Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information

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1 इ टरन ट म नक Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public. ज न1 क अ+धक र, ज 1 क अ+धक र Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan The Right to Information, The Right to Live प0र 1 क छ ड न' 5 तरफ Jawaharlal Nehru Step Out From the Old to the New IS (1981): Code for breeding, care, management and housing of laboratory animals, Part 1: Laboratory mice and rats [FAD 5: Livestock Feeds, Equipment and Systems]! न $ एक न' भ रत क +नम-ण Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda Invent a New India Using Knowledge! न एक ऐस खज न > ज कभ च0र य नहB ज सकत ह ह Bhartṛhari Nītiśatakam Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen




5 hdian Standard IS : 5701( Part I ) CODE FOR BREEDING, CARE, MANAGEM-ENT AND HOUSING OF LABORATORY ANIMALS PART -I LABORATORY MICE AND RATS (First Revision j Live Animals Sectional Committee, AFDC 24 Chairman *DR H.G. SEN Members DR V. S. ALWAR Refwesenting Organon ( India ) Ltd, Calcutta AnimMidya;lfare Board ( Ministry of Agriculture ), DR S. P. CHADHA ( Alternate ) ANIMAL HUSBANDRY COMMISSIONER DR K. R. BHARDWAJ DR J. M. BUJARBARUAH DR B. R. HALDER ( Alternate ) DR D. P. BUDUK DR A. Y. NIMBKAR ( Alternate ) DR P. J. DEORAS Animal Husbandry Commissioner to the Government of India ( Ministry of Agriculture ), New Delhi Central Drug Research Institute ( CSIR ), Lucknow Directorate of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Services, Gauhati Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd, Bombay In personal capacity (341-A, Sahitya Sahawac, Bandra East, Bombay ) Railway Board ( Ministry of Railways ), New Delhi DEPUTY DIRECTOR (TRAFFIC RATES) JOINT DIRECTOR (TRAFFIC COMMERCIAL) ( Alternate ) SHRI J. H. DESAI Delhi Zoological Park, New Delhi.JOINT DIRECTOR ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR ( CIPL ) Drugs Controller, Directorate General of Health Services, New Delhi SHRI S. C. GUPTA ( Alternate ) SHRI BALDEV SINGH GUPTA Indian Airlines, New Delhi SHRI U. K. SHARMA ( Alternate ) SHRI A. D LIMA Air India, Bombay SHRI FELIZ NORONHA ( Alternate ) COL G. L. LUTHRA Quartermaster General s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi SHRI R. X. TRIPATHI ( Alternnte ) ( Continued on page 2 ) *Dr H. G. Sen was Chairman for the meeting in which this standard was finalized. 0 Coprright 1982 INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION This publication is protected under the Indian Cojyright Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the nublisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

