Survey of the Primates

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1 Survey of the Primates Classification of the order Primates Classification of the order Primates Superfamily: End -OIDEA Family: End -IDAE CebOIDEA CebIDAE Subfamily: End -INAE Genus and species: Both in italic or underline; First letter of genus= capital letter ColobINAE Pongo pygmaeus 1

2 Alternative classification Order Suborder Prosimii Primates Anthropoidea Lemurs, lorises, galagos and tarsiers Monkeys, apes and humans Order Suborder Strepsirhini Primates Haplorhini Lemurs, lorises, galagos Tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans Classification of the order Primates Suborder Prosimii - Prosimians Prosimii Lemuriformes Lorisiformes Tarsiiformes Early diverging primitive (retained more ancestral traits) 2

3 Prosimian Characteristics: Found in Africa, Asia, Indonesia Lorisiformes Lemuriformes Tarsiformes Prosimian Characteristics: Nocturnal (mostly) Large eyes Tapetum (layer of cells that cause eye shine ) Independently mobile ears Immobile upper lip Inexpressive face Rely on scent marking Strepsirhine (Lemurs and Lorises) Characteristics: 3

4 Strepsirhine (Lemurs and Lorises) Characteristics: Rhinarium most hairless pad at end of nose; enhances sense of smell Main mode of locomotion: Vertical clinging and leaping Lemuriformes: Prosimii Lemuriformes Lorisiformes Tarsiiformes Contains 5 families and a total of more than 20 species great diversity in infraorder lemuriformes. 4

5 Adaptive Radiation the multiplication and diversification of an evolving lineage, producing many descendent species Occurs when new adaptive opportunities become available new environments/habitats or new adaptive potential in the lineage Ex. Lemurs on Madagascar, Mammals in the early Cenozoic Lemuriformes includes the smallest primates (the mouse lemur, not the gorilla) Lemuriformes Only found on the island of Madagascar 5

6 Lemuriformes Smaller lemurs tend to be nocturnal, insectivorous, and solitary Aye-aye Lemuriformes Lemurs Larger lemurs tend to be diurnal with diverse diets and social organizations Some arboreal Some terrestrial Indris & sifakas Ringtailed Lemurs Classification of the order Primates 6

7 Lorisiformes Characteristics: Prosimii Lemuriformes Lorisiformes Tarsiiformes Contains 2 Families: Galagidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Strictly Nocturnal (active at night) Shared common ancestor with lemurs in the Eocene Why did some lemurs become diurnal, but no lorises did? Competition on mainland Africa Lorisiformes are solitary Diet insects and fruit Lorisiformes Characteristics: Prosimii Lemuriformes Lorisiformes Tarsiiformes Contains 2 Families: Galagidae VCL, Africa only Lorisidae Slow climbers, Africa and SE Asia 7

8 Lorisiformes Family Galagidae galagos and bushbabies vertical clingers and leapers geographic range: Mainland Africa Lorisiformes Lorisidae lorises, slow lorises, angwantibos, and pottos slow climbers Geographic range: Mainland Africa and S.E. Asia Classification of the order Primates 8

9 Tarsiiformes Characteristics: Prosimii Lemuriformes Lorisiformes Tarsiiformes Only one living genus (Tarsius) and 5 species Tarsiiformes Genus Tarsius Tarsiiformes distribution Found only in Southeast Asia 9

10 Alternative classification Order Suborder Prosimii Primates Anthropoidea Lemurs, lorises, galagos and tarsiers Monkeys, apes and humans Order Suborder Strepsirhini Primates Haplorhini Lemurs, lorises, galagos Tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans Tarsiers Taxonomically intermediate between lemurs/lorises and monkeys/apes Don t really fit separate suborder? Living fossil? Haplorrhine designation reflects important differences between tarsiers and lemurs/lorises (strepsirrhines) Dry nose (no rhinarium) No tapetum (despite being nocturnal) No dental comb Other features like post orbital closure, unfused mandibular symphasis, bicornate uteris Unique Tarsiers characteristics Elongated tarsal bones- great leapers Largest eyes relative to body size of any living creature (cannot be moved in their sockets) Can swivel their necks 180º in either direction 10

11 Classification of the order Primates Suborder Anthropoidea Monkeys, Apes, and Humans All diurnal (except one - Owl monkey) Rely less on scent (olfaction) than prosimians Reduced sense of smell and hearing Flatter faces Dry noses Mobile upper lip more expressive faces Small immobile ears Suborder Anthropoidea 11

12 Suborder Anthropoidea Suborder Anthropoidea Infraorder Platyrrhini Catarrhini Flat, side facing nostrils New World Monkeys Downward facing nostrils Old World Monkeys, Apes and Humans Suborder Anthropoidea Platyrrhini Catarrhini Platyrrhini Catarrhini 12

13 Classification of the order Primates New World Monkeys Classification of New World Monkeys Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Cebidae Atelidae New World Monkeys Distribution Found in the new world Mexico Central+South America Also called neotropical monkeys, or neotropical primates 13

14 Traits of New World Monkeys All have tails Some have prehensile tails Smaller body size than OWM All arboreal Many Old World Monkeys are terrestrial. Why no New World? Greater predation pressure for a relatively small-bodied radiation? Availability of productive savannah-type habitats is lower in the neotropics? Classification of New World Monkeys Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Cebidae Atelidae 14

15 Family Callitrichidae: Marmosets and Tamarins Smallest monkeys Claws instead of nails (except big toe) Pair bonded Twins Male care of infants Sexually monomorphic Territorial Family Callitrichidae Classification of New World Monkeys Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Cebidae Atelidae 15

