Reproduction in Seed Plants (pp )

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1 Structure and Function of Plants Reading/Notetaking Guide Reproduction in Seed Plants (pp ) This section gives examples of the group of seed plants known as gymnosperms and angiosperms and describes their features and how they reproduce. Use Target Reading Skills After reading the section, complete the two cycle diagrams. One represents the life cycle of gymnosperms, and the other represents the life cycle of angiosperms. Life Cycle of a Gymnosperm 1. A pine tree produces and cones. 2b. Each scale on a female cone has two at its bases. 7. disperses the pine seeds. A seed grows into a and then into a tree. 2a. A male cone produces, which contain cells that will mature into. 3. In time, two form inside each ovule. 4. The wind scatters. Some become trapped in a sticky substance produced by the ovule. 6. The ovule develops into a. The fertilized egg becomes the. Other parts of the ovule develop into the. 5. The ovule closes, and a pollen grain produces a that grows into the ovule. A moves through the tube and fertilizes the. Life Cycle of an Angiosperm 1. An apple tree produces. 2b. Inside the ovary, an is produced in each ovule. 2a. The cells in the produce pollen grains. 3. are trapped on the. 7. A grows into a new plant. 4. The pollen grain produces a pollen tube that grows into the. A moves through the pollen tube and. 6. The develops into a that encloses the seeds. The fruit helps in. 5. The develops into seed. The fertilized egg becomes the. Other parts of the ovule develop into the. 189

2 Structure and Function of Plants Reading/Notetaking Guide Reproduction in Seed Plants (continued) Gymnosperms (pp ) 1. What is a gymnosperm? 2. Is the following sentence true or false? Gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed by a fruit. 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Gymnosperms have needle-like or scalelike leaves and deep-growing root systems. Gymnosperm Life Cycle (pp ) 4. Most gymnosperms have reproductive structures called. 5. Is the following sentence true or false? Male cones contain ovules at the base of each scale. 6. A structure that contains an egg cell is a(n). 7. What happens during pollination? 8. Is the following sentence true or false? In gymnosperms, wind often carries the pollen from the male cones to the female cones. 9. Is the following sentence true or false? All of a gymnosperm s seeds will grow into new plants. Angiosperms (p. 392) 10. A plant that produces seeds that are enclosed in a fruit is called a(n). 11. List two characteristics of angiosperms. a. b. 190

3 Structure and Function of Plants Reading/Notetaking Guide The Structure of Flowers (pp ) 12. Label the parts of the flower in this diagram. b. e. a. c. f. h. g. d. i. 13. What are pollinators? Angiosperm Life Cycle (pp ) 14. Is the following sentence true or false? All angiosperms rely on wind for pollination. 15. Describe the fertilization process. Types of Angiosperms (p. 396) 16. List the two major groups of angiosperms. a. b. 17. What are three ways in which monocots and dicots differ? Seed Plants in Everyday Life (p. 397) 18. Circle the letter of each product that conifers provide. a. fruit b. paper c. turpentine d. cotton fibers 19. Is the following sentence true or false? Angiosperms are an important source of food for other organisms. 191

4 Reptiles (pp ) This section describes adaptations that enable reptiles to live their entire lives on land. It also explains the characteristics of the major groups of reptiles and what may have caused the extinction of dinosaurs. Use Target Reading Skills When you compare and contrast, you examine the similarities and differences between things. Use the table below to compare and contrast the characteristics of alligators and snakes. Alligators and Snakes How They Move What They Eat Whether They Care for Their Young Alligators a. b. c. Snakes d. e. f. 232

5 Adaptations for Life on Land (pp ) 1. What is a reptile? 2. Circle the letter of the animal that is NOT a reptile. a. snake b. alligator c. lizard d. salamander 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Reptiles were the first vertebrates to be well adapted to live their entire lives on land. 4. Reptiles get their oxygen from the, and they breathe entirely with. 5. What are two functions of a reptile s scaly skin? 6. How do the kidneys keep reptiles from losing water? 7. What adaptations does a reptile s egg have to keep it from drying out? Diversity of Reptiles (pp ) 8. What characteristics do both lizards and snakes have? 9. Circle the letter of each characteristic that snakes have. a. no legs b. jawbones that spread wide apart c. no lungs d. teeth that help them capture prey 233

6 Reptiles (continued) 10. Is the following sentence true or false? All snakes are carnivores. 11. Is the following sentence true or false? All snakes have venom glands. 12. Describe how snakes move. 13. Is the following sentence true or false? Alligators, crocodiles, and their relatives are the largest living reptiles. 14. Complete the Venn diagram to show the similarities and differences between alligators and crocodiles. Alligators Crocodiles Broad, rounded snouts Carnivore Most teeth visible when mouth is shut 234

