American Alligator Distribution, Size, and Hole Occupancy and American Crocodile Juvenile Growth and Survival

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1 2008 Annual Assessment Update American Alligator Distribution, Size, and Hole Occupancy and American Crocodile Juvenile Growth and Survival MAP and Edited by: Kenneth G. Rice 1,Kristen Hart 1 and Frank J. Mazzotti 2 Compiled by: Brian M. Jeffery 2 Principal Investigator: H. Franklin Percival 3 Prepared for: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USGS, Florida Integrated Science Center) 2 (University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center) 3 (USGS, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit) i

2 Acknowledgements We would like to thank the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for funding this project. The University of Florida, U.S. National Park Service, and U.S. Geological Survey also provided support. This report incorporates data from studies conducted prior to MAP and we would like to acknowledge the U.S. National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, and Florida Power and Light Company for their contributions. Many biologists have assisted us in alligator and crocodile captures including J. Beauchamp, L. Brandt, M. Brien, J. Carrigan, R. Crespo, A. Daugherty, M. Denton, J. Eells, B. Hayman, L. Hord, E. Larrivee, R. Lynch, M. Rochford, S. Romañach, and A.Wolf. All appropriate endangered species, capture, access, and animal care permits were obtained and are available for review. ii

3 Michael S. Cherkiss University of Florida Sections: Crocodile Monitoring Surveys Crocodile Nesting Contributors Brian Jeffery Ikuko Fujisaki University of Florida Section: Alligator Monitoring Alligator Body Condition Alligator Hole Mapping and Occupancy iii

4 Table of Contents Acknowledgements...ii Contributors... iii Executive Summary... v Alligator... v Crocodiles... vi I. Introduction... 1 Background... 1 Objectives and Tasks... 4 II. American Alligator... 6 Alligator Abundance... 6 Monitoring... 6 Trends in Relative Alligator Abundance... 9 Alligator Body Condition Monitoring Trends in Alligator Body Condition Alligator Hole Mapping and Occupancy III. American Crocodile Introduction Crocodile Monitoring Surveys Crocodile Data Analyses Growth and Survival Crocodile Nesting IV. Quality Control and Quality Assurance A. Alligator B. Crocodile V. Format and Accessibility of Data A. Alligator B. Crocodile VI. Literature Cited Appendices Appendix 1: Alligator Survey Network Spotlight Survey Procedures Appendix 2: Standard Protocols for Monitoring American Crocodiles Database Management Appendix 3: Abbreviations of Study Areas and Survey Routes iv

5 Executive Summary At all life stages, crocodilians integrate biological impacts of hydrologic conditions (Mazzotti and Brandt 1994, Rice et al. 2005, Mazzotti 1999, Mazzotti and Cherkiss 2003). Further, crocodilians are important indicators because research has linked three key aspects of Everglades ecology to them: 1) Top predators such as crocodilians are directly dependent on prey density, especially aquatic and semi-aquatic organisms, and thereby provide a surrogate for status of many other species. 2) Drier (nests) and wetter (trails and holes) conditions created by ecosystem engineers like alligators provide habitat for plants and animals that otherwise would not be able to survive. This increases diversity and productivity of Everglades marshes (Kushlan and Kushlan 1980, Palmer and Mazzotti 2004, Campbell and Mazzotti 2004) and, therefore, alligator monitoring can indicate overall health of the marsh. 3) Distribution and abundance of crocodilians in estuaries is directly dependent on timing, amount, and location of freshwater flow (Dunson and Mazzotti 1989, Mazzotti and Dunson 1989). These species will exhibit an immediate response to changes in freshwater inputs into the estuaries. Responses of crocodilians are directly related to suitability of environmental conditions, including hydropattern. Correlations between biological responses and environmental conditions contribute to understanding of species status and trends over time. Restoration success or failure can be evaluated by comparing recent and future trends and status of crocodilian populations with historical population data and model predictions; as stated in the CERP hypotheses related to alligators and crocodiles (RECOVER 2003, sections and ). Importantly, these data can be used in an analysis designed to distinguish between effects of CERP and non-cerp events such as hurricanes or droughts. We have completed our first comprehensive analysis of Monitoring and Assessment Plan (MAP) components concerning alligators and crocodiles. This annual assessment of alligator and crocodile populations throughout the Everglades can be used as an indicator of Everglades restoration success. While the monitoring program is implemented, we are beginning to see patterns of note, including: Alligator Alligator Monitoring and Assessment Plan consists of four components designed to measure the impacts of restoration at differing time scales across the entire system: o Body condition (6 months-3 years) o Abundance (3-5 years) o Alligator hole abundance (5-7 years) o Nesting (7-10 years) System-wide, over 292 km of airboat trails and canals were surveyed for alligators in Count densities varied greatly from 0.0/km to 9.7/km. Our current survey program has sufficient power to detect a 5% change in the alligator population over 5 years. v

6 Crocodile As we learn more about alligator populations in the Everglades, our monitoring program is becoming more efficient. System-wide, we have captured approximately 2300 alligators for monitoring of alligator body condition. Condition was found to vary both temporally and spatially. Alligator hole occupancy, by helicopter surveys, is an effective indicator of alligator distribution in areas inaccessible to ground-based monitoring. Crocodile Monitoring and Assessment Plan consists of 3 components: nesting, growth, and survival of crocodiles. More than 550 km of shoreline were surveyed for crocodiles and nests in Two hundred and seventy-eight crocodiles were observed, one hundred and eleven were captured, and sixty-five were recaptures. One hundred forty-one crocodile nests were found. The 64% recapture rate for crocodiles is unprecedented in crocodilian studies and demonstrates our ability to measure growth and survival. Body condition of crocodiles will be evaluated for response to ecosystem changes since condition analysis uses the same data as growth analyses. The crocodile monitoring program is effective at detecting impacts of short term disturbances, such as changes in salinity, that may impact population responses to ecosystem restoration. Increases in nesting crocodiles in the Cape Sable/Flamingo area of Everglades National Park were correlated with plugging canals in the 1980s, suggesting that nesting is useful for monitoring responses to ecosystem restoration. Using a combination of condition, growth, survival, and nesting of crocodiles allows for monitoring response of crocodile populations at different temporal scales. vi

