Surveillance. Mariano Ramos Chargé de Mission OIE Programmes Department

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1 Mariano Ramos Chargé de Mission OIE Programmes Department Surveillance Regional Table Top Exercise for Countries of Middle East and North Africa Tunisia; July 2017

2 Agenda Key definitions and criteria Critical components in the design Performance: assessment and evaluation on surveillance systems Data sources Tools and applications Rinderpest: surveillance considerations World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 2

3 Chapter 1 Key definitions and criteria World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 3

4 How do countries do to deal against animal diseases? How can we detect animal diseases? World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 4

5 Setting up a system for animal disease control All animal diseases are of our interest? Private profession Public profession Are there priorities? Assessment Impact Decisions Taking decisions Public goods Actors Consensus Agreements Based on: Priorities Structure Operability Action plan World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 5

6 The Animal Health status Identifying animal diseases Applying animal disease control measures Control purposes Eradication purposes Animal Health Status World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 6

7 Surveillance: its importance Animal health surveillance has always been an essential activity of Veterinary Services, necessary: for the detection of diseases, for monitoring disease trends, as a tool for controlling endemic and exotic diseases, to support claims for freedom from disease, infection or residues, to provide data to support the risk analysis process in trade decision making for both animal health and public health purposes, to evaluate the economic loss caused by diseases, to provide data required for international trade of animals and animal products and to substantiate the rationale for sanitary measures. 7 World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 7

8 Surveillance Key definitions and criteria Passive surveillance Notification received from: producers, veterinarians in the field, slaughterhouse/abattoir inspection or a diagnostic laboratory Active surveillance Game of priorities Assessment on impact Perspectives: PH/WL/Stakeholders Needs for disease information Budget limitations Core component for the early warning systems World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 8

9 Surveillance in a glance Definition and core concepts Design: critical components Performance: assessment and evaluation on surveillance systems Data source Tools and applications World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 9

10 Chapter 2 Critical components in the design World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 10

11 Setting up the surveillance plan 1. What is the purpose of the surveillance plan? 3. Who is the intended audience for the surveillance plan? Who will ultimately read and use it? 2. What is the scope of the surveillance plan? 4. Who are the customers using the information and how will they benefit from surveillance? 5. Who are the members of the surveillance planning team and what are their roles and responsibilities? 6. What background and supporting information are needed for the development of the surveillance plan? World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 11

12 Surveillance system process and actors Data reporting and collection Field level Farms Markets Slaughterhouses Wildlife Border control Local level Intermediate level Data centralisation and validation Local veterinarians, technicians, wildlife management personnel, paraprofessionals and Community animal health workers Data centralisation Veterinary Services and laboratorios at lower administrative unit Feedback of information Central level National Veterinary Services and laboratory Data management and analyses Scope and objectives of surveillance (Steering committee) Surveillance protocols and implementation (Technical committee) World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 12

13 Selection of appropriate methods Several questions to determine methods or tools What are the purpose(s) and objectives of the system? What data need to be collected in the field (e.g. breed, age, herd size, management practices)? Which animals constitute the population of interest and at what level (e.g. herd, individual)? Do any kind of tissue or other materials need to be collected for analysis (e.g. feed, blood/sera, tissue)? If so, what kind of tests will be performed? What surveillance type(s) would be appropriate (i.e. active, passive)? How/where are data maintained (e.g. paper, local spreadsheet, centralized database)? What surveillance method (e.g. survey, tissue sample collection, observational)? How does one select which animals will be included (e.g. random, risk-based)? How will the data be analyzed? What is the analysis intended to provide (e.g. management practices in a population, disease prevalence, documentation of disease freedom)? How will the results of the surveillance be shared with stakeholders (e.g. verbal report, electronic report, team meeting)? How often (e.g. annually, monthly)? World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 13

14 Other critical components in the design Nature of disease or conditions Expected outputs or outcomes of surveillance Selection of the methods and tools available Planning the use of data sources Target population data Sampling strategies Data processing and analysis Investigation procedures 14 World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 14