16 Family Cebidae very diverse in appearance, diet, social organization Owl Monkey Squirrel Monkey Capuchin Uakari Saki Titi monkeys Aotus Saimiri Cebus Cacajao Pithecia Callicebus Owl/Night Monkey (Genus Aotus) Squirrel monkeys (Genus Saimiri) 16

17 Capuchin monkeys Genus Cebus Uakari (Genus Cacajao) Saki (Genus Pithecia) 17

18 Titi monkeys (Genus Callicebus) Classification of New World Monkeys Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Cebidae Atelidae Family Atelidae Family with prehensile tails Female dispersal Large bodied Folivores & Frugivores 18

19 Atelidae - Includes 4 genera Spider monkeys Howler monkeys Wooley monkey Muriquis* (*aka wooley spider monkey) Ateles Alouatta Lagothrix Brachyteles Spider monkey (Genus Ateles) Howlers (Genus Alouatta) 19

20 Wooley monkey (Genus Lagothrix) Infant Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) Woolly spider monkey Karen Strier site in Brazil Review 20

21 Classification of the order Primates Suborder Anthropoidea Suborder Anthropoidea Infraorder Platyrrhini Catarrhini Flat, side facing nostrils New World Monkeys Downward facing nostrils Old World Monkeys, Apes and Humans Infraorder Catarrhini Infraorder Catarrhini Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea All Old world monkeys Apes and Humans 21

22 Classification of the order Primates Old world monkey distribution = the old world (Africa, Europe, Asia) Cercopithecoidea Old World Monkeys Found in a wide variety of environments Some species are terrestrial live mainly on the ground All diurnal All single births twins as common as in humans Bigger than NWM Often sexually dimorphic 22

23 Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae Subfamily Cercopithecinae Colobinae Baboons, Macaques, Guenons, etc. Colobus, Langurs, Proboscis Subfamily Cercopithecinae Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae Subfamily Cercopithecinae Colobinae Baboons, Macaques, Guenons, etc. Colobus, Langurs, Proboscis Cercopithecinae Some have ischial callosities (thick callused skin pads for sitting) Have cheek pouches (sacs inside cheeks to store food) 23

24 Cercopithecinae Many parts of Africa and Asia Sexually dimorphic Exhibit range of different habitats, diets, social organization Mostly terrestrial Mostly omnivorous Mostly female-bonded Cercopithecinae Very diverse many genera Examples: Baboon Papio Macaques Macaca Guenon Cercopithecus Mandrill Mandrillus Patas Erythrocebus Mangabey Cercocebus Baboons (Genus Papio) 24

25 Baboons are omnivores Studies of Baboons Probably best studied primate Used as a model for early human behavior Pioneer research of Irven DeVore Amboseli baboons Jeanne Altmann Long-term studies of Pumphouse Gang Shirley Strum Macaques (Genus Macaca) 25

26 Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) Genus Erythrocebus Patas monkeys Genus Cercocebus - Mangabeys 26

27 Genus Mandrillus Drill and Mandrill Genus Theropithecus Gelada baboon Subfamily Colobinae Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae Subfamily Cercopithecinae Colobinae Baboons, Macaques, Guenons, etc. Colobus, Langurs, Proboscis 27

28 Subfamily Colobinae Colobus monkeys Africa Langurs and leaf monkeys Asia More arboreal species Anatomically specialized leaf eaters Sacculated stomach to support bacteria for digestion of cellulose Subfamilies: Cercopithecinae and Colobinae Cercopithecinae Colobinae Africa : Three genera Black and white colobus (Colobus) Red colobus (Piliocolobus) Olive colobus (Procolobus) 28

29 Asia : Langurs and Leaf monkeys Douc Langur Chinese Golden Monkey Hanuman Langur Odd-nosed monkeys Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) 29

30 Infraorder Catarrhini Infraorder Catarrhini Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea All Old world monkeys Apes and Humans Classification of the order Primates Superfamily Hominoidea Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hylobatidae Pongidae Hominidae Gibbons and Siamangs Gorillas, Chimps, Orangutans Humans 30

31 No tails Superfamily Hominoidea: Apes and Humans Larger size and weight Larger brain to body weight ratio More upright posture Longer gestation and maturation Apes distribution Family Hylobatidae Lesser Apes- Hominoidea Hylobatidae Pongidae Hominidae Gibbons and Siamangs Lesser apes Southeast Asia Pair living (monogamous) 31

32 Gibbon Gibbons and Siamangs Siamang Brachiation Anatomical requirements: Long, strong arms Elongated hook-like fingers Shortened/reduced thumbs Short hind limbs Erect, infexible spine Family Pongidae Great Apes- Hominoidea Hylobatidae Pongidae Hominidae Three genera of great apes: Genus Pongo: Orangutans Genus Gorilla: Gorillas Genus Pan: Chimpanzees and Bonobos 32

33 Knuckle-walking Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) Asian great ape Solitary Arboreal Frugivore Orangutan distribution Found only on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra Distribution of orangutans shown in red 33

34 Orangutan- Quadrumanus locomotion Gorilla (Genus Gorilla) African Ground dwelling Diet leaves, shoots, stems, some fruit Social organization variable one or two males with females and young Gorilla distribution Currently 3 subspecies: G. g. gorilla, western lowland gorilla, brown-grey G. g. graueri, eastern lowland gorilla, black-coated G. g. beringei, mountain gorilla. Hair longer 34

35 Gorilla (Genus Gorilla) Prominent saggital and nuchal crests Chimpanzee ( Genus Pan) African Terrestrial & Arboreal Omnivores Hunt (esp. red colobus) Make and use tools Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Bonobo (Pan paniscus) 35

36 Genus Pan distribution Bonobo ( Genus Pan) Pygmy chimpanzee More bipedal behavior Strong bonds among females Family Hominidae-Humans- Defining characteristics? 36

37 Review Lesser apes Great apes Humans 37

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