7 I. Introduction The Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 2000 authorized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) as a framework for structural and operational changes to the Central and Southern Florida Project that are needed to restore the South Florida ecosystem. Provisions within WRDA 2000 provide for specific authorization of an adaptive assessment and monitoring program. A Monitoring and Assessment Plan (MAP) has been developed as the primary tool to assess system-wide performance of the CERP by the REstoration, COordination and VERification (RECOVER) program. The MAP describes monitoring efforts and enhancement of scientific information and technology needed to measure responses of the South Florida ecosystem. The MAP also imparts system-wide performance measures representative of the natural and human systems found in South Florida that will be evaluated to help determine response to the success of CERP. These system-wide performance measures address responses of the South Florida ecosystem that the CERP is explicitly designed to improve, correct, or otherwise directly affect. A separate Performance Measure Documentation Report being prepared by RECOVER provides scientific, technical, and legal basis for performance measures. The 4 broad objectives of MAP are to: 1. Establish pre-cerp reference state including variability for each of the performance measures. 2. Determine status and trends in performance measures. 3. Detect unexpected responses of ecosystem to changes in stressors resulting from CERP activities. 4. Support scientific investigations designed to increase ecosystem understanding, cause-and-effect, and interpret unanticipated results. This study is intended to support the Greater Everglades (GE) Wetlands module of the MAP and is directly linked to the monitoring or research component identified as MAP Activity Numbers and The purpose of the MAP alligator and crocodile project is to develop and test methods to measure pre-cerp baseline conditions and to evaluate and assess ecological responses to ecosystem changes. Background The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was abundant in the pre-drainage Everglades. Alligators once occupied all wetland habitats in South Florida, from sinkholes and ponds in pinelands to mangrove estuaries during periods of freshwater discharge (Craighead 1968, Simmons and Ogden 1998). Nearly all aquatic life in the Everglades is affected by alligators in some way (Beard 1938). As a top predator in their ecosystem, alligators undergo an extraordinary change in body size, consuming different prey items as they grow (Mazzotti and Brandt 1994). As ecosystem engineers, alligators create trails and holes that provide aquatic refugia during the dry season and concentrate 1

8 food items for larger predators. Alligator nests provide elevated areas for nests of turtles and snakes, and for germination of plants less tolerant of flooding (Craighead 1971, Kushlan and Kushlan 1980, Enge et al. 2000). Alligator activity also keeps many small creeks in the freshwater mangrove zone, alligator holes, and areas around tree islands from becoming overgrown with vegetation. It is possible that alligator activity creates firebreaks providing protection for woody vegetation and various animal species (Craighead 1968, Simmons and Ogden 1998). Water present in holes during the dry season provides critical habitat for nesting female and juvenile alligators (Mazzotti and Brandt 1994, Kushlan and Jacobsen 1990) and provides open water necessary for alligator mating (Garrick and Lang 1975). Historically, in Everglades National Park, large alligator populations occurred in broad shallow marl prairies to the east and west of deep water habitats, and in the mangrove fringe areas. Land development and water management practices have reduced the spatial extent and changed the hydropatterns of these habitats (Mazzotti and Brandt 1994). As a result of these habitat alterations, alligators are now less numerous in prairies, rocky glades, and mangrove fringe areas. Further, canal construction has significantly altered alligator habitat. The effects of artificial habitats such as canals on alligator populations as well as creation and maintenance of alligator holes had not been studied until recently. Canals within the Everglades serve as dry season refugia for alligators throughout the greater Everglades ecosystem. Adult alligator density (especially males) is higher in canal habitats than in natural marsh interior (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission unpub. data, Morea 1999). Canals may provide suitable habitat for large alligators, but unlike alligator holes, they are not suitable for smaller alligators, smaller marsh fish, or foraging wading birds. Characteristics of alligator habitats have changed with the creation of canal systems now present in the Florida Everglades (Kushlan 1974). Restoration of pre-canal hydropatterns and ecological function in the Everglades is underway. Relationships among dry season refugia, aquatic fauna, wading birds, and alligators have been identified as key uncertainties in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1999, RECOVER 2003). Due to the alligator s ecological importance and known sensitivity to hydrology, salinity, habitat, and total system productivity, the species was chosen as an indicator for restoration assessment. A number of biological attributes (relative density, relative body condition, nesting effort, and nesting success) can be measured, standardized methods for monitoring have been developed, and historical information exists for alligator populations in the Everglades. These attributes can be used to determine ecological responses at different spatial and temporal scales, and are instrumental for constructing ecological models used to predict restoration effects. The relative abundance of alligators is expected to increase as hydrologic conditions improve in over-drained marshes and freshwater tributaries. As canals are removed, alligator density in adjacent marshes and use of alligator holes are expected to increase. As hydroperiods and depths approach natural patterns, alligator growth, body condition and nesting success should improve. 2

9 The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a primarily coastal crocodilian that inhabits parts of Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and, at the northern extent of its range, South Florida. As with other species of crocodilians, hunting (for hides, meat, collections, and fear) and habitat loss (direct, due to degradation, or both) have endangered the American crocodile throughout its range. In Florida, habitat loss, due to development supporting a rapidly growing human population along coastal areas of Palm Beach, Broward, Dade, and Monroe Counties, has been the primary factor endangering the United States population of the American crocodile. This loss of habitat principally affected the nesting range of crocodiles, restricting nesting to a small area of northeastern Florida Bay and northern Key Largo by the early 1970s (Ogden 1978, Kushlan and Mazzotti 1989). In the mid-1970s most of the remaining crocodiles (about 75% of known nests) were located in Florida Bay in Everglades National Park. When crocodiles were declared endangered in 1975 (Federal Register 40:44149) scant data were available for making informed management decisions. Field and laboratory data that were available suggested that low nest success, combined with high hatchling mortality, provided a dim prognosis for survival (Evans and Ellis 1977, Ogden 1978). Results of intensive studies conducted by the National Park Service, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission (now Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), and Florida Power and Light Company resulted in a more optimistic outlook for crocodiles in Florida (Mazzotti 1983, Moler 1992). Three actions were taken based on results of these studies and recovery efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Park Service established a crocodile sanctuary in northeastern Florida Bay in 1980, Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge was created, and Florida Power and Light Company began a long-term management and monitoring program. Currently, crocodiles face new issues Florida and Biscayne bays have undergone a number of changes that have caused a great deal of concern for the ecological health of this ecosystem. Efforts have been, and continue to be made, to improve Florida Bay and adjacent Biscayne Bay. Monitoring and research studies also have continued on crocodiles with dual purposes of assessing status of the population and evaluating ecosystem restoration efforts. As with other species of wildlife in South Florida, survival of crocodiles has been linked to regional hydrologic conditions, especially rainfall, water level, and salinity. Alternatives for improving water delivery into South Florida estuaries may change salinities, water levels, and availability of nesting habitat. Research and monitoring will be essential to ensure continued survival of an endangered species in this changing environment. Crocodiles now exist in most of the habitat that remains for them in South Florida. Most remaining habitat is currently protected in public ownership or engaged in energy production. In these areas, destruction of habitat has not been an issue. However, questions of potential modification of habitat through continued alteration of freshwater flow and curtailment of the range of crocodiles need to be addressed. Crocodiles have been found in Broward County, Biscayne Bay, and several areas between Shark River and Sanibel Island on Florida s southwest coast. However, virtually nothing is known about the population structure, distribution, and habitat use of 3

