SUMMARY OF THESIS. Chapter VIII "The place of research, its purpose, the biological material and method"

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1 SUMMARY OF THESIS Raising Japanese quail is a global activity still limited compared with growth of hens and broilers, but with great prospects for the development of characteristics and adaptability of this species. Their growth in small households, often practiced in our country has some economic advantages, but also many zootechnical and technology disadvantages. To fully exploit the productive potential of these birds their exploitation requires intensive specialized farms with large herds where modern techniques can be applied in breeding, selection and breeding, food and where it can provide the right environmental factors that influence productivity these birds. The influence of different environmental factors on the productivity of intensively reared quail have been addressed over the years of my PhD studies, the results of various scientific works being translated into 28 scientific articles published in professional journals in Romania, Moldova, Turkey and the US. The research took place in a quail farm established in 2011, the firm in which I participated actively in the design and construction respectively quail farm Gherghita IONIŢĂ T. LUCIAN Bucharest, located in the Gherghița commune, Ungureni village, Prahova County. The thesis entitled "RESEARCH ON INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE RESULTS OBTAINED IN JAPANESE QUAIL INTENSIVE EXPLOITATION" developed by Eng. Lucian Ioniță, under the guidance of Mrs. PhD. Elena Popescu-Micloşanu, is composed of two parts, divided into 12 chapters, including general conclusions and recommendations, with added references studied. The PhD thesis includes in total 241 pages, of which the first part contains 87 pages of bibliographic research (representing 36 % of the work), and Part II, researches 154 pages (64 % of the work). The thesis includes 170 tables, 37 figures and 184 references. Part I is divided into seven chapters, and Part II of the thesis presents a collection of research on the Japanese quail Romanian variety "of Baloteşti" and is divided into five chapters, the last being the general conclusions and recommendations, studied selective bibliography added. Chapter VIII "The place of research, its purpose, the biological material and method" In the group of experiments no. 1 it was intended to determine the influence of environmental factors (temperature, humidity and high temperature incubation of eggs during storage) in case of small surface incubators. The research was conducted on a total of 2,700 quail hatching eggs of the population "Baloteşti". Three experiments (denoted E1, E2 and E3) on each 6 batches of 150 eggs were conducted. To

2 establish the optimal temperature and humidity during the hatching quail eggs 3 levels of temperature and humidity were used: average levels in E1 (incubation temperatures between 38.0 C C and humidity of 50% - 55%, between hatching and C and humidity of 65-70%) in experiment E2 high levels of temperature (38.5 C incubation temperature C, and during hatching temperature of 38.2 C C) and low humidity (45% - 50% during incubation and 60% - 65% during hatching) in E3 low levels of temperature (37.5 C incubation temperature C, and during hatching 37.2 C C and high humidity (55% - 60% during incubation, and 70% - 75% during hatching). To determine the effect of storage of hatching eggs in hot conditions (25 C) and humidity of 60% on average hatching percentages average data obtained in the experiment E2 were processed and analyzed. Experiment no. 2 intended to determine the best density of young quails over an intensive 1-6 week period and determining the effect of using vitamin-mineral supplement selenium in drinking water. For this increase in performance a total of 1200 chickens, quail divided into 4 groups (with density control, or reduced in time, with or without vitamin and mineral supplementation) have been established. It has also been determined including the effect of these treatments on carcass by sacrificing male quail from the groups studied. Experiment no. 3 contains research on utilizing a continuous lighting (24 hour) compared with discontinuous lighting and different temperature effect on every level of battery cages on production performance of adult quail. For this performance, production was determined in a total of 500 adult quail quails batteries arranged in two adult of 5 levels each. The control group used continuous lighting while quail in the experimental group were maintained in natural light with artificial light when necessary, with an average duration of 13 hours and 20 minutes between 1-15 months of laying, variable depending on laying curve, from which an average of 12 hours and 30 minutes during the laying 1 to 6 months, an average period for 14 hours and 10 minutes at 8-12 months of laying and 12 hours and 30 minutes during months of laying. Data processing was performed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and statistical processing of the obtained data were used for analysis of variance and Turkey tests and Fisher (experiment no. 1), Fisher tests, Turkey and Student (experiment no. 2), experimental plan in randomized complete blocks imagined by Fisher (experiment no. 3) Chapter IX - "The results and their discussion on experiment 1 - Study on some parameters of hatching quail population Baloteşti The highest percentage of hatching was obtained in the experiment E3 (67.33%), where temperatures during incubation and hatching were low and humidity high. The lowest percentage