6 ( Continued from page 1 ) Members Representing DR MANOHAR SINCH Director of Animal Husbandry, Haryana, Chandigarh DR G. P. GROVER ( Alternate ) DR A. C. MATHUR Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi SHRI 0. P. TE~PAL ( Alternate ) DR SAFIA MUNSHI SHRI S. HARIHARAN ( Alternate ) Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi DR A. V. NATARAJAN Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute ( ICAR ), Barrackpore DR DEV RAJ NARANG Delhi Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Delhi HONORARY SECRETARY ( Alternate ) SHRI T E. PATTERSON T. E. Patterson ( India) Pvt Ltd, New Delhi SHRI D. D. DHAWAN ( Alternate ) SHRI M. S. RAI Vita Pvt Ltd, Delhi SHRI S. K. BERI (~Alternate ) DR R. R. RAO Ciba-Geigy Research Centre, Bombay SHRI M. M. MATHEWS ( Alternate ) REPRESENTATIVE Indian Institute of Chemical Biology ( CSIR), Calcutta BRIG P. D. SAKSENA ( RETD ) In personal capacity ( E-20, Saket, New Delhi ) DR SATISH KUMAR Indian Veterinary Research Institute ( ICAR ), Izatnagar DR H. S. PANDEY ( Alternate ) SHRIMATI S. SEHGAL National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi DR HART OM GUPTA ( Alternate ) BRIG S. N. SRIVASTAVA Directorate of Remount & Veterinary Services, Army Headquarters, New Delhi LT-COL J. M. IZAI ( Alternate ) SHRI M. E. THOMAS Chief Controller of Imports & Exports, New Delhi SHRIMATI P. MOHAN ( Alternate ) DR T. R. THYAGARAJAN Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Rishikesh DR S. P. SHARMA ( Alternate ) DR T. N. VAISHNAV Director of Animal Husbandry, Gujarat State, Ahmadabad SHRI G. T. PANDYA ( Alternate ) DR B. M. L. VARMAN~ Industrial Toxicology Research Centre ( CSIR ), SHRI T. PURNANANDAM, Director f Agri & Food 1 Lucknow -- Director General, IS1 ( Es-o&o Member ) Secretaq SHRI LAJINDER SINGH Deputy Director ( Agri & Food ), IS1 Laboratory Animals Husbandry and Transport Subcommittee, AFDC 24:3 Convener DR P. J. DEORA~ In personal capacity ( 341-A, Sahitya Sahawas, Bandra East, Bombay ) Members DR V. S. ALWAR Anim;iza;lfare Board ( Ministry of Agriculture ), DR S. R. CHADHA ( Alternate ) ( Continued on page 14 ) 2

7 Indian Standard CODE FOR BREEDING, CARE, MANAGEMENT AND HOUSING OF LABORATORY ANIMALS PART I LABORATORY MICE AND RATS f First Revision) 0. FOREWORD 0.1 This Indian Standard ( Part I ) ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 30 September 1981, after the draft finalized by the Live Animals Sectional Committee had been approved by the Agricultural and Food Products Division Council. 0.2 Laboratory animals bred and maintained scientifically are necessary to get comparable results in biological experiments. The present code lays down guidelines for breeding, care, management and housing of laboratory rats and mice so that large number of animals of uniform quality are available. It is hoped that this would streamline and step up facilities for pharmaceutical, pesticidal efficacy and biologically-oriented research. Rats and mice are being used extensively for biological research and in biomedical field. 0.3 This standard was first published in In this revision, areas in percentages for different sections of animal house have been incorporated and various provisions of the standard have been reviewed thoroughly and made more comprehensive based on the experience gained in the country. 0.4 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : *. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. 1. SCOPE 1.1 This code ( Part I ) prescribes optimum conditions for housing, sanitation, personnel hygiene, feeding, watering, disease control, etc, in relation to care, breeding and management of laboratory mice and rats. *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). 3

8 2. -TERMINOLOGY 2.1 Animal House - For the purpose of this standard, the animal house shall be a place where laboratory animals are scientifically -bred and/or maintained for the use of laboratory experimentation. 3. LOCATION AND HOUSING 3.1 Animal houses should be located in dry and well-drained areas free from smoke, obnoxious fumes, dust, noise and extremes of temperature and should preferably be away from the laboratories where the animals are used for experimentation. 3.2 Animal houses should have the following basic areas: a) Animal Rooms - The~animal rooms ( breeding and holding ) should occupy approximately 40 percent of the total set-up; b) Store and Dirty Area - 30 percent ( separated ) ; c) &a$-- 10 percent; d) Mechanical Plant - 5 percent; and e) Service Area ( Corridors ) - 15 percent ( giving access to all areas ). NOTE - There should be sufficient but separate accommodation for animals under experiment ( other than those which are infectious ). This area will not be accounted for in the animal house. 4. CONSTRUCTION 4.1 Walls - The walls should be fire-resistant, vermin-proof and impervious to moisture. In high altitude areas, walls should have thermal insulation. 4.2 Interior-The inner surface of the walls should be waterproof, smooth and easy to clean. 4.3 Roof - Concrete roof with suitable insulation is preferable. In case the roof is made of sheets or tiles, a false ceiling which is waterproof, temperature - and vermin-proof should be provided. 4.4 Floor - The floor shall be constructed of cement concrete or marble chips and shall be waterproof and preferably acid-proof. The floor should be free from cracks and crevices. The junctions of floor, ceiling and walls of the rooms should be covered to avoid accumulation of dirt and dust. 4