10 crocodiles in these areas. Once again we lack data for making informed management decisions. The most important factors affecting crocodiles in these locations will likely be negative impacts of projected land uses and potential positive impacts of restoration efforts. In South Florida we have the unique opportunity to integrate endangered species conservation with ecosystem restoration and management. American crocodiles thrive in healthy estuarine environments and are particularly dependent on natural freshwater deliveries. In this regard, crocodiles can be used to evaluate restoration alternatives and set success criteria for Florida and Biscayne Bay restoration efforts. Crocodiles can also be used as an indicator of the impacts of freshwater diversion caused by coastal development in Miami-Dade, Collier, and Lee Counties. Nesting, relative density, body condition and growth and survival of crocodiles can all be used to assess restoration of Everglades ecosystems. Objectives and Tasks Objectives and tasks are separated below for alligator and crocodile monitoring under MAP. Objectives for the alligator portion of this MAP project are to: 1. Design and develop a monitoring program for relative distribution, size (condition), nesting, and hole occupancy rates of the American alligator in response to CERP projects as specified in the MAP; and, 2. Monitor changes in alligator populations due to restoration over different temporal and spatial scales. There are three alligator tasks discussed in this report: 1. abundance 2. body condition 3. alligator hole mapping and occupancy. Objectives for the crocodile portion of the project are to: 1. Design and develop a monitoring program for growth and survival of crocodiles in areas that will be affected by CERP projects; and, 2. Conduct surveys for nesting, growth, and survival of crocodiles following prescribed methods (Mazzotti and Cherkiss 2003). Crocodile tasks discussed in this report are: 1. monitoring surveys 2. nesting 3. growth 4. juvenile survival 4

11 This report summarizes and presents data collected on MAP alligator and crocodile project tasks through December

12 II. American Alligator Alligator Abundance Monitoring Restoration of hydrologic patterns and ecological functions in the Everglades is now underway. Relationships among dry season refugia, aquatic fauna, wading birds, and alligators have been identified as key uncertainties in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1999). Due to the alligator s ecological importance and known sensitivity to hydrology, salinity, habitat productivity, and total system productivity, it was chosen as an indicator of restoration success in the RECOVER Monitoring and Assessment Plan. Relative distribution, relative body condition, nesting effort and success, and occupancy rates of alligator holes can be used to determine success of CERP projects at different spatial and temporal scales. The relative abundance of alligators is expected to increase as hydrologic conditions improve in over-drained marshes and freshwater tributaries. As canals are removed, densities of alligators in adjacent marshes and occupancy of alligator holes is expected to increase. As more natural hydropatterns are restored, nesting success and body condition are expected to improve. The alligator abundance component measures change in alligator relative densities (encounter rates) across the Everglades. Survey routes are in place in every compartment from ARM Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge to the estuarine rivers of Everglades National Park. In this section, we summarize our 2008 surveys. Methods.-Survey routes of estuarine rivers, freshwater canals, and marshes extending from the mangrove fringe of ENP north through WCA1 (LOX) were established in (Figure II-1, see Appendix 3 for description of abbreviations). Changes were made to survey routes in 2003, including the addition of a new canal route along L-39 in LOX (Figure II-2) and the division of survey routes into 10 km random transects based upon power analysis of past survey data (Rice and Mazzotti 2006). In 2004, two survey areas were added: the western portion of the Everglades at Big Cypress National Preserve (BICY) and WCA3B. In both of these survey areas one canal and two marsh transects were added. In addition to spotlight surveys along established routes, two random transects located off established airboat trails were surveyed through undisturbed freshwater marsh habitats. A minimum of one kilometer between marsh transects was maintained and transects did not pass within one kilometer of a canal. Canal routes, with the exception of L-39 in LOX, had only one 10 km transect selected for analysis. Marsh transects in WCA3A-TW were restricted to 6.75 and 7.0 km because of the constraints of typical dry season water levels. The ENP-L67 canal transect was limited to 8.75 km because of the removal of the levee south of the transect end point. 6

