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2 Vertebrates skull ribs vertebral column

3 endoskeleton in

4 cells working together tissues tissues working together organs working together organs systems

5 Blood carries oxygen to the cells carries nutrients to the cells carries carbon dioxide away from the cells

6 oxygenated blood blood which has received oxygen from the lungs and is on its way to supply the cells with the oxygen they need

7 deoxygenated blood blood which has been to the cells, has delivered the oxygen, and has picked up carbon dioxide

8 Fish 2-chambered heart

9 gills upper chamber lower chamber artery capillaries vein

10 Reptiles and Amphibians 3-chambered heart

11 artery upper chambers lower chamber vein lungs vein capillaries in lungs artery capillaries in body

12 Birds and Mammals 4-chambered heart

13

14 gills lungs Respiration

15 Breathing moving air into and out of the lungs to take in oxygen and to release carbon dioxide

16 central peripheral Nervous System

17 Central Nervous System brain spinal cord

18 sensory organ a collection of sensory receptors and their supporting structures

19 Peripheral Nervous System sensory organs nerves sensory receptors

20 Two Types of Nerves cranial nerves connect your eyes, ears, and nose to your brain

21 Two Types of Nerves spinal nerves carry impulses from sensory receptors of skin and internal organs to the spinal cord

22 Central Nervous System brain spinal cord

23 Peripheral Nervous System optic nerve cranial nerves olfactory nerve spinal nerves auditory nerve

24 Digestive System stomach food esophagus small intestine

25 Digestive System pancreas liver blood vessels food gallbladder small intestine

26 Digestive System stomach food esophagus large intestine anus small intestine

27 Kidneys filter wastes out of the body ureter urinary bladder

28 Ectothermic cold-blooded

29 ectothermic thermic outside heat

30 Bony Fish (Class Osteichthyes) largest group of fish live in water endoskeleton made of bones fins gills scales

31 Lateral Line detects vibrations and pressure

32 Swim Bladder helps the fish adjust to different depths

33 Jawless Fish (Class Agnatha) do not have jaws do not have scales do not have paired fins

34 Cartilage Fish (Class Chondricthyes) sharks, rays, and skates endoskeleton made of cartilage, not of bones

35 double life Amphibian

36 Amphibians are the only vertebrates that go through metamorphosis.

37 Metamorphosis Gills are absorbed as lungs are formed. Heart changes from two chambers to three.

38 Metamorphosis Appetite changes from scum to insects and spiders. Digestive tract changes.

39 Tailless amphibians: frogs and toads

40 Frogs smooth, moist skin always near water Toads rough, dry, bumpy skin can be far away from water

41 Frogs eggs deposited as large jellycoated masses Toads eggs in long, jellycoated strings

42 Frogs strong, long, webbed hind feet for leaping and swimming Toads short hind legs for walking and hopping

43 Common Characteristics start out as tadpoles are ectothermic

44 hibernation state of inactivity during which life processes slow down and stored energy supplies are used up

45 Tailed amphibians: salamander groups

46 Newts rough, dry skin Salamanders smooth, moist skin

47 Breathing keep gills throughout their lives develop lungs lungless

48 ectothermic dry, scaly skin Reptiles eggs with leathery shells can live in either wet or dry environments

49 have lungs Reptiles 3-chambered hearts (most reptiles) internal fertilization of eggs

50 Reptile Groups snakes and lizards alligators and crocodiles turtles tuatara

51 Snakes do not have legs do not have ears keen sense of smell do not have eyelids

52 Lizards have 2 pair of limbs external ear openings have eyelids belly scales similar to other scales

53 alligators crocodiles caimans Crocodilians

54 Crocodilians cold-blooded animals four-chambered hearts large nests for incubation of their eggs feed on fish, turtles, other crocodilians and mammals

55 Crocodiles native to parts of South and Central America, Africa, parts of Asia, and Australia American crocodile is found in southern Florida

56 Crocodile narrow, pointed snouts Alligator broad, rounded snouts

57 Alligators native to North America (U.S.) and China

58 Turtles sea turtles live in the ocean tortoises live on land

59 terrapins Turtles live in fresh water but can come on land

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