9 4.5 Doors - Rooms facing each other across a corridor should not have doors opposite to each other. The doors should be made of material which is moisture-and vermin-proof A metallic sheet may be provided at the lower portion of the doors in the case of wooden doors. Adequate latches and locking arrangement shall be provided. There should be provision of footbath near the doors, in which floor-mats soaked with disinfectant would be placed. 4.6 Windows-There should be adequate provision for windows. The construction of windows should be such that accumulation of dust is minimized. 4.7 Openings - Adequate air-exhaust provisions should be made in the animal house. The openings should be vermin-proof. Their frames should be sealed and screened. 4.8 Corridors and Cubicle There should be adequate provision of corridors in order to protect the animal rooms from direct rays of the sun, rain, heat and cold In order to minimize the risk of infection due to the frequent use of the entrance door by the personnel, a cubicle should be provided at the entrance of each block. This cubicle may also be used for changing of clothes and shoes. 4.9 Airlock for Main Entrance - It is desirable to have an airlock with double door at the main entrance of the animal house complex Light There should be adequate arrangements for lighting inside the rooms. Lighting fixtures, switches, etc, shall be so designed and constructed thatthese do not afford shelter to vermin. All the control switches should be kept, as far as possible, outside the rooms Arrangements should be made to provide periods of light and darkness in each 24 h cycle. A light period of 12 h should be given each day Ventilation and Temperature - In the case of airconditioned rooms, each animal room should have gadgets on outside wall to show the temperature and percentage humidity. The controls for lighting, airconditioning, exhaust fans, etc, should also be located outside the animal room. 5

10 In the case of non-airconditioned rooms, continuous fresh air and a common exhaust system are recommended. The air should be drawn in through a filter to avoid the suction of dirt and dust. Positive pressure should be maintained in the rooms. It is desirable to have the air thrown in from one side and drawn out from the opposite side avoiding a sudden sharp draught In the case of an airconditioned animal house, an air circulation measurement device should also be provided. The animal room temperature should be maintained at or around 24 C and the relative humidity level should be maintained between 50 and 60 percent. A ventilating system capable of giving 10 changes of 100 percent fresh air per hour is recommended Heating - In high altitude places during the most vigorous winter months, it is desirable to have a temperature control, by installing heater batteries either of electric or hot water. With zany type of heater battery, it is important to fix a thermostat in the duct to ensure that the temperature of the air fed into the room does-not fall below 22 C. 5. HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT 5.1 Racks - The rooms should have suitable racks or shelves to hold the animal cages. The racks should be fabricated of a corrosion resistant material supported by castor wheels. These should be impervious to liquid and moisture. It should be possible to clean and sanitize them easily. The lowest shelf of the rack should -be 30 cm above the ground and others should be so placed as to allow free circulation of air between cages. For breeding, growing and resting stock, cages stacked in six tiers are suitable. The topmost shelf shall be so placed that the inspection of the topmost cage is possible at any time. 5.2 Cages -The cages should be made of smooth corrosion-resistant material which does not tear off or get gnawed away by the animal and preferably have rounded corners and bottom made of a suitable noncorrosive material. Cages made of plastic materials such as fibre glass, polycarbonate and polypropylene are preferable to galvanized iron and aluminium cages, as the former are lighter, easy to clean and resistant to steam sterilization at 120 C and chemical treatment. Each cage should be provided with a strong perforated lid made of a suitable material to prevent the escape of caged animals. The lid should be provided with food hoppers and the space for keeping the water bottle. A typical cage is shown in Fig. 1. 6