13 Spotlight surveys along routes were performed by skiff, airboat, or truck. Alligator locations were recorded using GPS (UTM WGS 84); sizes of alligators were estimated in quarter meter increments whenever possible. If size could not be estimated, animals were placed in small, medium, large or unknown size classes (Appendix 1). Environmental data, including habitat type, air and water temperature, salinity, wind speed, wave height, and spot water levels were recorded at set locations along routes. Spotlight surveys in each area were conducted twice in both spring and fall at least 14 days apart in order to achieve independent counts (Woodward and Moore 1990). Spotlight surveys were conducted following guidelines set forth in the Alligator Survey Network Spotlight Survey Protocol (Appendix 1). Results.-System-wide, 18 marsh, 10 canal, and 2 estuarine transects (total 30) were surveyed (Figure II-1) during Each route was surveyed twice in the spring and fall. Individual route results are given below. Surveys in 2008 in LOX included three routes: two marsh (LOX-M) and three canal transects (two in L-39 and one in L-40) (Figure II-2). All transects were surveyed twice in the spring and the two marsh transects were also surveyed in the fall. During spring surveys, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from in marsh transects, for the L-39 canal transect, and for the L-40 canal transects (Table II-1). Spring alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities ranged from /km in the marsh, /km in L-39, and /km in L-40 (Table II-1). For fall surveys, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from in marsh transects (Table II-2). Fall alligator (0.5m and larger) densities ranged from /km in the marsh (Table II-2). In 2008, surveys of WCA2A included one canal and two marsh transects surveyed twice in the spring and two marsh transects surveyed in the fall (Figure II-3). During spring surveys, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 6-9 in marsh transects and in canal transects (Table II-1). Spring alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities ranged from /km in the marsh and /km in the canal (Table II-1). For fall surveys, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 8-12 and densities ranged from /km in the marsh (Table II-2). In 2008, surveys of WCA3A included six marsh and three canal transects (WCA3A-HD, WCA3A-TW, and WCA3A-N41) were conducted in the spring (Figure II-4). Six marsh transects were completed in the fall (Figure II-4). During spring surveys in WCA3A- TW, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 0-5 in marsh transects and in the canal transect (Table II-1). Spring alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities in WCA3A-TW ranged from /km in the marsh and /km in the canal (Table II-1). For fall surveys in WCA3A-TW, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 1-3 in the marsh transects (Table II-2). Fall alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities in WCA3A-TW ranged from /km in the marsh (Table II-2). During spring surveys in WCA3A-HD, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 7-19 in 7

14 marsh transects and in the canal transect (Table II-1). Spring alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities in WCA3A-HD ranged from /km in the marsh and /km in the canal (Table II-1). For fall surveys in WCA3A-HD, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from in marsh transects, and densities (0.5m and larger) ranged from /km (Table II-2). During spring surveys in WCA3A-N41, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from in marsh transects and in the canal transect (Table II-1). Spring alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities in WCA3A-N41 ranged from /km in the marsh and /km in the canal (Table II-1). For fall surveys in WCA3A-N41, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 3-21 in marsh transects, and densities (0.5m and larger) ranged from /km (Table II-2). In 2008, surveys of WCA3B included one canal and two marsh transects surveyed twice in the spring and two marsh transects surveyed in the fall (Figure II-4). Spring surveys for WCA3B were postponed until June because of extreme drought conditions. During spring surveys, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 0-8 in marsh transects and 9-17 in the canal transect (Table II-1). Spring alligator (0.5 m and larger) densities ranged from /km in the marsh and /km in the canal (Table II-1). For fall surveys, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 1-6 in marsh transects, and densities (0.5m and larger) ranged from /km (Table II-2). In 2008, surveys of ENP included four marsh transects (ENP-FC and ENP-SS), two estuarine transects (ENP-EST), and one canal transect (ENP-L67), all surveyed twice in both spring and fall (Figure II-5). Spring surveys for ENP-FC were postponed until July because of extreme drought conditions. The number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 3-8 with a corresponding density range of /km (Table II-1). For fall surveys in ENP-FC, the number of alligators (0.5 m and larger) observed ranged from 3-9 with a corresponding density range of /km (Table II-2). Spring surveys for ENP-FC were postponed until July because of extreme drought conditions. During spring surveys in ENP-SS, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 0-6 with a corresponding density range of /km (Table II-1). For fall surveys in ENP-SS, the number of alligators (0.5 m and larger) observed ranged from 2-11 with a corresponding density range of /km (Table II-2). During spring surveys in ENP-EST, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 0-21 with a corresponding density range of /km (Table II-1). For fall surveys in ENP-EST, the number of alligators (0.5 m and larger) observed ranged from 6-16 with a corresponding density range of /km (Table II-2). During spring surveys in ENP-L67, the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m was with a corresponding density of /km (Table II-1). In 2008, surveys of BICY included two marsh transects (Figure II-6). During spring surveys the number of alligators observed with a total length greater than 0.5 m ranged from 9-21 and density ranged from /km in marsh transects (Table II-1). Fall 8

15 alligators (0.5 m and larger) observed ranged from 0-2 and densities ranged from /km in the marsh transect (Table II-2). Average densities of alligators larger than.25 m from the 2007 and 2008 surveys are summarized in Table II-3. Trends in Relative Alligator Abundance This task is an analysis of trends in alligator abundance for use in preparation of the RECOVER Annual Assessment Report. Methods.-We used analysis of variance to examine difference in mean observed density (animals/km) in each of 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") across areas, season (Fall and Spring), and year. If main effects were significant (α = 0.05) then Duncan s Multiple Range Test was used for individual comparison (SAS Institute 1988). Within areas, we tested for trends in count densities in each of 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") across all years, We regressed log-transformed counts of alligators in each general size class (dependent variables) on elapsed time (year) and the quadratic, elapsed time + elapsed time 2, with 2 hydrologic covariates, season (Fall and Spring) and mean measured water depth. In most alligator populations, counts increase with decreased water depth. Surveys are conducted in habitats that can be accessed during high and low water conditions, therefore, as water recedes, increased numbers of alligators are concentrated in these habitats. Consequently, a total of 4 possible models were constructed for each area/size class: ln (count) = β 0 + β 1 *time + β 2 *water depth ln (count) = β 0 + β 1 *time + β 2 *season ln (count) = β 0 + β 1 *time + β 2 *time 2 + β 3 *water depth ln (count) = β 0 + β 1 *time + β 2 *time 2 + β 3 *season LW LS QW QS Results.-The ANOVA was significant (p < ) for total populations of alligators across survey routes (p < ), season (p <0.0001), and year (p <0.0003). Counts were generally higher in canals and approached those observed in north-central Florida (Rice et al. 1999). However, counts in most natural areas were considerably less than those observed in canals or in north-central Florida. Mean counts were higher (α = 0.05) in Spring (4.24) than Fall (1.68). Mean counts for total populations were higher in 2001 (12.43) than all other years. Counts in 1999 (8.53) and 2000 (7.40) were higher than other years except for The ANOVA was significant (p < ) for adult populations of alligators across survey routes (p < ), season (p <0.0001), and year (p = 0.02). Counts were generally higher in canal and exceeded those observed in north-central Florida (Rice et al. 9

