Vertebrate and Invertebrate Animals

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1 Vertebrate and Invertebrate Animals Compare the characteristic structures of invertebrate animals (including sponges, segmented worms, echinoderms, mollusks, and arthropods) and vertebrate animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals).

2 The Animal Kingdom is divided into 35 different phyla. These phyla can be classified into two groups (vertebrates or invertebrates) based on external and internal physical characteristics.

3 However, all animals share several common characteristics: Multi-cellular bodies. Heterotrophs (cannot make their own food) and must get their energy by eating plants or other animals. Major functions are to obtain food and oxygen for energy, keep their internal conditions in balance, move, and reproduce.

4 They have blood that circulates through blood vessels and lungs (or gills) for breathing.

5 They have a nervous system with a brain that processes information from their environment through sensory organs.

6 Vertebrates comprise only one phylum of animals. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vertebrates share certain physical characteristics: They have backbones, an internal skeleton (endoskeleton), and muscles.

7 They have a protective skin covering. Most have legs, wings, or fins for movement.

8 Vertebrates differ in the way that they control their body temperature. In some (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles), their body temperature is close to that of their environment. They are considered cold-blooded, or ectothermic.

9 In others (birds and mammals), their body temperature stays constant regardless of the temperature of the environment. They are called warm-blooded, or endothermic.

10 Examples of vertebrates include: Fish cold-blooded (ectothermic) oxygen obtained through gills most lay eggs have scales have fins live in water

11 Amphibians Cold-blooded (ectothermic) breathe with gills as young and breathe with lungs as adults goes through metamorphosis lay jelly-like eggs EXAMPLES: Toads: live on land (thicker, bumpy skin) Frogs: live on water and land (smooth, moist skin) Salamanders: live on water and land (smooth, moist skin) Newts:

12 Reptiles cold-blooded (ectothermic) breathe with lungs most lay eggs, although in some the eggs hatch inside the female have scales or plates Examples: Snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles

13 Birds Warm-blooded (endothermic) breathe with lungs lay eggs have feathers have a beak, two wings, and two feet.

14 Mammals warm-blooded (endothermic) breathe with lungs most have babies that are born live have fur or hair produce milk to feed their young.

15 Invertebrates comprise the remaining phyla of the Animal Kingdom. They include sponges, segmented worms, echinoderms, mollusks, and arthropods.

16 Invertebrates share certain characteristics: They do not have backbones or internal skeletons. Some have external skeletons, called exoskeletons.

17 Examples of invertebrates include: Sponges Very simple animals with many pores (holes) through which water flows. Water moves into a central cavity and out through a hole in the top.

18 Obtain food and eliminate wastes as water passes through. Specialized cells for obtaining food and oxygen from water.

19 Segmented Worms Long tube-like bodies divided into segments. Simplest organisms with true nervous system and blood contained in vessels.

20 Long digestive tube runs down length of worm s inner body. Take in dissolved oxygen from water through skin. Examples: earthworms and leeches

21 Echinoderms Have arms that extend from middle body outwards. Tube feet take in oxygen from water Have spines Examples: sea stars sea cucumbers brittle stars sea urchins

22 Mollusks Soft bodies Thick muscular foot for movement or to open/close their shells. Developed body systems.

23 Take in oxygen through gills or lungs. Some have shells. Examples: octopus slugs snails clams

24 Arthropods Jointed legs Segmented bodies Some have wings Hard outer coverings called exoskeletons

25 Obtain oxygen from air through gills or air tubes. Examples may be scorpions, spiders, dragonflies, ladybugs, ants, grasshoppers, crab, lobster, shrimp