1 Exploring Penguins through a research based information project. Includes information, writing pages, matrix for project.
2 In this PowerPoint you will see: information and facts about each type of penguin. For higher grades I let students choose which penguin they would like to research and load the powerpoint onto edmodo (or a webbase program where they can access the powerpoint). When researching their penguin I have students write down information based on the learn outcome (state standards) and then let them adventure and find information that they are interested in. For lower grades we do this together. Once research is complete I allow students to use the information learned and present their information through PowerPoint or written article. They also create a life size model of their penguin to compare and contrast the different types of penguins. I use the matrix on the next page. I copy one for the student to allow students to use as a check off list and to grade themselves. Then I use the same matrix to check what they have and give them their actual grade. (The matrix was created by the students of my second grade class. I provided them with the state standards I expected them to master and they created this matrix before the project)
3 Name: Penguin Matrix Penguin life cycle Birth Developing into an adult Reproducing Aging and death Have at least 7 facts about your penguin Diet Habitat-where they live Size and Weight Movement and Life Style Predators Color Cool Fact Bubble map Life Size Model of your Penguin Comments: Overall Grade:
4 Name: Penguin Matrix Penguin life cycle o Birth o Developing into an adult o Reproducing o Aging and death Have at least 7 facts about your penguin o Diet o Habitat-where they live o Size and Weight o Movement and Life Style o Predators o Color o Cool Fact Bubble map Life Size Model of your Penguin Comments: Name: Penguin Matrix Penguin life cycle o Birth o Developing into an adult o Reproducing o Aging and death Have at least 7 facts about your penguin o Diet o Habitat-where they live o Size and Weight o Movement and Life Style o Predators o Color o Cool Fact Bubble map Life Size Model of your Penguin Comments: Overall Grade: Overall Grade:
5 Click on the on each slide and it will take you to a video link to learn more about the penguin
6 If the slide has a this penguin species is on click on animals, then birds, then penguins. You need an account to go into this website. This is website is user friendly and great for students to research information.
7 Penguin Habitat There are 17 species of penguin, each slightly different. Some of the species have nicknames which can cause people to think there are more than 17 species (for example the Little penguin is also known as the Blue penguin).
8 Gentoo, Chinstrap, Adélie, Emperor, Macaroni, King, and Rockhopper penguins live in the Antarctic region, which includes the surrounding ice sheet and nearby islands.
9 Only Emperor and Adélie penguins breed on the frozen continent itself. It is a harsh environment, nearly completely covered in ice that never melts. In places the ice is more than a mile thick and winter temperatures reach -76 F (-60 C) with winds of 125 miles (200 km) per hour.
10 Penguins are Southern Hemisphere birds; all 17 kinds live south of the equator.
12 Penguins are famous inhabitants of frigid Antarctica, but some penguins also live along the warm sandy shores of Peru and the Galápagos Islands as well as around the coasts of southern Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. But regardless of the air temperature, all penguins live near cool waters. Cooler waters are more nutrient-rich and support penguin food. Currents carry cold waters north from Antarctica up the coast of South America as well as around Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, where penguins hunt.
13 Adelie Penguins Adelie penguins are the smallest of the Antarctic penguins. One way to distinguish them from the other penguins is by their all black head and the white ring around their eye. Adelie penguins were named after the wife of a French explorer in the 1830s. They are about 2 feet tall and weigh 8 or 9 pounds. Their diet is mainly fish. Adelies build their nests of stones on the rocky beaches of Antarctica, jealously guarding and often fighting over the best rocks. There are over 2.5 million breeding pairs living in Antarctica. They live in groups of about 10,000 birds. Standing height: inches Weight: 8-10 pounds
14 Name: Adelie Penguin Research Information
15 African Penguins African penguins have a black upside down U-shape on their neck with black speckles on their chest. They have black stripes, black spots on their chest and a little pink above their eyes. They are about 2 feet tall and weigh between 4 and 11 pounds. African penguins live and breed on the coast of South Africa. People have hunted these penguins so much that their numbers declined from at least one million to about 150,000. They are now a protected species, but are still caused trouble by oil spills off the coast of Africa. African penguins are also known as the Blackfoot penguin. African penguins nest in burrows for protection from the hot sun and predators. Standing height: inches Weight: 6-8 pounds