16 1999) on several areas. However, counts in some natural areas were considerably less than those observed in canals or in north-central Florida. The ANOVA was significant (p < ) for juvenile populations across all survey routes (p < ), years (p < ) and seasons (p = 0.03). Counts were higher in LOX-Marsh than all other areas (α = 0.05) but still considerably less than north-central Florida. Mean counts for juvenile populations were higher in 2001 (7.59) than all other years. Counts in 1999 (3.07) were higher than in and 2000 (2.29). Counts in were lowest with the inclusion of many of our newer survey routes. We were able to detect trends in 1 total, 5 juvenile, and 1 adult alligator populations across all areas (Tables II-7 to II-9). There was no trend detected on all other areas (Tables II-3 to II-6, Figures II-8 to II-25). For total populations, decreasing annual trends were found on BICY (-0.087, Figure II-8). Juvenile populations decreased in ENP-SS ( , Figure II-11), LOX-Marsh (-0.069, Figure II-15), WCA3AN-41 Canal (-0.048, Figure II-20), and WCA3A-TW Canal (-0.063, Figure II-22). An increasing trend in juveniles was found in WCA3B Canal (0.068, Figure II-24). A decreasing trend was detected in the adult population of BICY (-0.068, Figure II-8). However, for many of these trends, the relationship between water depth (or season) and observed density was not significant (p > 0.10). Discussion.-In general, total count densities were much lower in the Everglades than north-central Florida except for canals. Our canal counts are only conducted in the spring when adjacent marsh water depths are relatively low. As the marsh dries, animals move into the canals. However, in the natural marsh areas where animals cannot access canals during the dry season, count densities are extremely low. While the Everglades populations were probably never as dense as those in the more eutrophic waters of northcentral Florida, the densities in many current natural areas are certainly depressed. We think this is due to a combination of the natural low-nutrient state of the Everglades in combination with loss of habitat and water management practices. This is especially evident in the WCA3ATW (north of I-75) and WCA3B surveys, both areas that have extreme dry conditions during most years. The largest difference between both north-central Florida and alligator populations in the Everglades is in the juvenile size class. Historically, the Everglades probably had somewhat lower populations of juvenile alligators due to lack of nutrients which contributes to the relatively low number of eggs produced by adult females. However, hatch rates of eggs in the Everglades are relatively high and hatchling production throughout the Everglades could approach that currently found in north-central Florida or LOX-Marsh. Two causes of this difference have evidence: (1) nest flooding during certain years leading to reduced hatchling production; and, (2) decreased juvenile survival from predation and cannibalism during extreme dry periods. As water recedes below ground surface, juvenile alligators must seek refuge in areas such as alligator holes inhabited by larger alligators and other predators. Since alligators require up to 15 years to attain breeding size and all non-adult alligators are exposed to cannibalism, a single extreme drought can remove large proportions of many years production from the 10

17 population. Our densest alligator population in the Everglades, LOX-Marsh, does not have the extreme dry downs in the survey area that lead to increased predation and cannibalism and nesting is protected from most flooding by the many tree islands available for nest construction. As in surveys elsewhere for alligators, our counts were higher during low water periods in spring. Our survey routes are primarily along alligator trails. These trails dry out more slowly than the surrounding marsh due to a depression created by the passage of airboats. Therefore, counts generally increase with decreasing marsh water depths as alligators are forced into the remaining water. We found the highest counts throughout the Everglades system in That year had a dry spring which helped to concentrate alligators along trails and in canals for counting but some surface water did remain such that juveniles were not exposed to highest predation and cannibalism. Counts in the late 1990 s were also relatively high due to dry conditions. Further, inclusion of new areas (such as WCA3B) later in the study period contributed to these conclusions since these areas have low densities of alligators. Alligator Body Condition Monitoring Condition has been of interest to researchers because of its potential for assessing how crocodilians are coping with their environment (Taylor 1979, Brandt 1991). Measures of body condition can provide a measure of restoration success through an examination of alligators throughout their range in the Everglades. Further, condition can be viewed as a measure of the quality and accessibility of prey species and can provide a linkage to lower trophic levels and their success during restoration. Monitoring of condition is critical to an understanding of effects of restoration. Methods.-To determine condition of marsh alligator populations, semi-annual capture surveys were performed in the same areas as described for spotlight surveys (Figure II-7). Through 2004, alligators were only captured in the marsh and estuarine habitats. In 2005, captures of alligators in the Miami Canal and LOX-L40 also were performed. A minimum of 15 alligators greater than 1.0 m total length were captured by hand, noose or tongs in the fall and spring of each year. Total length (TL), snout-vent length (SVL), head length (HL), tail girth (TG), and weight were measured, sex was determined, and any abnormalities/deformities were noted. Alligators were tagged using Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (designated by GFC/FWC lettering) web tags or by clipping scutes to identify recaptured individuals. Geographic location, habitat characteristics, and environmental characteristics including air/water temperature, water depth, muck depth, and salinity were recorded where applicable. Data from these captures were used to assess relative body condition using a condition factor analysis (Fulton s K; Leslie 1997, Zweig 2003). In addition, blood was drawn from captured alligators in WCA2A and WCA3A in cooperation with and at the request of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC) Alligator Management Division 11

