Stray Dog Population Control

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1 Stray Dog Population Control Terrestrial Animal Health Code Chapter 7.7. Tikiri Wijayathilaka, Regional Project Coordinator OIE RRAP, Tokyo, Japan AWFP Training, August 27, 2013, Seoul, RO Korea

2 Presentation outline o History of the TAHC chapter o Why did the OIE develop this chapter? o OIE questionnaire on dog population control o Preamble o Guiding principles o Definitions o Dog population control program objectives o Responsibilities and competencies o Development of a dog population control program o Control measures o Monitoring and evaluation of a dog population control program

3 History of the TAHC chapter 2006 May 5 th meeting of WG on Animal Welfare TOR Modified to concentrate on stray dog population control 2007 March Draft Guidelines TAHSC 2009 March Annex XV TAHSC Draft Chapter 2009 May Resolution No 30 approved at OIE 77 th General Session

4 Links to capture the history UB.pdf - RESOLUTION No GS/FR PARIS, May pdf/a_tahsc_march2009_parta.pdf - Annex XV - OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission / March pdf/a_tahsc_march2007_partc.pdf - Appendix VII - DRAFT GUIDELINES DOG POPULATION CONTROL - OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards commission/march pdf/a_tahsc_october2006.pdf - REPORT OF THE FIFTH MEETING OF THE OIE WORKING GROUP ON ANIMAL WELFARE Paris, 4-6 July 2006 Item No 12 - Stray animal control TOR modified to concentrate on dog population control programs

5 Why did the OIE develop this chapter? More than people die each year from rabies, majority are children and in many cases the source of infection is a stray dog 99% human rabies deaths due to dog bites Many millions of animals contract and die of rabies each year Stray dogs pose serious human health, socio-economic, political and animal welfare problems in many countries of the world, and especially in developing countries and in least developed countries. (Slide - OIE stray dog control standards and perspective Dr. Stanislav Ralchev)

6 OIE questionnaire on dog population control To study and evaluate the problem and collect relevant data, a questionnaire on dog population control was distributed to all OIE countries, the survey comprised 17 questions and they were divided into two sections: General information on the dog population (presence, distribution and problems) Stray dog control (presence of official control programmes, different methods employed) (Slide - OIE stray dog control standards and perspective Dr. Stanislav Ralchev)

7 Are free roaming dogs a problem? Are free roaming dogs a problem? Are free roaming dogs a problem? EUROPE (30 countries) No 40% Yes 47% HDI - Human Development Index In some areas 13% (Slide - OIE stray dog control standards and perspective Dr. Stanislav Ralchev)

8 Preamble to the chapter

9 Preamble Scope of these recommendations is to deal with stray and feral dogs, which pose serious human health, animal health and welfare problems and have a socio-economic, environmental, political and religious impact in many countries Human health, including the prevention of zoonotic diseases, notably rabies, is a priority Dog population management is an integral part of rabies control programs

10 Preamble cont. OIE recognizes the importance of controlling dog populations without causing unnecessary animal suffering Veterinary Services should play a lead role in preventing zoonotic diseases and ensuring animal welfare and should be involved in dog population control, coordinating their activities with other competent public institutions and/or agencies

11 Guiding principles

12 Guiding principles - Article Recommendations are based on those laid down in Chapter 7.1. Some additional principles are relevant to these recommendations; Promotion of responsible dog ownership can significantly reduce the numbers of stray dogs and the incidence of zoonotic diseases Because dog ecology is linked with human activities, control of dog populations has to be accompanied by changes in human behavior to be effective

13 Definitions

14 Important Definitions Carrying capacity: the upper limit of the dog population density that could be supported by the habitat based on the availability of resources, and human acceptance Dog population control program: a program with the aim of reducing a stray dog population to a particular level and/or maintaining it at that level and/or managing it in order to meet a predetermined objective (see Article )

15 Important Definitions cont. Person: can include more than one individual, & could comprise family/household members or an organization Responsible dog ownership: situation whereby a person accepts and commits to perform various duties according to the legislation in place and focused on the satisfaction of the behavioral, environmental and physical needs of a dog and to the prevention of risks that the dog may pose to the community, other animals or the environment

16 Important Definitions cont. Owned dog: means a dog for which a person claims responsibility Stray Dog: Any dog not under direct control by a person or not prevented from roaming Types of stray dog: free-roaming owned dog not under direct control or restriction at a particular time free-roaming dog with no owner feral dog: domestic dog that has reverted to the wild state and is no longer directly dependent upon humans

17 Dog population control program Objectives

18 Objectives of Dog population control program - Article Improve health and welfare of owned and stray dog population Reduce numbers of stray dogs to an acceptable level Promote responsible ownership Assist in the creation and maintenance of a rabies immune or rabies free dog population

19 Objectives of Dog population control program cont. Reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases other than rabies Manage other risks to human health (e.g. parasites) Prevent harm to the environment and other animals Prevent illegal trade and trafficking

20 Responsibilities and competencies

21 Responsibilities and competencies - Article Veterinary Authority Responsible for the implementation of animal health and animal welfare legislation (in coordination with other competent government agencies and institutions) Provide technical advice to control of endemic zoonotic diseases Establishing two way communication with Private Veterinarians (may be through professional organizations) Other Govt. Agencies Public health o May play a leadership role in dealing with zoonotic diseases o Control of stray dogs with regard to other human health risks (but is more likely to be by the local government) Environment protection agencies o Control problems associated with stray dogs when they present a hazard to the environment o Prevention of dog attacks on wildlife or transmission of diseases to wildlife) o Prevent increase of stray dog population when lacking environmental controls