16 The African Penguin Blackfooted Penguin
17 Name: African Penguin Research Information
18 Chinstrap Penguins Chinstrap penguins get their name from the small black band that runs under their chin. They are about 2 feet tall and weigh about 10 pounds. They feed on krill and fish. Chinstrap penguins are the most common penguins with a population of about 13 million. They often live on large icebergs on the open ocean in the Antarctic region. The chinstrap penguin is the second-most numerous penguin in the world. This penguin belongs to a group of penguins known as the brush-tailed or stiff-tailed penguins. Standing height: inches Weight: pounds
19 Name: Chinstrap Penguin Research Information
20 Emperor Penguins Emperor penguins are the largest penguin species. They are nearly 4 feet tall and weigh up to 90 pounds. Those are BIG penguins! Emperor penguins are easily identifiable by their size and the orange "glow" on their cheeks. Emperor penguins live, year round, in the Antarctic. Temperatures can fall as low as -140 degrees Fahrenheit (-60 degrees Celsius). Most penguin species lay two eggs at a time, but due to the difficulty of raising chicks in such a harsh climate, the Emperor penguin only lays one egg. Most penguin species take turns warming the egg, but it's up to the Emperor penguin dads to do all the work once the egg is laid. The male stands with the egg on his feet under a brood pouch (for warmth). He does this for up to 9 weeks, without food, waiting for the chick to hatch. During this time, the male may lose up to half its body weight. Once the egg hatches, the female returns and the male heads out to the ocean to feed. The emperor penguin is the largest of penguins and can be as tall as 4 ft and weigh as much as pounds. The back side and the head of these penguins is black, their belly white and their breast and ears, bright yellow. They adapt to the cold weather better than other penguins with their feathers providing excellent insulation. Standing height: inches Weight: pounds
21 Emperor Penguin s Life Cycle
22 Name: Emperor Penguin Research Information
23 Erect-Crested Penguin The erect-crested penguin is a very rare breed only found in a select few places around New Zealand. The penguins only live on four islands. These penguins are usually about two feet tall and only weigh about 10 pounds each. These penguins also have a bright yellow stripe of feathers that is in the location of an eyebrow. This stripe extends above both eyes and forms a short crest, giving the penguin its name. The penguins are thought to eat krill and sometimes squid, though the diet is largely unknown. The penguins are difficult to observe and study simply based on their location. The erectcrested penguins, however are known to travel hundreds of kilometers to find food. The penguins make a simple nest which is often shallow and made of a few stones and mud. Two eggs are laid in the nest, and the first is most likely lost. The egg is often lost due to neglect. The second egg is often up to twice the size of the first and is well cared for and incubated for about 35 days. Standing height: 25 inches Weight: pounds
24 Name: Erect-Crested Penguin Research Information
25 Fiordland Penguin The Fiordland Penguin lives in the temperate rainforest of the southwest coast of the South Island and Stewart Island, New Zealand. They live under rocks or in caves of the rainforest. The Fiordland Penguin has thick yellow stripe running above the eye. They have a series of white streaks on the cheeks. They make their nests which are lined with twigs and grass. Their diet is fish and krill. The Fiordland penguin is considered the most timid and the most rare penguin. Standing height: 24 inches Weight: 6-7 pounds
26 Name: Fiordland Penguin Research Information
27 Galapagos Penguins Penguins do not live in the wild in any location in the Northern Hemisphere. The northern most colony of penguins are located in the Galapagos Islands. The Galapagos Penguins can survive close to the equator because the Humboldt current brings cold waters to the islands from the Antarctic. Endangered population estimated between 3,000 and 8,000 birds This penguin is a truly tropical weather penguin, living on the hot desert islands of the Galapagos at the equator making it the most northerly penguin species. Temperatures often exceed 100 degrees in this region. Standing height: 21 inches Weight: 5-6 pounds
28 Name: Galapagos Penguin Research Information
29 Gentoo Penguins Gentoo penguins live on many of the islands of the Antarctic region but the main colony is on the Falklands. They are about 3 feet tall and weigh about 13 pounds. Their diet consists of krill and some small fish. Gentoo penguins are easily identifiable by the wide white stripe over the top of their head. It runs from one eye to the other. Gentoo penguins make nests on the inland grasslands. They pile stones, grass and sticks to create a circular nest. Like the Adelies and Chinstrap penguins, the Gentoo will also fight over stones for nesting. The adult gentoo is the third largest penguin after the Emperor and King species. The males generally weigh around 18 pounds, the females around 10. The gentoo penguin belongs to a group of penguins commonly known as brush-tailed penguins, which also include the Adelie and chinstrap penguins. The gentoo is the most timid of the three. Standing height: inches Weight: pounds