18 for their statewide effort to assess and monitor the occurrence of West Nile Virus in alligator populations. Results and Discussion.-A total of 180 alligators were captured during the spring and 157 were captured in the fall of 2008 (Figure II-7, Table II-4). Captured animals were measured and weighed, marked with web tags or scute clipped, and released at the capture location. Thirty-seven (12.3%) of the 337 captured alligators were recaptures. One hundred and fifty-four (45.7%) of the captured alligators were female and one hundred and eighty-three (54.3%) were male (Table II-4). Condition factor of captured alligators was calculated using Fulton s K as described by Zweig (2003) for each of the survey areas (Figure II-26). This analysis ranks condition from a 1 st quartile (poor condition) to a 4 th quartile (high condition). Mean condition factor for spring 2008 alligators in WCA2A, WCA3A-41, WCA3B, and ENP-SS were in the 2 nd quartile, while all other areas were in the 3 rd quartile (Table II-5). Mean condition factor for fall 2008 alligators in ENP-SS, ENP-FC, LOX, WCA2A, WCA3A-HD, WCA3A-N41, WCA3A-TW, and WCA3B were in the 2 nd quartile, while all other areas were in the 3 rd quartile (Table II-5). Average body condition for alligators surveyed in 2007 and 2008 are summarized in Table II-6. Trends in Alligator Body Condition This task is an analysis of trends in alligator body condition for use in preparation of the RECOVER Annual Assessment Report. This analysis should be considered preliminary and trends could change in both direction and magnitude in the next annual assessment. Methods.-Within areas, we tested for trends in body condition (Fulton s K; Zweig 2003) across all years, However, some areas only contained data from We regressed body condition of individual alligators (dependent variables) on elapsed time (year) and the quadratic, elapsed time + elapsed time 2, with the following covariates (SAS Institute 1988): Season Spring or Fall. As water depths decrease during spring, we would expect animals to exhibit better condition due to increased concentration of prey. As we have drier and wetter years, this could vary over time (season*year interaction). Sex Male or Female. We might expect condition of females to increase during spring (sex*season interaction) due to increased weight with production of an egg mass and increased movements by males during mating season. However, in Fall, we would not expect a difference in condition. This relationship might also change over time due to random effects of capturing animals (sex*year interaction, for example, if we caught more females later in the study by chance). SVL Animal length. Larger animals are able to exploit more habitats and choose the best habitat for maximizing condition, and eat smaller competitors. Smaller animals are forced to seek cover from predation and cannibalism. This 12

19 relationship could have changed over time due to our random captures (svl*year interaction, for example, if we captured more large animals later in the study). Results.-We were able to detect decreasing annual trends in body condition on several areas, ENP-FC (-1.06%, Figure II-27), WCA3A-N41 (-0.17%, Figure II-28), and WCA3B (-1.16%, Table II-29). There was no trend detected on all other areas (Table II- 10. Figures II-30 to II-38). The covariates explained significant variation in body condition on several areas. Females were in better condition than males on 9 areas (p sex 0.001, BICY, ENP-FC, ENP-SS, LOX-Marsh, WCA2A, WCA3AHD-Canal, WCA3A-HD, WCA3AN41, and WCA3A-TW). Larger animals were in better condition than smaller animals in 5 areas (p svl 0.005, LOX-Marsh, WCA2A, WCA3A-HD, WCA3A-N41, and WCA3A-TW). We saw higher body conditions in both spring (p season 0.035, BICY) and fall (p sex = 0.01, WCA2A, WCA3A-HD, and WCA3A-TW). Discussion.-We were unable to detect a trend in 10 areas. Our power analyses indicated that we require a minimum of 3 years to detect relatively small trends in condition. On the other areas (ENP-SS, WCA2A, WCA3A-HD, WCA3A-TW, and WCA3B), we do have sufficient power and, therefore, body condition was likely stable over this time period. In the areas where we detected a decreasing trend, we see no cause for concern at this time. The decrease could indicate temporary signals due to extended duration of high water levels (as water depth increases, prey becomes dispersed and body condition decreases) from recent weather patterns including the hurricanes of or extreme dry downs experienced in Only a continuation of monitoring in these areas will allow us to find better correlates between body condition and hydrologic variables or other causes of declines and distinguish between CERP and non-cerp effects. The covariates explained significant variation in body condition on several areas. Females were in better condition than males on 9 areas but this did not vary between seasons. Perhaps, females were able to maintain body condition through smaller movements and maintenance of a single alligator hole that concentrated prey during dry seasons. Larger animals were in better condition than smaller animals in 5 areas. Larger animals are able to choose between all available habitats and also solely occupy an alligator hole during dry seasons. Smaller animals must weigh habitat access against exposure to predators. We saw higher body conditions in both spring (BICY) and fall (WCA2A, WCA3A-HD, and WCA3A-TW). Water management certainly differs between the areas and may explain these differences. We would have expected higher conditions in spring throughout the Everglades due to concentration of prey species from lowering water depths (Dalrymple 1996). Several years of extreme dry downs recently ( ) have dried out deep water refugia within the marsh, decreasing prey availability. This 13

20 suggests that we need a better indicator of the relationship between body condition and hydrology. Season is probably too simplistic to capture this relationship. We are currently working with the EDEN project to explore these hydrologic relationships. Alligator Hole Mapping and Occupancy Occupancy The Everglades alligator is an ecosystem engineer that physically influences floral and faunal characteristics of the Everglades landscape through the construction and maintenance of small ponds (alligator holes) and associated caves (Craighead 1968). These depressions provide an aquatic refuge for other reptiles and colonization sites for plants during frequent drying events in the Everglades (Craighead 1968, Kushlan 1972, Kushlan 1974, Loftus and Eklund 1994). Although alligator holes and other dry season refugia have long been recognized as a critical component of the Everglades ecosystem (Beard 1938, Davis 1943, Craighead 1968, Mazzotti and Brandt 1994), until recently only one alligator hole had been studied in detail (Kushlan 1972). More recently, we have begun to map and characterize alligator holes in parts of remaining Everglades areas (Campbell and Mazzotti 2001, 2004; Palmer and Mazzotti 2004). However, there is still a critical gap for data about alligator holes in Shark Slough and the Rocky Glades. Methods.-Surveys for alligator hole occupancy were conducted via Standard Reconnaissance Flights (SRF) in three areas of Everglades National Park (ENP) during three days in May 2008 (May 27, 28, and 29) and two days in June (June 2, 3, and 9) (Figure II-39). Transects were flown through areas of the northeast Everglades, northeast Shark Slough, and Shark Slough. Transects were flown at 500-meter E-W intervals. Observers sat on both sides of the helicopter and it was assumed that each observer could identify an alligator hole at a distance of up to 250 meters, so that all alligator holes within a given area of flown transects would be observed. The helicopter flew at an average height of 150 feet above ground, hovering to 50 feet to get a closer look. Transects were flown in both the morning and afternoon hours. When an alligator hole was detected, the pilot navigated from the transect to the observed hole. At each observed alligator hole the following information was recorded: whether or not an alligator was present, sizes of observed alligators, and whether or not the hole still had water in it or was drying up. A GPS (Global Positioning System) location and a photograph were taken of every alligator hole. Holes were considered occupied if the alligator was in the hole or located within a short distance of the hole (e.g., in a trail or basking next to the hole). Results and Discussion.-Alligators were observed in a total of 163 holes (37% of observed alligator holes) in a surveyed area of 646 km 2 (Figure II-40, Table II-11). Occupancy ranged from 18% in Shark Slough alligator holes to 89% in the Rocky Glades. It was determined from the surveys that Rocky Glades contained the lowest density of alligator holes (0.07 holes/km 2 ) while Shark Slough contained the greatest density of alligator holes (4.79 holes/km 2 ) (Table II-11). Alligator hole density might 14

