2 WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? The most important problem associated with infectious disease today is the rapid development of resistance to antibiotics It will force us to change the way we view disease and the way we treat patients
4 EVOLUTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
5 EVOLUTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: Rate of Development Resistance develops at different rates Several groups of antibiotics were used for many years before resistance was seen Resistance to penicillin was seen in only three years Some semi-synthetic forms of penicillin (ampicillin) had a relatively long time before resistance developed Other semi-synthetic forms (methicillin) lasted only a year before resistance developed Short interval is directly related to increased use The therapeutic life span of a ABX is based on how quickly resistance develops The more an antibiotic is used, the more quickly resistance occurs
7 CAUSES: Hospital set-up Hospitals are ideal reservoirs for the acquisition of resistance A population of people with compromised health A high concentration of organisms, many of which are extremely pathogenic Large and increased amounts of different antibiotics are constantly in use Hospital is a place where resistance can develop rapidly
8 CAUSES: Overuse Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics (cephalosporins) leads to the rise of resistance It permits the superinfection effect. Pathogens occupy areas where normal microbes have been killed Antibiotics have essentially compromised the patient Clostridium difficile is a superinfection pathogen Establishes itself in the intestinal tract as part of a superinfection It is very resistant to antibiotics Patients with this infection are difficult to treat
9 CAUSES: Misuse The most important contributing factor for resistance is misuse. A good example is prescribing antibiotics that don t kill viruses for the common cold.
10 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS: The doctor-patient-drug relationship leads to resistance Most clearly seen in the case of common viral infections Patients expect to have antibiotics prescribed There is over prescription of antibiotics that are not required Patients who feel better and stop using the drug make the problem worse
11 Causes and Consequences Results from misuse, overuse, under/ inadequate use of antimicrobials Costs money, lives and undermines effectiveness of health delivery programs Major future threat to regional, global political stability and national security
12 WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance: Intervention framework to slow emergence and reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms
13 Leading global infectious diseases S. pneumonia: Up to 55% resistance to penicillin in some regions S. dyentariae: 90% resistance to cotrimoxazole S.Typhi: Outbreaks of multi-resistant strains in 11 countries Millions of deaths, worldwide, HIV: Report of resistance to all marketed agents M. tuberculosis: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis P. falciparum: Chloroquine resistance in 81/92 countries 0 Respiratory infections HIV Diarrheal diseases Tuberculosis Malaria
14 Antibiotic resistant infections Diseases Agent Resistances Pneumonia S pneumoniae Penicillin Dysentery S dysenteriae Multiple resistances Typhoid S typhi Multiple resistances Gonorrhea N gonorrhoeae Penicillin and tetracycline Tuberculosis M tuberculosis Rifampicine and INH Nosocomial infections S aureus Methicillin, vancomycin E species Klebsiella Pseudomonas Vancomycin Multiple resistances
15 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE Bacterial cells that have developed resistance are not killed off. They continue to divide Resulting in a completely resistant population.
16 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Travel Modern technology and sociology can further aggravate the development of resistant strains. Travelers carry resistant bacteria. They travel with several or many other people. Other people are infected with the resistant bacteria. These people continue traveling and infecting. The process is repeated and the resistant bacteria spread.
17 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Living Conditions There are more large cities in the world today Large numbers of people in relatively small areas Passing antibiotic-resistant pathogens is easier Many large urban populations have poor sanitation
18 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Food Food is also a source of infection that could affect the development of resistance. More meals are prepared outside the home. Contamination goes unnoticed until infection has started. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 in spinach and lettuce. As the number of foodborne infections increases, so does the use of antibiotics. Causes an increase in the development of resistance.
19 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE These antibiotics do destroy the normal flora. Opportunistic pathogens that are resistant survive and can take hold.
20 Destruction of normal flora allows pathogenic pathogens to dominate
21 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE Bacteria that are part of the normal flora are becoming more dangerous due to resistance. E. coli is part of the normal flora of the large intestine. It has become more involved with urinary tract infections. Antibiotic-resistant infections are now being seen throughout the world.
22 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Immunocompromised Patients An important social change is the increase in the number of people who are immunocompromised. Necessitates increased use of antibiotics Fosters development of resistance
23 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases Emerging and re-emerging diseases are another source for resistance. Emerging diseases have not been seen before. Re-emerging are caused by organisms resistant to treatment.
24 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE:..Emerging and Re-emerging Bacterial Diseases
25 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Transfer Resistance can be transferred by bacteria swapping genes. This can be easily accomplished in a hospital setting. Health care workers who don t follow infection control protocols aid in increasing resistance.
27 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE: Resistance Islands Plasmids containing genes for resistance can integrate into the chromosome. Here they form resistance islands. Resistance genes accumulate and are stably maintained.
28 DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE Microorganisms producing antibiotic substances have autoprotective mechanisms. Transmembrane proteins pump out the freshly produced antibiotic so that it does not accumulate. If it did, it would kill the organism producing it. Genes that code for these pumps are closely linked to genes that code for antibiotic substances. When genes for antibiotic production are turned on so are the pump genes.
29 MECHANISM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE There are several factors in the mechanism of antibiotic resistance: Evolutionary nature and Mutation cause a rapid increase in antibiotics resistance Considerable potential for rapid spontaneous mutation These mutations are selected for certain antibiotics Approximately 7% of the total S. aureus genome is genes for antibiotic resistance. Bacillus subtilis, a nonpathogenic organism, has none.