11 FIG. 1 TYPICAL CAGE IS : 5781 ( Part I )

12 5.2.1 Floor Space for Rats and Mice - The size of the cages should be such so as to make available sufficient room for the movement of animals. The minimum floor space required per animal at different stages of development is shown below: Rats Mice n vv I- \ Mass in g Space Requirement Mass in g Space Requirement up to 50 up to Over 25 %: Over The maximum rat population per cage may be: Cage Size Animal Population Length 40 cm A breeding pair or a female Width -25 cm and its litter or up to 4 Height 25 cm adults The-maximum mice population per cage may be: Cage Size Animal Population Length 30 cm Breeding pair and the Width 15 cm expected litter or Height 12 cm up to 8 adults 5.3 Food Hoppers - Hoppers should be made of non:corrosive materials that can withstand sterilization and cleaning. The design should be such that the food is easily accessible to the animals and at the same time cannot be contaminated with urine and excreta. It should be large enough to contain sufficient feed for a period of not less than 48 h. 5.4 Water Supply - There should be adequate supply of drinking water free from any type of contamination. The containers should preferably be of glass with a spout of a suitable corrosion resistant material tubing. The tubes or caps used for the bottles should be made of a material which does not break easily and does not have any cutting edges. These should be large enough to contain adequate water supply for 48 h. 5.5 Trolley - A trolley made of a material capable of being cleaned and sterilized should be used inside the room for carrying food, water bottles and other requirements. There should be another trolley to collect old cages,. discarded food, etc. The size of the trolley should be such as to be negotiable between the racks. 8

13 6. BEDDING AND FEED 6.1 Bedding - Bedding should be of material non-toxic, non-edible, non-injurious to animals and which can absorb urine and other moisture of the cage and can further withstand sterilization. A nestling material is also required for breeding. Bedding shall be changed twice a week. 6.2 Feed - The feed shall conform to the requirements given in IS : 5654 ( Part I )-1970* and shall be free from Salmonella and other pathogenic organisms, scraps of meat and fish, and also from additives containing drugs, hormones, antibiotics and other substances which may create abnormal physiological conditions. When stored, the feed shall be packed in vermin-proof containers. The feed should be periodically examined for bacterial and vermin contamination. The preparation and storage of feed shall be done in separate rooms. 7. CLEANING, STERILIZATION AND WASTE DISPOSAL 7.1 Cleaning of Animal House-The animal house should have adequate sanitizing and washing facilities. Suitable detergents, disinfectants and deodorants should be used for floor cleaning. Antiseptic foot-bath shall be provided at the entry of the animal unit. 7.2 Cleanliness of Cages, Bottles, Tubes, etc - Cages ( including lids, food hoppers, etc ) should be changed and sanitized at least once a week. Bottom trays should be cleaned daily. The routine sterilization of drinking bottles and tubes should be done once a week. Autoclaving of equipment should preferably be done at 120 C for 20 min at 105 kpa ( 1.08 kgf/cmz ). Suitable disinfectants and washing soap may be used for cage washing. The washing facility should be so located as to cause least disturbance to the animals. 7.3 Waste Disposal All waste should be collected and disposed of in a safe and hygienic manner. If waste cans or bins are used, they should be made of metal or plastic, should be leak-proof and equipped with tight-fitting lids. It is desirable to keep in each room a small waste can which should have a leak-proof disposable container inside, such as bags made of thick paper or plastic materials for receiving carcasses of the animals, tissues, etc. Such bags may be collected and transferred to the larger waste-bins kept outside for prompt disposal. *Specification for feeds for laboratory animals: Part I Rats and mice. 9