21 very well factor into why more holes were occupied in Rocky Glades than in central Shark Slough. However, water level is clearly playing a role here as well. Northeast Shark Slough and the Rocky Glades were both extremely dry at the time of the surveys, with many holes drying up and no water present in the surrounding marsh. Alligators were observed in holes with very little water. In Shark Slough, holes still contained water, and water was present in the some surrounding marsh habitats. Little or no water in the surrounding marsh would leave alligator holes as the only refuge from the sun. Another important consideration is detectability. At holes with deeper water, it was generally more difficult to detect an alligator that was present in the water because less of its body was visible. To address this factor, occupancy is best assessed while alligators are basking next to their holes. 15

22 Table II-1. Alligator survey summaries for spring Date Route Name Habitat Transect Transect Length km Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large 1/29/2008 BICY Marsh /29/2008 BICY Marsh /15/2008 BICY Marsh /15/2008 BICY Marsh m 2/7/2008 2/7/2008 3/12/2008 3/12/2008 Total nonhatchling ENP- EST River ENP- EST River ENP- EST River ENP- EST River /10/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /10/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /1/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /1/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /5/2008 ENP-L67 Canal /19/2008 ENP-L67 Canal

23 Table II-1 continued. Date Route Name Habitat Transect Transect Length km Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large 7/10/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /10/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /1/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /1/2008 ENP-SS Marsh m Total nonhatchling 3/17/2008 Lox-L39 Canal /17/2008 Lox-L39 Canal /31/2008 Lox-L39 Canal /31/2008 Lox-L39 Canal /16/2008 Lox-L40 Canal /30/2008 Lox-L40 Canal /15/2008 Lox-M Marsh /15/2008 Lox-M Marsh /29/2008 Lox-M Marsh /29/2008 Lox-M Marsh /30/2008 WCA2A Canal /14/2008 WCA2A Canal

24 Table II-1 continued. Transect Length km Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large Date Route Name Habitat Transect Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling 1/30/2008 WCA2A Marsh /30/2008 WCA2A Marsh /14/2008 WCA2A Marsh /14/2008 WCA2A Marsh m 1/30/2008 2/14/2008 1/30/2008 1/30/2008 2/14/2008 2/14/2008 1/30/2008 2/14/2008 1/30/2008 1/30/2008 Total nonhatchling WCA3A- HD Canal WCA3A- HD Canal WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- N41 Canal WCA3A- N41 Canal WCA3A- N41 Marsh WCA3A- N41 Marsh

25 Table II-1 continued. Date 2/14/2008 2/14/2008 5/1/2008 5/15/2008 5/1/2008 5/1/2008 5/15/2008 5/15/2008 Total nonhatchling Route Name Habitat Transect Transect Length km Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large 0.5 m WCA3A- N41 Marsh WCA3A- N41 Marsh WCA3A- TW Canal WCA3A- TW Canal WCA3A- TW Marsh WCA3A- TW Marsh WCA3A- TW Marsh WCA3A- TW Marsh /30/2008 WCA3B Canal /15/2008 WCA3B Canal /30/2008 WCA3B Marsh /30/2008 WCA3B Marsh /15/2008 WCA3B Marsh /15/2008 WCA3B Marsh

26 Table II-2. Alligator survey summaries for fall Date Route Name Habitat Transect Transect Length km Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large 10/8/2008 BICY Marsh /8/2008 BICY Marsh /30/2008 BICY Marsh /30/2008 BICY Marsh m Total nonhatchling 10/6/2008 ENP-EST River /6/2008 ENP-EST River /4/2008 ENP-EST River /4/2008 ENP-EST River /7/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /7/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /26/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /26/2008 ENP-FC Marsh /7/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /7/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /26/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /26/2008 ENP-SS Marsh /6/2008 Lox-M Marsh /6/2008 Lox-M Marsh

27 Table II-2 continued. Date Route Name Habitat Transect Transect Length km Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large 10/20/2008 Lox-M Marsh /20/2008 Lox-M Marsh m 10/7/2008 WCA2A Marsh /7/2008 WCA2A Marsh /21/2008 WCA2A Marsh /21/2008 WCA2A Marsh /8/ /8/ /27/ /27/ /8/ /8/ /22/ /22/2008 Total nonhatchling WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- HD Marsh WCA3A- N41 Marsh WCA3A- N41 Marsh WCA3A- N41 Marsh WCA3A- N41 Marsh

28 Table II-2 continued. Date 10/6/ /6/ /20/ /20/2008 Route Name Habitat Transect Transect Length km Alligators/ km Unknown Hatchling Small 0.5 m Small Medium Large 0.5 m WCA3A -TW Marsh WCA3A -TW Marsh WCA3A -TW Marsh WCA3A -TW Marsh Total nonhatchling 10/7/2008 WCA3B Marsh /7/2008 WCA3B Marsh /21/2008 WCA3B Marsh /21/2008 WCA3B Marsh

29 Table II-3. Alligator Monitoring and Assessment Program (MAP) average and standard error (SE) of alligators greater than 25 centimeters in total length per kilometer for each survey route. UTM Easting and UTM Northing (datum WGS R) are for the center of the survey routes. >25 cm Total Length (non-hatchling) per km UTM UTM Survey Route Easting Northing Habitat 2008 Mean SE 2007 Mean SE BICY Marsh ENP SS Marsh ENP FC Marsh ENP EST Estuary ENP L Canal LOX L Canal LOX L Canal LOX Marsh WCA 2A Marsh WCA 2A Canal WCA 3N Marsh WCA 3N Canal WCA 3TW Marsh * WCA 3TW Canal WCA 3HD Marsh WCA 3HD Canal WCA 3B Marsh WCA 3B Canal *fall only, no surveys done in the spring 23