3 of hatching was recorded for experiment E2 (52.5%), the temperature during incubation and hatching were high and humidity low. The proportion of dead in shell chicken eggs was recorded for experiment E2 (21.22%), the other two experiments recorded a lower percentage (16.89%). The proportion of clear eggs was recorded for experiment E2 (19.77%) and the lowest in experiment E3 (15.67%). The lowest percentage of dried eggs was recorded for experiment E3 (1.22%) and highest for experiment E2 (6.44%). In the case of the experiment E1, which was intended to effect the results on the hatching of average levels of temperature and humidity, from a mean weight at the start of incubation of eggs of ± 0.10 g was reached in the 15-day incubation at a weight of 9.40 ± 0.07 g, the total weight loss during the first 15 days of incubation was 1.86 g/egg or 17.37% of the initial average weight of the eggs. The highest rate of weight loss during the first 15 days of incubation was recorded during 3 to 5 days of incubation (6.57%), the loss of water by day 3 was being 5.27%, while in the 3-7 days 2.32%. Between 7-10 days weight loss was 1.75%, and between days of 1.57%. On the first day of hatching (day introduction to hatching eggs) differences between groups were generally insignificant. The differences between the 6 groups were not significant in experiment E1 for 5, 10 and 15 days of incubation. In the case of Experiment E2, where the effect on hatching results of high temperature and low levels of humidity, from a mean weight at the start of incubation of eggs of ± 0.25 g was reached on the 15th day of incubation from 9.59 ± 0.16 g, the total weight loss during the first 15 days of incubation was 1.41 g / egg or % of the initial average weight of the eggs. The highest rate of weight loss during the first 15 days of hatching was recorded on day 5 of incubation (3.28 %), moisture loss until day 3 to be 3.27%, during 5 to 7 days being 2.43% days after hatching weight loss was 2.58%, and between 10 to 15 days 1.94%. The differences between the 6 groups were not significant E2 experiment both the first day of incubation (the day of placing in incubation) and at 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days of incubation. In the case of E3 experiment, which was intended to effect the hatching of the results of low levels of elevated temperature and humidity, at an average weight at the beginning of incubation of the eggs of ± 0.11 g was reached on the 15th day of incubation from 9.80 ± 0.19 g, the total weight loss during the first 15 days of incubation was 1.86 g / egg or 18.05% of the initial average weight of the eggs. The highest percentage of weight loss during the first 15 days of incubation was recorded during 1-3 days of incubation (7.12 %) between 3-5 days being 3.82 %

4 and 2.05 % during 5-7 days. Between 7-10 days of incubation the weight loss was 2.28 %, and between days is was of 2.78 %. The differences between the 6 groups were not significant E3 experiment both the first day of incubation (on the day of placing in incubation) and at 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days of incubation. Chapter X - The results and their discussion in the case of experiment 2 - Study on the density in the shelter and the effect of the administration of vitamin-mineral premix selenium in young quail in population Baloteşti If at the age of one day the live weight of nestlings in the 4 groups was approximately the same in all 4 groups analyzed, the differences between them are not significant from the age of seven days there were distinct differences significant between the control group (with normal density used on the farm and without vitamin-mineral supplement administration) and the experimental group I (control density applied, but taking vitamin-mineral supplement with selenium), while between the control group and experimental groups II (who applied to the experimental density and not receiving vitamin-mineral supplement) differences were significant between the experimental group and experimental group II and III (for which experimental density was applied and taking vitamin-mineral supplement) differences were insignificant. There were very significant differences between the control group and experimental group III. Between experimental group I and experimental groups II and III experimental and between experimental group II and III experimental group differences were significant only. The same differences occurred at the ages of 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. The highest body weight at the age of 42 days was recorded in the third experimental group ( ± 3.78 g / head), while the lowest live weight was recorded in the control group ( ± 3.78 g / head) for which no treatment was applied. The weight at age 42 days was 5.45 % higher in experimental group I, % higher in experimental group II and % higher in experimental group III, compared with controls. Between the control group and experimental group II, with lower density, the difference is very significant % in favor of group II, low density. Between batches of selenium supplementation and no supplementation, but with the same density, the differences were quite small. The difference between group II and group III was only 2.5 %. Average weekly total growth period studied showed a similar pattern with live weight, respectively weekly average gain was 5.39 % higher in the experimental group I, % higher in experimental group II and III % in the experimental group compared with controls. Weekly steady growth until the third week was recorded, when the highest level in all 4 groups analyzed was recorded, after which it decreased gradually until the sixth week of growth. Between batches of selenium supplementation and no supplementation, but with the same density, the differences were quite small. The difference between the control and group I was only 5.4 %, and between group II and III of 2.62 %.