30 MRSA, VRSA, VRE, AND OTHER PATHOGENS Several antibiotic-resistant bacteria are considered clinically dangerous. MRSA and VRSA are very virulent in humans and are referred as professional pathogens. MRSA and VRSA contain many resistance genes. Three or four resistance islands on the chromosome additional gene clusters on plasmids which can move to other bacterial cells. VRE-Vancomycin enterococcus e.g E. faecalis contributes to 90% of all vancomycin resistant bacteria
31 Natural & acquired resistance Natural resistance Chromosomic genetic support Affect almost all species strains Existed before antibiotic use (Enterobacter sp.- amoxicillin) Acquired resistance (mutation) Chromosomic, plasmidic or transposon genetic support Affects a fraction of strains Increased with antibiotic use (extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli)
32 Different acquired resistances Acquired to a population of strains in a given species Extremely frequent in nosocomial infections Acquired under treatment; specific strain, specific patient Relatively uncommon except for certain species (e.g., Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium)
33 Mechanisms for acquiring resistance Bacteria use several mechanisms to become antibiotic-resistant: Prevent antibiotic from reaching its target Impaired cell membrane permeability Efflux phenomenon Prevent the antibiotic from binding to its target Supplementary targets (Alteration of the pathway) Decreased affinity by target modification
34 MECHANISMS FOR ACQUIRING RESISTANCE
35 INACTIVATION OF ANTIBIOTIC Inactivation involves enzymatic breakdown of antibiotic molecules. A good example is β-lactamase: Secreted into the bacterial periplasmic space Attacks the antibiotic as it approaches its target There are more than 190 forms of β-lactamase. E.g of lactamase activity in E.coli and S. aureus.
36 OTHER MECHANISMS OF KEEPING ANTIBIOTICS OUT Some bacteria reduce the permeability of their membranes as a way of keeping antibiotics out. They turn off production of porin and other membrane channel proteins. Seen in resistance to streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfa drugs.
37 EFFLUX PUMPING OF ANTIBIOTIC Efflux pumping is an active transport mechanism. It requires ATP. Efflux pumps are found in: The bacterial plasma membrane The outer layer of gram-negative organisms Pumping keeps the concentration of antibiotic below levels that would destroy the cell Genes that code for efflux pumps are located on plasmids and transposons. Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move or transpose move themselves to new positions within the genome of a single cell. Transposones: Readily acquired by nonresistant bacteria Transforms them into resistant bacteria
38 MODIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC TARGET Bacteria can modify the antibiotic s target to escape its activity Bacteria must change structure of the target but the modified target must still be able to function. This can be achieved in two ways: Mutation of the gene coding for the target protein Importing a gene that codes for a modified target E.g. with MRSA (methicillin- resistant - S. aureus) mutated PBP (penicillin binding protein)
39 MODIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC TARGET Bacteria have PBPs in their plasma membranes. These proteins are targets for penicillin. MRSA has acquired a gene (mec A) that codes for a different PBP. It has a different three-dimensional structure. MRSA less sensitive to penicillins.
40 MODIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC TARGET MRSA is resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins and carbapenems. It is a very dangerous pathogen particularly in burn patients Several specific resistance genes of MRSA have been identified. They are associated with different resistance mechanisms. β-lactamase resistance Erythromycin resistance Production of aminoglycosides Operation of efflux pumps Streptococcus pneumoniae also modifies PBP. It can make as many as five different types of PBP. It does this by rearranging, or shuffling, the genes. Referred to as genetic plasticity Permits increased resistance
41 MODIFICATION OF TARGET RIBOSOMES Bacterial ribosomes are a primary target for antibiotics. Different antibiotics affect them in different ways. Resistance can be the result of modification of ribosomal RNA so it is no longer sensitive. Some organisms use target modification in conjunction with efflux pumps. Resistance is even more effective.
42 ALTERATION OF A PATHWAY Some drugs competitively inhibit metabolic pathways. Bacteria can overcome this method by using an alternative pathway. Sulfonamide resistant bacteria do not require PABA, an important precursor for the synthesis offa andnucleic acid in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid.
43 SUMMARY The potential for global antibiotic resistance is real due to: Overuse/misues of antibiotics Improper adherence to hospital infection control protocols Ease of worldwide travel Release of pharmaceutical waste into rivers or the environment Difficulty finding new antibiotics There are ways to lengthen the useful life of antibiotics.
44 Guidelines for extending the useful life of antimicrobial drugs
46 Steps towards new ABX The clinical success of antibiotics led to: Increasing efforts to discover new antibiotics. Modification of existing drugs. Development of antibiotics with broader spectra. Effort is now targeted towards overcoming strains resistant to current antibiotics.
47 ABX Resistance and Scientists in Aligarh The emergence of carbapenemase producing bacteria, especially New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) and its variants,worldwide, has raised a major public health concern. NDM-1 hydrolyses a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are the last resort of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by resistant strain of bacteria. Aligarh Bug NDM1 variant NDM-4 Discovery NEONA Film Prove use of CRISPRi-dCAS9 gene editing system in control of Biofilm infection through Quorum sensing.
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