15 Other critical components in the design Communication, reporting and sharing of information Planning performance measurements Surveillance system implementation priorities, timeline and internal communications Cost-effectiveness and funding World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 15

16 Chapter 3 Performance: assessment and evaluation on surveillance systems World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 16

17 Performance: assessment and evaluation on surveillance systems For overall assessment Structure of the evaluation Quality attributes Cost and cost-effectiveness Evaluation of the Veterinary Services The OIE PVS Pathway World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 17

18 Elements of a surveillance system to be described in the evaluation 1 Objectives: i.e. enabling trade, enhancing production or profitability, mitigating human health risks, protecting biodiversity, etc. Health event: case definitions Surveillance activities including populations under surveillance, i.e. passive reporting from different sources, periodic sampling to estimate prevalence, active risk-based screening of selected production establishments or conservation areas, etc. Stakeholders, authority and responsibilities Logistics: describe data type, data sources, data collection and storage, data analysis, data reporting, frequency and distribution of data reports 4 Description of relevant regulations 6 7 Estimated costs: budget description World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 18

19 Evaluation of a surveillance system 1 Identify objectives of the evaluation Which questions we wish to ask and what we want to achieve with surveillance Describe the surveillance system 2 3 Question 1: What are the purpose and objectives and are they appropriate? Question 2: What are the impacts of the system? 4 5 Question 3: Is the combination of surveillance activities best suited to meet the surveillance objectives? Question 4: Are the selected surveillance activities being implemented well? 6 7 Conclusions and recommendations World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 19

20 OIE PVS Pathway Sustainable consolidation of national animal health systems The OIE collaborates with governments, donors and other stakeholders World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 20

21 Surveillance in the PVS pathway Fundamental component II: Technical authority and capability Critical competency 5: Epidemiological surveillance and early detection World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 21

22 Epidemiological surveillance and early detection Critical Competency Nº II 5 of the PVS Evaluation II-5 Epidemiological surveillance and early detection Levels of advancement The authority and capability of the VS to determine, verify and report on the sanitary status of the animal populations, including wildlife, under their mandate. A. Passive epidemiological Surveillance < > 5 The VS have no passive surveillance programme. The VS conduct passive surveillance for some relevant diseases and have the capacity to produce national reports on some diseases. The VS conduct passive surveillance in compliance with OIE standards for some relevant diseases at the national level through appropriate networks in the field, whereby samples from suspect cases are collected and sent for laboratory diagnosis with evidence of correct results obtained. The VS have a basic national disease reporting system. The VS conduct passive surveillance and report at the national level in compliance with OIE standards for most relevant diseases. Producers and other interested parties are aware of and comply with their obligation to report the suspicion and occurrence of notifiable diseases to the VS. The VS regularly report to producers and other interested parties and the international community (where applicable) on the findings of passive surveillance programmes. World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 22

23 Epidemiological surveillance and early detection Critical Competency Nº II 5 of the PVS Evaluation II-5 Epidemiological surveillance and early detection The authority and capability of the VS to determine, verify and report on the sanitary status of the animal populations, including wildlife, under their mandate. B. Active epidemiological Surveillance < > 5 Levels of advancement The VS have no active surveillance programme. The VS conduct active surveillance for some relevant diseases (of economic and zoonotic importance) but apply it only in a part of susceptible populations and/or do not update it regularly. The VS conduct active surveillance in compliance with scientific principles and OIE standards for some relevant diseases and apply it to all susceptible populations but do not update it regularly. The VS conduct active surveillance in compliance with scientific principles and OIE standards for some relevant diseases, apply it to all susceptible populations, update it regularly and report the results systematically. The VS conduct active surveillance for most or all relevant diseases and apply it to all susceptible populations. The surveillance programmes are evaluated and meet the country s OIE obligations. Terrestrial Code References: Points 6, 7 and 9 of Article on Fundamental principles of quality: Veterinary legislation/general organisation/procedures and standards. Points 1-3 of Article on Animal health controls: Animal health status/animal health control/national animal disease Reporting systems. Sub-points a) i), ii) and iii) of Point 7 of Article on Animal health: Description of and sample reference data from any national animal disease reporting system controlled and operated or coordinated by the Veterinary Services/Description of and sample reference data from other national animal disease reporting systems controlled and operated by other organisations which make data and results available to Veterinary Services/Description and relevant data of current official control programmes including: or eradication programmes for specific diseases. World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 23