22 Responsibilities and competencies cont. Private sector vets Providing advice to dog owners or handlers consulting the Veterinarian for advice or treatment of a dog Disease surveillance - might be the 1 st to see a dog suffering from a notifiable disease such as rabies Necessary that the private veterinarian follow the procedure established by VA for reporting a suspected rabies or notifiable disease Dealing with cases of neglect that can lead to problems with stray and mismanaged dogs Involve in dog health programs and population control measures (health testing, vaccination, identification, kenneling, sterilization and euthanasia) Two-way communication between the private veterinarian and VA is very important

23 Responsibilities and competencies cont. Non govt. org. (NGOs) Local govt. authorities Potentially important partners of the Veterinary Services in, Contributing to public awareness and understanding Helping to obtain resources to contribute in design and successful implementation of dog control programs Supply local knowledge on dog populations and features of ownership, as well as expertise in handling and kenneling dogs and the implementation of sterilization programs Contribute, together with veterinarians and the authorities in educating the public in responsible dog ownership Responsible for the development and enforcement of legislation relating to dog ownership (many countries) Control of stray dogs Alleviation of the problems stray dogs cause in their jurisdiction Essential to have the co-operation of local government authorities in the control of stray dogs

24 Responsibilities and competencies cont. Dog owners Immediate acceptance of responsibility for that dog, any offspring it may produce (for the duration of its life or until a subsequent owner is found) Ensure the welfare of the dog, including behavioral needs, protected, as far as possible, from infectious diseases, protected from unwanted reproduction Ensure that the dog s ownership is clearly identified and, where required by legislation, registered on a centralized database All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that the dog does not roam out of control in a manner that would pose a problem to the community and/or the environment

25 Development of a dog population control program

26 Development of a dog population control program Article Recommends that the authorities establish an advisory group for the purpose should include veterinarians, experts in dog ecology, dog behavior and zoonotic diseases, and representatives of relevant stakeholders (local authorities, human health services/authorities, environmental control services/authorities, NGOs and the public)

27 Main purpose of the advisory group Analyze and quantify the problem Identify the causes Obtain public opinion on dogs Propose the most effective approaches to use in the short and long term

28 Important considerations Identifying the sources of stray dogs Estimating the existing number, distribution and ecology Regulatory framework Resources available to authorities For details please refer - Article of TAHC

29 Control measures

30 Possible control measures - Article Education and legislation for responsible ownership Registration and identification of dogs (licensing) Reproductive control Removal and handling Capture and return, rehoming or release Environmental controls Control of dog movement international (export/import) Control of dog movements within country Regulation of commercial dog dealers Reduction in dog bite incidence Euthanasia

31 Education and legislation for responsible ownership Encouraging dog owners to be more responsible will reduce; the number of dogs allowed to roam improve the health and welfare of dogs minimize the risk that dogs pose to the community Promotion of responsible dog ownership through legislation and education is a necessary part of a dog population control program Collaboration with local government authorities, animal welfare NGOs, kennel clubs, private veterinarians and veterinary organizations will assist Veterinary Authorities in establishing and maintaining programs

32 Elements which should address education on responsible dog ownership Importance of proper selection for behavior and care to ensure the welfare of the dog and any offspring Registration and identification of dogs Disease prevention, in particular zoonotic diseases e.g. through regular vaccination in rabies endemic areas Preventing negative impacts of dogs on the community, via pollution, risks to human health through biting or traffic accidents and risks to other dogs, wildlife, livestock and other companion animal species Control of dog reproduction In order to achieve a shift towards responsible ownership, a combination of legislation, public awareness, education, and promotion of these elements will be required. It may also be necessary to improve access to resources supporting responsible ownership.

33 Reduction in dog bite incidence Most effective means - education and placing responsibility on the owner Dog owners should be educated in principles of responsible dog ownership (as Article 7.7.6) Legal mechanisms - enable Competent Authorities to impose penalties or otherwise deal with irresponsible owners necessary Mandatory registration and identification schemes will facilitate the effective application of such mechanisms Young children are the group at highest risk for dog bites Public education programs focused on appropriate dog-directed behaviour have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing dog bites - should be encouraged Authorities should seek advice from dog behavior experts in developing dog safety education programs

34 Euthanasia When euthanasia is practiced, general principles in the Terrestrial Code should be followed It should have emphasis on using the most practical, rapid and humane methods Should ensure operator safety Regardless of the method used, it is important to minimize distress, anxiety and pain by ensuring that operators are appropriately trained

35 Monitoring and evaluation of dog population control programs

36 Monitoring and evaluation of dog population control programs - Article Allows for comparison of important indicators against the baselines measured during initial assessment (see Article 7.7.5) Three main reasons for carrying out monitoring and evaluation are: to help improve performance, by highlighting both problems and successful elements of interventions for accountability, to demonstrate that the program is achieving its aims assuming methods are standardized, to compare the success of strategies used in different locations and situations

37 Elements that should generally be monitored and evaluated Dog population size, separated into sub-populations according to ownership and restriction of movement Dog welfare, in the target population and as a result of the program Prevalence of zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, in both the animal and human population Responsible animal ownership, including measures of attitudes and Understanding of responsible ownership and evidence that this is translating into responsible behavior

38 Sources of information for monitoring and evaluation Feedback from the local community (e.g. through the use of structured questionnaires, focus groups or open format consultation processes) Records and opinions obtained from relevant professionals (e.g. veterinarians, medical doctors, law enforcement agencies, educators) Animal based measurements (e.g. direct observation surveys of population size and welfare status)

39 Important Output of activities against budget should be carefully recorded in order to evaluate the effort (or cost) against the outcomes and impact (or benefit) that are reflected in the results of monitoring and evaluation

40 Thank you for your attention Organisation mondiale de la santé animale World Organisation for Animal Health Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal 12 rue de Prony, Paris, France -

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