14 7.3.2 Waste materials should be removed from the animal rooms at frequent intervals. If storage of waste materials prior to removal is necessary, the holding area should also be located in a place physically separate from the main animal rooms and free from flies, cockroaches, rodents and other pests. The waste materials should be finally disposed of preferably by incineration or by other methods prescribed by local municipal or civic bodies. 8. ~BREEDING 8.1 Random bred rats and mice in the strict sense of the words shall be the progeny of matings within a closed colony where each male has an equal chance of being mated with any female in the colony and vice-versa. This system shall preserve genetic variance. In small colonies, to minimize the possibility of inbreeding due to population size, special care should be exercised to prevent matings between animals whose relationship is closer than first cousins. With large colonies this may not be an important consideration. 8.2 In bred rats and mice shall be so considered only when they are the progeny of a minimum of 20 generations of strict brother-sister matings. 8.3 Colonies and strains shall be designated by appropriate symbols. 8.4 Basic data on mice and rats under normal conditions are given in Appendix A. 9. PERSONNEL 9.1 All persons recruited for work in animal houses should have a natural aptitude for handling animals and they should be given training for their particular duties before they are given independent charge of the work. 9.2 The persons required to handle animals should be of sound health and should not be suffering from infectious diseases communicable to animals or other fellow workers. Medical examination prior to recruitment and at periodical intervals should be arranged. 9.3 The worker, before entering the animal premises, should wash his hands, feet and face with soap and water. He should take a shower: where necessary. He should either completely change the street clothes with uniforms or apparel issued specifically for the purpose or at least cover his own clothes, provided they-are reasonably clean, with protective apparel. The protective apparel should consist of a cotton apron or coat which covers the body from neck to knees and arms up to elbows, a suitable cover for the head, white cloth mask which covers the nose and mouth and soft 10

15 shoes or footwear. These articles should be issued to individuals by name and should be stored when not in use in lockers or shelves where they shall not be contaminated with the clothes of others. Before the workers leave the animal house for the day, their apparel should be removed and placed in their proper place. In no case should the clothes, shoes, etc, be allowed to be taken lout of the premises. Clothing should be laundered every day. 9.4 During work time, workers should be instructed to wash their hands with soap and water as often as necessary. Individual absorbent towels or other hygienic facilities for drying hands should be available near the wash-basins. 9.5 Persons should be allotted work in such a manner that the same person handles the same batch of animals daily except in emergencies. No one, except the person allotted to a room, should be admitted into it. All duties within a room should be performed by the same individual. 9.6 No material other than those required for work should be permitted to be taken into the animal rooms. Eating food, chewing Pan or smoking in the rooms should be prohibited. Adequate provision for drinking water for the workers should be made in the corridors. Toilets for workers should be located outside the animal rooms and every time they visit the toilet rooms they should follow all the procedures required while leaving or entering the animal house. 9.7 Floor-mats soaked in a suitable disinfectant may be placed at the entrance of each block of animal rooms so that the footwear may be wiped against them before a worker enters or leaves the rooms. 10. DISEASES AND PARASITE CONTROL PROCEDURES 10.1 Adequate precautions, including quarantine, periodical inspection and preventive measures, should be enforced to prevent infection to the animals by ectoparasites or infectious disease All fresh batches of animals received should be quarantined for a period of at least two weeks ( preferably three weeks ) in separate premises before being introduced into the regular stock. Only healthy animals should -be allowed to enter the premises. IO.3 Infestation by external parasites, if it occurs, should be immediately eliminated by: (a) removal, if possible, of the infested animals themselves and (b) by locating and treating the source of infestationwith insecticides or other methods. 11

16 10.4 The principles of anaesthesia shall be practised while killing the animals and all dead animals should be immediately removed in closed containers and disposed of properly. The cause of death should be investigated and if traced, steps should be taken to prevent the spread of the infection Suitable laboratory facilities for this purpose should be provided in each animal house. Laboratory facility for detection of infection should not be located in the animal house meant for breeding animals. Persons handling pathogenic bacteria/viruses should not, in fact, be permitted to enter the breeding centre. Morbid/sick animals should be sent from the breeding centre for diagnosis and thereafter disposed of. In the case of very small animal houses, collaboration with competent laboratories may be arranged for such investigation. 11. OFFICER-IN-CHARGE OF ANIMAL HOUSE 11.1 The person actually in charge of the animal house should be a veterinarian. 12. RECORDS 12.1 Suitable records shall be maintained for breeding, mating, supply, culling, feeding and mortality. APPENDIX ( Clause 8.4 ) A BASIC NORMAL DATA ON MICE AND RATS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS Body mass Ages Mice Rats Adult mass ( g ) Mass at maturity ( g ) Mass at weaning ( g ) ( 3 weeks ) Mass at birth ( g ) Maximum life span ( years ) 14 3 Average life span ( years ) 1s 2 Age at maturity ( weeks ) 8 12 Age at weaning ( weeks ) 3 3 Age when eyes open ( days )

