Week 5. Carnivora BIOL 140

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1 Week 5 Carnivora BIOL 140

2 Most closely related to No one?! Class Mammalia

3 Order Carnivora

4 Carnivora Meat Wide range Many obligate Some omnivorous Widest range sizes of Mammalia Least weasel 25 g Polar bear 1000 kg Southern elephant seal 5000 kg 4

5 Carnivore Teeth Heterodont Large canines Carnassials (sectorial teeth) Last premolar of the upper jaw First molar of the lower Blade- like teeth Occlude (close) with a scissor- like Shearing and shredding meat

6 All have 4 or 5 toes First digit on fore paws Dew claw or absent Walk on toes Cats, Wolves Walk on whole foot Bears Carnivore

7 8 Families Felidae Cats Cougar Lynx Bobcat Skunks SpoYed skunk Striped skunk Carnivore Families bear- tracker.com/mammals.html

8 Mustelidae Weasels American Fisher Short tailed weasel (ermine) Long tailed weasel Mink Wolverine Badger River OYer Sea OYer Carnivore Families bear- tracker.com/mammals.html

9 Procyonidae Raccoons Ringtail Northern Raccoon Phocidae Hair Seals Harbor seal Northern elephant seal Otariidae Eared Seals Northern fur seal Northern sea lion California sea lion Carnivore Families bear- tracker.com/mammals.html

10 Ursidae Bears Black bear Grizzly bear Canidae Dogs Coyote Gray Wolf Red fox Kit fox Common Gray Fox Carnivore Families bear- tracker.com

11 Mountain Lion / Cougar Puma concolor (Felidae) 6-9 c long in tall lbs Buffy gray to tawny color Buff to white underside dark markings on face Tail 1/3 total length Habitat Wooded, remote, rocky, ocen mountainous areas May move subalpine/ foothills if food available

12 Cougar Range Canadian Rockies to West South through Central and South America Mostly in wild, mountainous areas Feeding Mostly deer Also elk, moose, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, beaver, porcupine Occasional rodents, birds Female usually breeds year 3 LiYer of 1-6 (avg 3) of year 3 month KiYens black spoyed Nurse 6 wks Stay with mother up to 2 yrs

13 Track Four toes Front and rear No claws seen Retractable Scat ~1 diameter Rounded ends Segmented Usually contains fur Cougar

14 Lynx canadensis (Felidae) Same species as European lynx? in. long in. shoulder lbs. Short tail (~4 ) 2 black hairs on Long buffy/gray mix fur Faint stripes Huge thickly- furred paws Like snow shoes Habitat Dense northern coniferous forests Down trees, thickets Provide ambush sites dictates prey available Den Hole under log, in rocks, or cave Canada Lynx

15 Range Northern boreal, coniferous forests Oregon? Feeding Mostly snowshoe hare Some squirrels, grouse, rodents, pets Will cache unconsumed kills Breed March/April At 1 year old 2 month 1-5 kits (2-3 avg) Gray, faint stripes Weaned at 2 months Adult coat 8-10 months Canada Lynx

16 Canada Lynx Track Wider than adult human hand Four toes front and rear Shorter stride than cougar Scat 4-6 inches Segmented Usually full of white fur Tapered ends

17 Bobcat Lynx rufus (Felidae) in. long in shoulder lbs. Tawny to yellowish brown reddish in summer Dark brown spots on sides Stripes on chest (+/- ) and outside of legs Black bars across cheeks Ear tucs less than 1 White throat/chin Bobbed tail 5-6 Habitat Open coniferous/deciduous forest, brush Willow stands offer excellent camouflage May replace Lynx where absent Den - temporary - any

18 Range Most of U.S. and southern Canada Further north in Rockies Feeding Rabbits preferred Squirrels, rats, mice, voles, beavers, skunks, turkeys Occasional deer Occasional scavenging Breed Feb/Mar At 1 yr (males at 2) 2 month 1-7 kiyens Avg 3 Nurse 2 months Leave mother 3-5 months Bobcat

19 Bobcat Track 4 toes front and rear Smaller than adult human hand Scat 3-4 inches Smaller than lynx Segmented Tapered ends Usually have fur May include nearby scratches To cover To scent maybe in trail

20 SpoYed Skunk Spilogale gracilis in. long 1-2 lbs. Tail 4-8 in. Smaller than striped Black body White forehead spot White stripes break into dashes on back Individually unique Black tail ends in white plume Low round ears Anal musk glands Habitat Dry woodlands, scrub, brush, open grasslands No wetlands or marshes Like farmland Den Nomadic - any cover

21 Range Western U.S. into northern Mexico S.W. B.C. Feeding Omnivorous Insects, berries, eggs, birds, rodents, lizards, frogs Anything it can catch 2-6/liYer Avg 4 Born May June Weaned at 2 months Disperse following spring SpoYed Skunk

22 Track 5 toes each foot Claws evident Hind foot usually includes heel pad Scat ½ long x ¾ wide May include Berries, insect exoskeletons, fur, feathers SpoYed Skunk

23 Striped Skunk Mephi8s mephi8s long Tail lbs. Black body White top of head Splits into 2 parallel stripes moving caudally Small white stripe down forehead to nose Musk glands flank anus Long fore claws for digging Habitat Woodlands, semi- open areas, stream banks, brushy grasslands Farms, Den Underground burrow Nest of dried leaves and grass

24 Striped Skunk Range Most of U.S. Central southern Canada Excluding western B.C. Feeding Insects 40% of diet Birds, eggs, amphibians, grains, Fruits, berries Carrion Breed Feb- Mar 2 month 2-10 young Avg 5-6 Weaned at 6-7 weeks Young disperse following spring

25 Track 5 toes per foot Claws evident May not be seen on hind foot Hind foot may show heel print Scat Berries, seeds, insect exoskeletons Small Rounded ends Minimally segmented Striped Skunk

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