24 Chapter 4 Data sources World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 24

25 Data sources Personnel involved in data collection people in contact with animals diagnosticians people able to collect, organise and analyse the data; people who can assess the information generated World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 25

26 Data sources Where can surveillance data be collected and accessed? a) interviews and questionnaires; b) observations; c) review of records or other documents. d) collection may varies as surveillance Passive Active World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 26

27 Data sources Notifications Slaughterhouse/abattoir surveillance Engagement of hunters and others in wildlife surveillance Vector surveillance Indirect indicators Import and export testing Vaccination records Production records Mortality and animal disposal data Animal movement records Population data Media-based surveillance Advantages Limitations World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 27

28 Chapter 5 Tools and applications World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 28

29 Tools and applications Application of surveillance strategies Disease presence Absence of disease Monitoring progress World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 29

30 Tools and applications Classic tools Case definition Surveys and sampling design Reporting systems Compensation issues Passive surveillance Active surveillance Sentinel herds or animals Participatory surveillance Syndromic surveillance Serological surveillance and immunity coverage Vector surveillance Chemical residue surveillance World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 30

31 Tools and applications Tools for optimisation of surveillance systems Risk-based surveillance Integration of data from multiple sources Epidemiological modeling World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 31

32 References Guide to Terrestrial Animal Health Surveillance Copyright OIE, 2014 ISBN: OIE Terrestrial Code World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 32

33 OIE Publications Unit Standards Review Bulletin Proceedings & Compendiums Thematic publications Technical Series World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 33

34 Chapter 1 Rinderpest: surveillance considerations World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 34

35 OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code Volume 1: General provisions Section 1. Chapter 1.1. Chapter 1.2. Chapter 1.3. Chapter 1.4. Chapter 1.5. Chapter 1.6. Animal disease diagnosis, surveillance and notification Notification of diseases, infections and infestations, and provision of epidemiological information Criteria for the inclusion of diseases, infections and infestations in the OIE list Diseases, infections and infestations listed by the OIE Animal health surveillance Surveillance for arthropod vectors of animal diseases Procedures for self declaration and for official recognition by the OIE World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 35

36 Chapter Rinderpest standards Article : Ongoing surveillance post global freedom annual re-confirmation of rinderpest absence is no longer required. countries are still required: to carry out general surveillance in accordance with Chapter 1.4. to detect rinderpest should it recur and to comply with OIE reporting obligations concerning the occurrence of unusual epidemiological events in accordance with Chapter 1.1. Countries should also maintain national contingency plans for responding to events suggestive of rinderpest. World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 36

37 Rinderpest: surveillance perspective RP is an animal disease globally eradicated in 2011 Passive surveillance is the most likely way in which: new or emerging disease will be detected an intentional introduction of disease would be detected (bioterrorism) Active surveillance: Syndromic surveillance Stomatitis-enteritis syndrome Sudden death Die-off mortality in cattle / buffalo with negative results for other etiology usual findings World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 37

38 Conclusion Surveillance for the veterinary community is very important. Several fields use different data sources for different purposes. Integration of surveillance systems - e.g. Animal Health Public Health Other perspectives in the future? Animal Health Law Enforcement / Security World Organisation for Animal Health Protecting animals, Preserving our future 38

39 Thank you for your attention Mariano Ramos 12, rue de Prony, Paris, France -

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