One group (Tarsiers) is off on it's own (note clear where they belong). All tarsiers are endangered or threatened to some extent.

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1 Primates, part II Suborder Haplorrhini Divided into two clades (Infraorders?) Platyrrhini (flat noses, with nostrils to side) Catarrhini (nostrils pointing down) One group (Tarsiers) is off on it's own (note clear where they belong). Family Tarsiidae Platyrrhini: Southeast Asia Large eyes - although they do not have cones, they also don't have a tapetum. Can leap long distances, and are quite agile both in trees and on the ground. Wide range of social structures. Eat only other animals (usually insects, but larger species go after vertebrates). All tarsiers are endangered or threatened to some extent. Family Cebidae Smaller New World Monkeys, including marmosets, tamarins, squirrel monkeys. Smaller forms (marmosets, tamarins) are mostly insect eaters, larger forms are primarily vegetarian. Text mentions that in most marmosets and tamarins fraternal twins will share placental circulatin. Capuchins and squirrel monkeys may live in larger groups that break apart and come together as needed. Males do not help in raising young. Benzoquinone is used by capuchins as an insect repellent: They crush up millipedes that contain benzoquinone and rub it into their fur. A lot of them are endangered.

2 Family Aotidae National Zoo has been incredibly successful in breeding golden lion tamarins which are now found in numerous zoos worldwide. Night monkeys (About 1/3 of total population is in zoos). Used to be included with the Cebidae. Nocturnal (most monkeys diurnal). No longer see in color. Do have good night vision. Live in small family groups (parents and offspring). Defend territories. Diet is omnivorous - insects, fruit, etc. Family Pitheciidae Titi monkeys, saki monkeys, etc. Used to be combined with the next family (Atelidae). Diurnal, arboreal, mostly herbivorous, although they'll eat some insects. (A few will even go after rodents and bats). Titi monkeys live in monogamous groups, Saki monkeys seem to live in larger groups. Are endangered (bushmeat), and due to low birth rate population takes a long time to recover. Family Atelidae Howler monkeys, spider monkeys, woolly monkeys. Prehensile tails (some of the previous groups may have partially prehensile tail). Can support their whole body weight with their tails. Most are quite vocal - howler monkeys have hyoid enlarged into a resonating chamber. Various social systems from small groups to large. Recent article in Smithsonian about muriqui's was about tolerations in primates (Hang out in large groups with no fighting, no dominance hierarchy, etc.)

3 One species (Red howler monkey, Alouatta seniculus) practices infanticide: Older males will kill infants when they move into a group. Catarrhini: Family Cercopithecidae Old world monkeys - includes pretty much everything except gibbons and apes/humans. Over large parts of Africa, Asia, even into Europe (Barbary apes/macaques). Some of these can be found in colder climates: Tibetan forests (snub nosed monkeys), northern Japan. Large variety of social systems; one of the better studied is in baboons: Family Hylobatidae Live in large groups with strict dominance hierarchy. Males do protect troop from threats (since baboons are largely terrestrial have a greater chance of running into predators). Gibbons. Fourteen species. Closely related to humans and apes (some older classifications occasionally combined them). Lesser apes Excellent acrobats and often move using brachiation - overhead movement of arms (grabbing branch to branch). Arms are suitably longer. Very loud vocalizations. Help keep group together, also advertise presence so prevent encounters with others. Primarily vegetarian. Seem to be monogamous, but a fair amount of cheating seems to go on. Many are endangered.

4 Family Hominidae Great apes and humans. Until fairly recently, great apes were placed in the Pongidae, and some people may still do that. (The main argument against Pongidae has to do with creating a paraphyletic classifcation). We'll follow the book here. Includes five species of ape, and humans. Two species of chimpanzee (chimpanzee and bonobo) Gorilla Two species of orangutan. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): We could easily spend a semester talking just about chimpanzees. We'll hit just the highlights: Live in large (loose) groups. Found in central and west Africa Mostly vegetarian, but do eat meat (some estimates show 1 ton of meat/chimp/year). Show many complex behaviors: tool use. cooperative hunting Also known to (occasionally) kill members of other chimpanzee groups. Text mentions bartering meat for sex. Are very intelligent, and have been studied extensively both in the lab and in the field. Recently, their use as research animals has become more controversial. Some countries have banned their use.

5 (They are important in HIV research). Are our closest living relatives (split off from us about 7 mya). Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Closely related to chimps (used to be considered the same species). Thought that the Congo may act as a barrier between the Bonobo and chimps. Social system is similar to chimps, but bonobos are rather more peacefull. Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): Less meat in their diet. Also are not known to kill members of other groups. West Africa, and another population in East Africa (Uganda). Wikipedia mentions that there are now two species (!?) We'll wait until the dust settles on that one (they quote a source that doesn't look particularly scientific). Gorillas live in groups led by a large silver-backed male. Other males may attach themselves to the group. Silverback leads the troop. Generally peaceful, but silverback will defend group. Mostly vegetarian, but ants/termites, etc. may be eaten. Also, obviously, fairly bright (tool use). Seriously endangered. Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and P. abelii) Used to be just one species - considered two species since mid-90's. (Seems to be a lot of splitting going on...) Social structure is rather different: More solitary, only mothers and offspring have a strong bond.

6 Also quite intelligent, and known to use tools. Seriously endangered. Most distantly related group to humans (within the Hominidae). Mostly vegetarian, but will eat insects, bird eggs, etc. Seem to be able to tolerate some strychnine in their diets: Help disperse seeds for some fruits with strychnine in them. Seriously endangered. (Less than 7000 Sumatran orangutans (P. abelii) left). Humans: Don't need to say a lot about these right now. You know what humans look like. Given time, we'll look at the human fossil record later in the semester. (We seem to be able to trace our ancestry back almost 7 million years).

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