5 Between 1-6 weeks of growth in the control group a total consumption of combined feed of g / cap with 2.15 % was recorded less than the experimental group I, 3.40 % less than the experimental group II and 4.91 % smaller than the experimental group III (who recorded a total consumption of combined feed of ± 5.99 g / head), differences were not statistically ensured. Also, during 1-6 weeks of growth, the control group obtained the highest average specific consumption of 4.62 ± 1.28 g nc / g increase with 1.63 % more than the experimental group I, 5.60 % less as the experimental group II and 2.72 % less than the experimental group III, differences between groups were not significant. The proportion of mortality during 1-6 weeks of growth was recorded in the control group, a mortality of %, with % more than the experimental group I, % more than the experimental group II and % more than the experimental group III. Differences were evident for lots with lower density and those with selenium supplements. For the slaughtered birds in the control group an average live weight of ± 2.55 g / capita was recorded with 6.13 % less than the experimental group I. The experimental group II had an average live weight % higher than in the control group while the experimental group III it was % higher than in the control group. The control group experienced an average weight of carcasses after evisceration of ± 1.75 g / cap with 7.66 % less than the experimental group I. The experimental group II an average live weight % higher than in the control group was recorded while the experimental group III it was % higher than in the control group. Return to the slaughter in the control group was ± 3.05 %, in the experimental group I it was ± 3.34%, in the experimental group II it was ± 3.54 %, while the experimental group III it was of ± 3.38 %. Differences between the control group environments and experimental groups II and III were significant and insignificant otherwise. Chapter XI - The results and their discussion in case ofexperiment no. 3 - Study on the influence of average daily light duration and battery cage production environments on the level of performance of laying quailsfrom Baloteştipopulation. Quail in the control group, which were maintained in continuous lighting schedule (24 hours a day), showed an average of ± 6.15 % laying of the level I and top level, ± 5.75 % on second level of ± 5.52 % in level III, of ± 5.08 % to level IV and 54.34% ± 4.96 on level V or the lowest level. Percentage differences between the percentages of laying quail, although statistically significant, were 4.66 % for quail on the second level of 7.97 % to the level III quail, the quail from 9.43 % at level IV and 11.44% to quail on the V as compared with the level quail I.

6 Quails in the experimental group that were maintained in natural light with artificial light combined with average duration of 13 hours and 20 minutes, between 12 and 14 hours light in the laying curve, showed an average of % lay ± 4.18 in the I, % ± 4.12 on the second level of % ± 4.03 in level III, of % ± 3.41 on the fourth and on the % ± 3.64 in level V. Percentage differences between levels, although insignificant statistically, were 1.02 % for quail on second level, of 3.06 % to the level III quail, the quail inlevel IV 4.45 % and 5.66 % on level V on the quails compared to the level I. The differences between the five levels of the experimental group were about 50 % lower compared to the differences between the five levels of the control group. Between 1-15 months of laying quails in the control group there was an average of % ± 4.96, while for the quails in the experimental group there was an average production of % ± 3.94, with % higher as the control group, the differences being significant. Average production per bird in the control group was ± 2.67 eggs / cage / day / level, while the experimental group of quail ± 2.02 eggs / cage / day / level with % higher as quail in control group, the difference is significant. Specific average consumption of combined feed as a whole, for the quails in the control group it was ± g / egg, while the experimental group of ± g / egg, with % lower as the control, the difference was very significant. Average mortality quail in the control group was 22.8 %, while for the experimental group it was 11.2 %. Viability was very significantly higher than for the quails from the control group. Chapter XII General conclusions and recommendations General conclusions and recommendations of the experience no. 1 From the results obtained it can be stated that the recommended temperature that provided the highest percentage of hatching in quail incubation (67.33 % average percentage of hatching) is between 37.5 C and 38 C in the incubation period and 37.2 C during hatching. Good results were obtained at temperatures between 38.0 C and 38.5 C in the incubation period and 37.7 C during hatching. As regards the moisture content, it should be % RH in the incubation period and % during hatching. Good results have been obtained at high humidity (50 % - 55 % RH incubation period of 65 to 70 % during the period of hatching). Higher temperatures ( C) tend to shorten the period of hatching, and the use of temperatures below 38 C during 0-17 days of incubation lead to a lower proportion of dead in shell chicken embryos, and the proportions of lower weight loss during incubation of the egg.