7 15. How do alligators and crocodiles care for their young? 16. What is a turtle? 17. Is the following sentence true or false? All turtles can pull their head, legs, and tail inside their shell. 18. Instead of teeth, turtles have sharp-edged. Extinct Reptiles The Dinosaurs (p. 479) 19. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about dinosaurs. a. They became extinct about 65 million years ago. b. Some dinosaurs might have been endotherms. c. Dinosaurs were the earliest vertebrates to have legs positioned directly under their bodies. d. Most carnivorous dinosaurs walked on four legs. 20. What might have caused the extinction of dinosaurs? 235

8 Birds (pp ) This section tells about the characteristics of birds, how they care for their young, and about their special adaptations. Use Target Reading Skills Preview the figure titled Adaptations for Flight in your text. Then write two questions that you have about the diagram in the graphic organizer below. As you read, answer your questions. Adaptations for Flight Q. A. Q. A. Characteristics of Birds (pp ) 1. List five characteristics of birds. a. b. c. d. e. 2. Circle the letter of each adaptation that enables birds to fly. a. feathers b. hollow bones c. scales d. large chest muscles 237

9 Birds (continued) Match the bird feathers with their characteristics. Each kind of feather may be used more than once. Characteristics 3. Traps air to keep bird from losing heat 4. Balances and steers bird in flight 5. Found right next to a bird s skin 6. Gives shape to a bird s body Feathers a. contour feather b. down feather 7. Which feather below is a contour feather, and which is a down feather? a. b. 8. What are barbs? 9. What is the function of air sacs? 10. The right side of a bird s heart pumps blood to the. The left side of a bird s heart pumps blood to the. 11. What is the advantage of a four-chambered heart? 238

10 12. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about birds. a. Birds have teeth. b. Each bird species has a bill shaped to help it get food quickly and efficiently. c. The crop stores food in the body after the bird swallows it. d. Chemicals break down food in the gizzard. 13. What is the function of a gizzard? 14. Why do birds need a lot of energy? 15. Cells must have enough to release the energy from food. 16. Circle the letter of a characteristic of bird eggs. a. soft shell b. leathery shell c. hard shell d. no shell 17. In most bird species, the female lays the eggs in a(n). 18. How do birds keep their eggs warm so that they will develop? 19. How long do parent birds care for their young? 239

11 Structure Plate Tectonics and Function Laboratory Investigation of Vertebrates Reading/Notetaking Guide Mammals (pp ) This section describes the characteristics of mammals and how they differ in their reproduction. Use Target Reading Skills When you compare and contrast, you examine the similarities and differences between things. Use the table below to compare and contrast how monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals reproduce and how their young develop. Monotremes, Marsupials, and Placental Mammals How They Reproduce How Their Young Develop Gestation Period Monotremes a. b. Marsupials c. d. e. Placental Mammals f. g. h. Characteristics of Mammals (pp ) 1. Circle the letter of each characteristic of mammals. a. endothermic vertebrate b. feathers c. three-chambered heart d. teeth 2. Is the following sentence true or false? The young of most mammals are born alive. 3. Every young mammal is fed with produced in its mother s body. Match the type of teeth with their function. Some functions may be used more than once. Teeth 4. canines 5. molars 6. incisors 7. premolars Function a. Bite off and cut parts of food b. Stab food and tear it c. Grind and shred food into tiny bits 241

12 Mammals (continued) 8. Look at the teeth in the diagram above. Is this animal an herbivore or a carnivore? How do you know? 9. Mammals breathe in and out because of the combined action of rib muscles and a large muscle called the located at the bottom of the ribs. 10. Circle the letter of the number of chambers in a mammal s heart. a. two b. three c. four d. five 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Fur and hair are composed of dead cells. 12. How do fur and hair help mammals? 13. Generally, animals in cold regions have coats of fur than animals in warmer environments. 14. Most mammals have four that they use for moving. Match the type of mammal with its specialized way of moving. Mammal Way of Moving 15. bats a. Have flippers for swimming 16. dolphins 17. orangutans b. Have wings for flying c. Swing by their arms 18. What sense do bats use to capture insects? 242

13 Diversity of Mammals (pp ) 19. The three main groups of mammals are,, and. 20. Is the following sentence true or false? Marsupials are mammals that lay eggs. 21. Circle the letter of each animal that is a placental mammal. a. kangaroo b. elephant c. duck-billed platypus d. chimpanzee 22. What is a gestation period? 23. What is the function of the placenta? 24. Why do young mammals usually stay with their mother or both parents for an extended period of time? 243

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