30 Name: Gentoo Penguin Research Information
31 Humboldt Penguin The Humboldt penguin is mostly blackish-gray in color with a white breast. The adults have a black horseshoe shaped band on the breast and a white head stripe. Males are slightly larger than females. The Humboldt penguin has a strong and powerful bill that is black with a gray transverse bar and a hooked tip. Their flipper is a modified wing that lacks flight feathers. When on land they look silly, but in the water they are amazing streamlined swimmers. Humboldt penguins nest on islands or on rocky stretches of mainland coast, especially in areas with cliffs. Humboldt penguins are very social and gregarious and are usually found in groups. They have superb swimming skills, which rivals seals and porpoises. Humboldt penguins nest inside burrows they dig in dirt or in guano. Guano is hardened bird droppings in this case the poop of seagulls and other ocean birds that has built up over thousands of years by millions of birds. In the past, the guano was many feet deep and hardened like dirt. It was the perfect place to dig a burrow and lay eggs. Today, the guano beds have been harvested (guano makes great fertilizer for crops) to the point where there are few places left for penguins to nest. Conservationists and others are trying to help find a solution, so penguins and people can use the guano. Female penguins usually lay two eggs per nest. Her mate helps her incubate the eggs. The pair take 12 hour shifts on the nest for about 39 days, until the eggs hatch. When they hatch, chicks are covered in grayish down feathers and are completely dependent on their parents. The parents carry food in their stomachs and regurgitate it for the chicks. Chicks get their adult feathers by five weeks of age, but they remain dependent on their parents until they are about six months old. Home: The western coast of South America (Peru and Chile). Although the air temperature can be warm, the water of the Humboldt current is very cold. They eat fish (sardines, anchoveta, pilchard), occasionally squid, and crustaceans Standing height: inches Weight: 6-11 pounds
32 Name: Humboldt Penguin Research Information
33 King Penguins The King penguin is the second largest penguin and looks somewhat like the Emperor penguin. They are about 3 feet tall and weigh up to 35 pounds. King penguins have orange spots near their ears and on the neck. King penguins mainly eat fish and some squid and crustaceans. They are found on many sub-antarctic islands including Crozet, Prince Edward, Kerguelen, South Georgia and Mazquarie Islands. Like the Emperor penguin, the King penguin hatches only one chick at a time. Their chicks have fuzzy brown feathers for about a year after they are born. Kings are found in their colonies year round because it takes them months to raise their single chick. Standing height: 37 inches Weight: pounds
34 Name: King Penguin Research Information
35 Little (or Blue) Penguin The little blue is the smallest of all penguins. Sometimes called Fairy Penguins. These penguins live an average of 6-7 years. They can be found all around the coast of New Zealand, the southern coast of Australia, as well as surrounding islands. They sport steel blue coats and white bellies, which is the perfect camouflage for swimming in the ocean. Little blues race through the water at speeds of around 6km per hour. Little blues spend their days swimming the oceans, eating fish, squid and crustaceans. They come ashore after dark so are not frequently spotted by humans. Rats, cats, ferrets, stoats, weasels and dogs are all introduced species and natural predators of the little blue penguin. Between May and June the Little Blues prepare their nests for the breeding season. Between August and November a breeding pair will lay 1 or 2 eggs. By around eight weeks of age the chicks are ready to fend for themselves. Little Blues commonly return to breed to a spot very close to where they were hatched and will continue to use the same spot. Each year sometime between November and March Little Blues will spend two weeks ashore molting and growing a new coat. Standing height: inches Weight: 2-3 pounds
36 Name: Little Penguin/Blue Penguin Research Information
37 Macaroni Penguins "Macaroni" used to be a hairstyle in England. The Macaroni penguins were so named because the yellow and black feathers sticking out of the side of their heads looked like the English hairstyle. They are closely related to the Royal penguin. They are generally a little over 2 feet tall and weight between 7 and 15 pounds. A very social animal the macaroni penguin has one of the largest breeding grounds of penguins. Spends 75% of its time at sea. Breeds on steep, rocky sub-antarctic islands close to the Antarctic convergence in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans, with one breeding colony located on the Antarctic peninsula.