7 Given the relatively high proportion of dead in shell chicken eggs from each of the three experiments is important to establish the cause of this mortality and the possibility of its reduction. One reason could be insufficient humidifiers, especially in the first hatching, given that these chicks are completely developed yet. Another possibility to increase the percentage of hatching as improved ventilation of the incubator during hatching by increasing ventilation rate, given that the demand for oxygen and carbon dioxide production increased as incubation advances. Since for the freshest eggs, age of 1-3 days, earlier hatching begins (even on day 15 of incubation and takes place in days 16 to 17 in the majority) and for older eggs hatching begins later (from the 16th day and being able to extend up to the 18th day), to raise the total percentage of hatching can opt for a series of pup production, up to a maximum length of 3 days hatching eggs. Using these types of small incubators allows filling them serially with fresh eggs and nestlings getting every 3 days. In this case sufficient space has to be provided for raising nestlings in different compartments. General conclusions and recommendations of the experience no. 2 As it can be seen from these studies, the application of experimental density reduced gradually with age, leads to superior results in raising young quails compared with the control lot. Therefore, the use of experimental density of 300 chickens/m during 0-3 days of growth, 200 chicken/sqm in 4-7 days, 150 chickens/m during 8-21 days and 100 chicken/sqm during days of life. Taking vitamin and mineral product selenium in the first 14 days of life also leads to improved growth performance of young quails and results of quail slaughter, and therefore such treatment is recommended. Growth performance of nestlings have improved also for the lot where experimental density was not applied, but where vitamin and mineral product selenium (experimental group I) were administered and in the case of experimental density and supplement administration (experimental group III). Application of experimental density and vitamin-mineral product management selenium resulted mainly from a lower mortality (2 % mortality compared with % in the control group). General conclusions and recommendations of the experience no. 3 Following research on the influence of the battery level cages and duration of illumination on production performance in laying quails can say that the length of daily illumination significantly affect the average percentage of lay, the average per capita consumption of combined feed and very significant specific consumption of combined feed and viability.

8 In the first part of the laying curve (0-6 months of laying) a program with a daily batch lighting 12 to 13 h light can be used (combined with artificial natural) and 11 to 12 hours dark and in part laying the second program curve with an average of 14 hours light and 10 hours dark day. The use of artificial lighting with a duration of 24 hours resulted in an average of lay and an average per capita lower than when using natural and artificial lighting combined batch. Also, daily consumption of fodder and specific consumption were higher in the group exposed continuous illumination. Viability was about 50% higher when using discontinuous lighting. Using lighting batch yielded superior results compared to continuous lighting especially in the second part of the laying curve. Also, the use of batch lighting led to a productive life prolongation of quails even after the 12- month of laying, superior results are obtained even in the 15th month of laying compared with continuous illumination. There were no significant differences in the average weight of live body weight between the egg and between the durations of illumination used. Regarding the battery cages level, when using continuous lighting and discontinuous lighting there are differences between productive performances of quail on the 5 levels, but these differences are significant only in the case of specific consumption and sustainability. It should be noted, however, that the temperature differences between the top and the low levels were not more than 4 C. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Following the results obtained in the three experiments that we conducted in quail incubation it was found that the best temperature level that provides a high percentage of hatching should be between 37.5 C and 38 C in the incubation period and 37.2 C during hatching, and in terms of the moisture, it should be % RH incubating and 70-75% in the hatching. Regarding the experience that was made in increasing the population of young quails Baloteşti, we found that the use of low density reduced gradually with age, 300 chicks / m during 0-3 days of life, 200 chicken / sqm in 4-7 days, 150 chickens / m during 8-21 days and 100 chicken / sq m days during growth leads to superior results in increasing its slaughtering young quails and age 6 weeks, especially in terms of eviscerated carcass weight. Recommendations are valid for increasing young quails to the production of eggs (as applying experimental density on the one hand lead to a higher weight female entry into lay, and the greater weight of males reared for slaughter) and to increase youth meat (leads directly to obtaining heavier carcasses at slaughter). Managing vitamin-mineral product selenium in the first 14 days of life resulted in significant improvement of growth performance in young quail studied.

9 Regarding the lighting effect on the growth of adult quail population Baloteşti to the production of eggs it was found that natural lighting completed with a variable duration of artificial lighting within hours daily during the 0-6 months of laying quails and 14 hours in the second laying cycle leads to superior results in the growth and operation of adult quail for egg production. Using natural lighting with good results shows that illumination during the exploitation of adult quail egg has great importance (completed as needed with artificial light) and light intensity less (which in the case of natural lighting during the day varies depending on the position sun and weather, and where artificial lighting is constant). The length and light intensity of artificial lighting might stimulate egg production as long as it is a continuation of the natural lighting. Influence of battery cages on production performance of laying quail is statistically insignificant, but special attention should be paid to temperature variations on each level so that they are not greater than 3.5 C - 4 C.

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