. These types of animals belong to the phylum, Chordata. Vertebrates earned this fancy name because of the notochord in their backs. A notochord is a thick rod of hard tissue that can develop to form a spinal cord or backbone. Vertebrates have internal skeletons, or bones on the inside of their bodies. These internal bones are sometimes referred to as endoskeletons. Vertebrates use their endoskeletons for support and, in some cases, as protection! Vertebrates use their skeletons to protect important organs, much like your ribcage protects your heart and lungs! Without endoskeletons, vertebrates would not be able to stand up on their own. There are many different types of vertebrates. Of the nearly 58,000 species of vertebrates known to man, scientists have been able to group these animals into five categories of vertebrates. These groups include fish, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds. Fish Reptiles Amphibians Mammals Birds Follow the link below to view a video on vertebrates:

3 Types of Vertebrates Fish: Fish are vertebrates that live in the water and lay eggs. They are covered in scales and use fins to help them move around under the water. Some fish can live in salt water, while other fish can live in fresh water. Fish use their gills to breath under the water. These gills help them to pull oxygen out of the water. Fish are ectothermic, or cold-blooded animals, meaning that their body temperature changes depending on the temperature of their environment. Reptiles: Reptiles are vertebrates that are covered in scales and have dry skin. Reptiles live primarily on land, but can swim and hunt in the water. This means that reptiles use their lungs to breath. Some reptiles, like the boa constrictor, can give birth to live animals, while nearly all other reptiles lay eggs. Reptiles can have either four legs, like a turtle, or no legs, like a snake. Almost all reptiles are cold-blooded animals, meaning that their body temperature changes depending on the temperature of their environment. Reptiles do not have ears. Instead, they use holes on the sides of their heads to hear their prey and any predators that may be approaching. Amphibians: Amphibians are vertebrates that live in the water and on land. They are covered in thin, wet skin that helps them to breath. Amphibians use both gills and lungs to breath, and typically breath through their skin. They have webbed feet to help them move around easily through the water, and give birth by laying eggs. Amphibians are cold-blooded animals, meaning that their body temperature changes depending on the temperature of their environment.

4 Types of Vertebrates Mammals: Mammals are vertebrates that usually live on land and use lungs to breath. However, there are some mammals, like the whale, that do not live on land. These mammals use blowholes to help them get air to their lungs. Mammals are covered in thin layers of hair or fur that helps to regulate their body temperature. Mammals give birth to live young, and are able to produce milk to nurse their babies. Mammals are endothermic, or warm-blooded animals, meaning that their body temperature is regulated, or stays the same no matter what the outside temperature is. Birds: Birds are vertebrates that are covered in feathers and have wings. They have two legs that help them to get around on land easily, although many birds also use their wings to fly. Birds give birth by laying eggs and keeping them safe in nests until they have hatched. Birds are warm-blooded animals, meaning that their body temperature is regulated, or stays the same no matter what the outside temperature is. Birds also do not have ears. Instead, they use holes on the sides of their heads to hear their prey and any predators that may be approaching. Key Vocabulary: Vertebrates: Animals that have backbones and spinal cords Notochord: Thick rod of hard tissue that can develop to form a backbone Endoskeleton: Bones that are on the inside of an animal s body Ectothermic: Cold-blooded; body temperature changes with environment Endothermic: Warm-blooded; regular body temperature no matter the temperature of the environment

5 What I Know About Vertebrates Name: Date: #: Directions: In each box surrounding the word vertebrate, write words or phrases to describe vertebrates. This could be facts about vertebrates and examples of vertebrates. Animals that have backbones or spinal cords. Vertebrates

6 Let s Learn About Invertebrates The animal kingdom is comprised of two main categories of animals; vertebrates and invertebrates. Animals that do not have backbones or spinal cords are known as invertebrates. Nearly 95% of all animal species on Earth belong to the invertebrate family. These animals include sea jellies, worms, mollusks, and arthropods. Arthropods, meaning jointed foot, make up the largest group of invertebrates known to man. Invertebrates are further grouped into categories based on body symmetry. These categories include animals that have bodies formed in a circle around a central point, such as star fish and sand dollars (radial symmetry), animals that have two identical matching halves, such as butterflies and lobsters (bilateral symmetry), and animals that have no point of symmetry, such as sponges (asymmetry). Sea Jellies Worms Mollusks Arthropods Key Vocabulary: Invertebrates: Animals that do NOT have backbones Vertebrates: Animals that have backbones and spinal cords Follow the link below to view a video on invertebrates:

7 Types of Invertebrates Sea Jellies: In place of bones, sea jellies have sacs of fluid that support their bodies. Their bodies are soft and made primarily of fluid and water. They also have long tentacles with stingers that can stun prey and predators that get too close. This type of invertebrate is usually found in the ocean. Worms: In place of bones, worms also have sacs of fluid that support their bodies. Their bodies are long, soft, and they have no legs. Worms get around by inching through the soil, where worms are primarily found. Worms survive on a diet of soil that keeps them healthy and strong. After eating through the soil, worms expel the digested soil to help keep the rest of the Earth and soil healthy and rich. Mollusks: Mollusks are invertebrates that have soft bodies, although many mollusks also have hard outer-shells that protect their bodies. Examples of mollusks include snails, octopus, squid, and clams. These animals may live in the water, like the octopus, or on land, like the snail. Arthropods: Arthropods make up the largest group of invertebrates. This type of invertebrate has a skeletal system on the outside of its body. Their bodies are made up of more than one body, multiple legs, and joints. Examples of arthropods include spiders, insects, and crabs. These animals live primarily on the land.

8 What I Know About Invertebrates Name: Date: #: Directions: In each box surrounding the word vertebrate, write words or phrases to describe vertebrates. This could be facts about vertebrates and examples of vertebrates. Animals that do NOT have backbones. Invertebrates

9 Vertebrates & Invertebrates A Sorting Activity Name: Date: #: Directions: Using you re the text to help you, write down important facts and information about vertebrates and invertebrates. An example has been done for you. Hint: You should give examples of vertebrates and invertebrates, draw pictures of any charts or graphs, explain what each animal in the category may have in common (do they all have fur, are they all cold-blooded ), and list other interesting information you find in the text. Vertebrates Invertebrates Any animal that has a backbone. Any animal that does NOT have a backbone.

10 Life Science: Animal Unit Name: Date: #: Key Vocabulary: P. 40 Vertebrate: Animals that have backbones and spinal cords P. 40 Trait: A body feature passed on to an animal from its parents; may include something an animal does P. 42 Invertebrate: Animals that do NOT have backbones P. 45 Larva: The stage in an insect s life after it hatches P. 45 Pupa: The stage in an insect s life between larva and adult P. 48 Adaptation: A trait that helps an animal meet its needs in the place where it lives P. 48 Inherited: The passing on of adaptations from parents to their young P. 52 Migrate: The instinct of animals to move when the seasons change P. 52 Hibernate: The slowing down of body systems to save energy; usually occurs during the winter months

11 Flashcards Adaptation Hibernate Inherited A trait that helps an animal meet its needs in the place where it lives The slowing down of body systems to save energy; usually occurs during the winter months The passing on of adaptations from parents to their young Invertebrate Animals that do NOT have backbones

12 Larva The stage in an insect s life after it hatches Migrate The instinct of animals to move when the seasons change Pupa Trait The stage in an insect s life between larva and adult A body feature passed on to an animal from its parents; may include something an animal does

13 Vertebrate Animals that have backbones and spinal cords Picture Matching Cards Adaptation Hibernate

14 Inherited Invertebrate Larva Migrate

15 Pupa Trait Vertebrate

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