38 Name: Macaroni Penguin Research Information
39 Magellanic Penguins Magellanic penguins were named after the explorer Ferdinand Magellan who first saw them in 1519 on his first voyage around the tip of South America. Magellanic penguins are about 2 feet, 3 inches tall and weigh 9 pounds. They are the largest of the warm weather penguins. They live on the coast of the Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. During mating season, Magellanic penguins burrow, forming underground nesting colonies. Magellanic Penguins eat squid and small schooling fish. They are prey for sea lions and Dominican gulls. Standing height: inches Weight: 7-15 pounds
40 Name: Magellanic Penguin Research Information
41 Rockhopper Penguins Similar to the Macaroni penguins, the Rockhopper penguins have decorative feather tufts on their heads -- theirs are yellow in color. Their most unusual trait is their ability to hop from rock to rock to their nesting places. They keep both feet together when hopping. Using this method, they are able to hop up to four or five feet! These gregarious marine birds are among the world's smallest penguins, standing about 20 inches (50 centimeters) tall. Standing height: inches Weight: pounds
42 Name: Rockhopper Penguin Research Information
43 Royal Penguin Royal penguins are found in the waters of Antarctica. They are similar in look to the macaroni penguins but their chins are white. They breed only on Macquarie Island and spend a great deal of time at sea. Krill and fish comprise the bulk of the Royal penguin's diet. Crustaceans and squid are also part of the penguin's diet but only comprise approximately two percent of what they eat. Royal penguins may vary their diet depending on where they are in the breeding cycle and whether their colony is located on the east or west side of Macquarie Island. The male of the species makes a nest or returns to his prior nest site. The nest may be of sand or grass rimmed with stones and grass. The female returns one week afterward. The pair produce two eggs and kick one egg out of the nest before hatching. Royal penguin eggs incubate for 30 to 35 days before hatching. Both parents take turns incubating the chosen egg. Standing height: 26 inches Weight: 12 pounds
44 Name: Royal Penguin Research Information
45 Snares Penguin They are black in color on their back and white on their front. They have a yellow stripe that runs from the base of their beak, over their eye and ends in a bushy crest at the back of their head. Their beak is large, reddish/brown in color and is underlined with white skin at the base. Snares Penguins are vocal birds and they can swim at speeds of 15 mph. Snares Penguins are found on the sheltered beaches of the Snares Islands, off the southern coast of New Zealand. Snares Penguins usually pair up for life and they breed between September and January. The male arrives at the nesting site first, closely followed by the female one week later. In a sheltered area they will create a nest by scraping a hole in the ground and lining it with grasses, leaves and twigs. The female will lay two eggs but the first one rarely hatches. Incubation is shared by both parents and after days the chick hatches. For the first three weeks the chick is closely cared for then they join a creche so both parents can go and feed. The parents return to the chick daily to feed it and by the time it has reached 75 days old, the chick has molted and is ready to go to sea. The main predators of adult Snares Penguins are sea lions, but eggs and chicks are preyed upon by brown skuas and giant petrels. Standing height: 25 inches Weight: 6-7 pounds
46 Name: Snares Penguin Research Information
47 Yellow-eyed Penguins The yellow-eyed penguins have a band of yellow feathers going from the bill, circling the eyes and up around the head. Adults are grey-blue in color, with a snow-white belly and pink feet. The yellow-eyed penguin lives on the coast of New Zealand. It is the rarest of all penguins due to the deforestation of the New Zealand coastline and the introduction of new predatory species to the island. There are only an estimated 1,500 breeding pairs of yellow-eyed penguins. The yellow-eyed penguin is the only penguin species that doesn't become tame. Also the least social and a solitary breeder (they like to be by themselves). The yellow-eyed penguin is the most unsocial of all penguin species. These penguins seek out sheltered nests completely by themselves they never have neighbors. In fact, if two pairs are within sight of each other, both will experience an unsuccessful breeding season. Diet: small to medium sized fish such as sprat, red cod, and squid. Standing height: 21 inches Weight: pounds
48 Name: Yellow-eyed Penguin Research Information
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50 Special thanks to the following websites for information and pictures: Penguin_TeacherGuide.pdf Special thanks to the following for font and clipart:
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Figure 34.14 The origin of tetrapods Return to the sea: Marine birds, reptiles and pinnipeds Phylum Chordata Free swimmers Nekton Now we move to reptiles (Class Reptilia) and birds (Class Aves), then on
Section 8: Physical Systems Where Animals and Plants Are Found About Animals and Plants What I Need to Know Vocabulary ecosystem food chain food web marine prairie Many animals live on Earth. Many plants
I WHAT IS A TURTLE OR TORTOISE? Over 200 million years ago chelonians with fully formed shells appeared in the fossil record. Unlike modern species, they had teeth and could not withdraw into their shells.
Teacher s Guide All About Baby Animals series Introduction This teacher s guide helps educate young children about baby animals. Animals live in many different habitats. Some live in grasslands, rainforests,
BRIANNA & OPA NATURE BOOK 1 GRADES K-3 PENNY THE HUNGRY PENGUIN CHICK LIFE IN THE ANTARCTIC Wolf Berger, Ph.D. with advice from Brianna Copyright 2012 by Wolf Berger 1 st Edition (2006): ISBN 10: Softcover
This is a gorilleel. It has sharp and flat teeth, no feet, and furry head. They are as long as a car, live in tropical rain forests in Africa. Can smile, eats fish, and gets water from the food they eat.
Observant Owls By: Kohlson Tueller Table of contents What is a owl?... 1 How do owls work?... 2 Where do owls Live?... 3 Types of Owls... 4 Hunter... 6 Younglings... 7 The Hunt of Owls... 8 Glossary...
Endangered Species: The cheetah By Gale, Cengage Learning, adapted by Newsela staff on 01.05.18 Word Count 626 Level MAX Image 1: Cheetahs are famous for their round, black spots, which help them to hide