17 IS I 5701 ( Part I ) Mice Ruts Body physiology Body temperature ( C ) Pulse ( per min ) Respiration ( per min ) Blood Blood pressure ( mm Hg ) /90 Blood volume ( ml/kg ) Clot time ( s ) Hemoglobin ( percent ) Environmental requirements Room temp ( C ) Relative humidity ( percent ) Light hours Optimum light intensity ;:0 ( lux ) Floor space per adult 372 (sqcm) Cage space per adult (cm ) Metabolic requirements Adult metabolic reauirement ( cavk/day ) Food consumption ( g per day ) Water consumption ( ml per day ) Reproduction Breeding life ( years ) Breeding season Estrus cycle ( days ) Duration of estrus ( h ) Time of ovulation ( hr after estrus ) Gestation period ( days ) Average litter size ( No. ) Occurrence of estrus after parturition ( days ) Mating systems Maximum No. of females allowed per male ( No. ) Mummary ( No. of pairs ) - glands present 13 1 Any time 4-5 & 1 Any time _ 8-10 _ Post-partum Post-partum Pairs Pairs Trios, Trios, Harens Harens 5 5 3, 1, 1 3, 1, 1 (5) (6).

18 ( Continued from page 2 ) Members DR M. BALAWBRAHMANYAN DR BHOOP SINGH ( Alternate ) DR J. A. BARUA SHRI V. P. THAKRE ( Alternate ) DR K. R. BHARDWAJ DR D. P. BUDUK DR G. P. DAS DR D. C. BANIK ( Alternate ) DR P. K. GANGULY DR S. K. MITRA ( Alternate ) DR M. K. GOVARDHAN SHRI BALDEV SINGH GUPTA SHRI U. K. SHARMA ( Alternate ) DR S. HARIHARAN Representing Central Research Institute, Kasauli Bayer ( India ) Ltd, Thane Central Drug Research Institute ( CSIR ), Lucknow Haffkiie Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd, Bombay Sarabhai Research Centpe, Vadodara Indian Institute of Chemical Biology ( CSIR), Calcutta National Institute of Virology ( ICMR), Pune Indian Airlines, New Delhi National Institute of Nutrition ( ICMR ), Hyderabad DR V. M. KIBE Hoechest Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bombay DR S. K. DABAD GHAO ( Alternate ) DR N. B. KUPPURAJAN King Institute, Guindy, Madras DR S. M. SAMUEL JOHNSON ( Alternate ) DR SAFIA MUNSHI Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi DR S. HARIHARAN ( Alternate ) DR S. R. MUNSH~ Institute for Research in Reproduction ( ICMR ), Bombay DR S. R. SWAMY ( Alternate ) SHRI NARPAT SINGH SHRI R. TIWARI ( Alternate ) ( Bombay ) SHRI B. L. PARA~HAR ( Alternate ) Air India, Bombay Drug Research Laboratory, Vadodara SHRI B. M. PATEL ( Alternate ) _ PROF M. R. N. PRASAD Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi DR R. RADHAKRISHNAMOORTHY Central Food Technological Research Institute ( CSIR ), Mysore DR B. S. RATYA Indian Veterinary Research Institute ( ICAR ), Izatnagar DR R. R. RAO Ciba-Geigy Research Centre, Bombay SHRI M. M. MATHEWS ( Alternate ) DR K. A. REDDY Central Poultry Breeding Farm ( Ministry of Agriculture), Bombay REPRESENTATIVE Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute ( CSIR ), Barrackpore SHRI~~ATI S. SEHGAL National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi DR HARI OM GUPTA ( Alternate ) DR D. SHANKAR NARAYAN University Grants Commission, New Delhi PROF A. V. PATANKAR ( Alternate ) DR T. R. THYAGARAJAN Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Rishikesh DR B. M. L. VARMAN~ Industrial Toxicology Research Centre ( CSIR ), Lucknow. 14