30 Table II-4. Summary of alligator captures for 2008 in South Florida. Total length (TL), snoutvent length (SVL), head length (HL), and tail girth (TG). Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 2/1/08 WCA3A-HD No F 2/1/08 WCA3A-HD 999 No M 2/1/08 WCA3A-HD No F 2/1/08 WCA3A-HD No M 2/1/08 WCA3A-HD No F 2/6/08 WCA3A-N No M 2/6/08 WCA3A-N No M 2/6/08 WCA3A-N No M 2/6/08 WCA3A-N No M 2/6/08 WCA3A-N Yes F 2/6/08 WCA3A-N No F 2/6/08 WCA3A-N No F 2/7/08 WCA2A No M 2/7/08 WCA2A No M 2/7/08 WCA2A No M 2/7/08 WCA2A No M 2/7/08 WCA2A No F 2/7/08 WCA2A No M 2/7/08 WCA2A No F 2/7/08 WCA2A No F 2/26/08 LOX 1044 No F 2/26/08 LOX 1045 No F 24

31 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 3/25/08 LOX 1049 No M 3/25/08 LOX 1047 No F 3/25/08 LOX 1046 No M 4/24/08 LOX 1070 No M 4/24/08 LOX 1061 No M 4/24/08 LOX 1060 No F 4/24/08 LOX 254 Yes M 4/24/08 LOX 1069 No F 4/24/08 LOX 1068 No F 4/24/08 LOX 1050 No M 4/24/08 LOX 1051 No M 4/24/08 LOX 1052 No F 4/24/08 LOX 1053 No F 4/24/08 LOX 1054 No F 4/26/08 LOX 1055 No M 4/26/08 LOX 1056 No M 4/26/08 LOX 1057 No F 4/26/08 LOX 1058 No M 4/26/08 LOX 1059 No F 5/5/08 WCA2A No F 5/5/08 WCA2A No F 5/5/08 WCA2A No F 5/5/08 WCA2A No M 5/9/08 WCA3A-HD No F 25

32 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 5/9/08 WCA3A-HD No M 5/9/08 WCA3A-HD No M 5/9/08 WCA3A-HD No M 5/9/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No M 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/13/08 WCA3A-HD No F 5/14/08 WCA3A-HD Yes F 6/5/08 WCA3A-N Yes F 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 6/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No M 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No M 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 26

33 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW Yes F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No M 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/10/08 WCA3A-TW No M 6/11/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/11/08 WCA3A-TW No F 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No M 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No M 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No M 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/12/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/17/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/17/08 WCA3A-HD No M 6/17/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/17/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/17/08 WCA3A-HD No F 6/18/08 WCA2A No M 27

34 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 6/18/08 WCA2A No M 6/18/08 WCA2A No M 6/19/08 LOX 1062 No M 6/19/08 LOX 1063 No M 6/19/08 LOX 1064 No M 6/19/08 LOX 1074 No M 6/19/08 LOX 1065 No M 6/19/08 LOX 1072 No M 6/19/08 LOX 1071 No M 6/20/08 LOX 1067 No M 6/20/08 LOX 1066 No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No F 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/24/08 ENP-EST No M 6/26/08 ENP-FC No F 6/26/08 ENP-FC Yes F 6/26/08 ENP-FC No F 6/26/08 ENP-FC No M 6/26/08 ENP-FC No F 28

35 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 6/26/08 ENP-FC No M 6/26/08 ENP-FC No M 6/26/08 ENP-FC Yes F 6/26/08 ENP-FC No F 6/26/08 ENP-FC Yes M 6/26/08 ENP-FC No M 6/26/08 ENP-FC Yes M 6/26/08 ENP-FC No M 6/26/08 ENP-FC Yes M 6/26/08 ENP-FC No F 7/9/08 WCA3B Yes M 7/9/08 WCA3B No M 7/9/08 WCA3B No F 7/9/08 WCA3B No F 7/9/08 WCA3B No M 7/9/08 WCA3B No M 7/10/08 WCA3B No M 7/10/08 WCA3B No M 7/10/08 WCA3B No M 7/10/08 WCA3B No M 7/10/08 WCA3B No F 7/10/08 WCA3B No F 7/10/08 WCA3B Yes M 7/10/08 WCA3B No F 7/11/08 WCA3B No F 29

36 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No F 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY Yes M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No F 7/15/08 BICY Yes F 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No M 7/15/08 BICY No F 7/16/08 ENP-SS No F 7/16/08 ENP-SS Yes F 7/16/08 ENP-SS Yes F 7/16/08 ENP-SS Yes M 7/16/08 ENP-SS No F 7/16/08 ENP-SS No M 7/16/08 ENP-SS Yes F 7/16/08 ENP-SS No F 7/16/08 ENP-SS No M 7/16/08 ENP-SS No F 30

37 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 7/16/08 ENP-SS Yes M 7/16/08 ENP-SS No F 7/16/08 ENP-SS No F 7/17/08 ENP-EST No M 7/17/08 ENP-EST No M 7/17/08 ENP-EST No M 7/17/08 ENP-EST No F 7/17/08 ENP-EST Yes M 7/17/08 ENP-EST No M 7/17/08 ENP-SS No F 7/17/08 ENP-SS No M 7/18/08 ENP-EST No M 10/13/08 LOX 1700 No F 10/13/08 LOX 1073 No F 10/13/08 LOX 1075 No M 10/13/08 LOX 235 Yes M 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD Yes F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD 2335 No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No M 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 31

38 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD Yes F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD Yes F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/27/08 WCA3A-HD No F 10/28/08 WCA3B No F 10/28/08 WCA3B No F 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B Yes M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No F 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/28/08 WCA3B No F 10/28/08 WCA3B No F 10/28/08 WCA3B No M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No F 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No F 32

39 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW Yes M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No F 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No F 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW Yes M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No F 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No M 10/29/08 WCA3A-TW No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No F 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No F 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No F 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY No M 10/30/08 BICY Yes M 10/30/08 BICY No M 33

40 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 10/30/08 WCA3A-TW No M 10/30/08 WCA3A-TW No F 10/30/08 WCA3A-TW No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A Yes M 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No M 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/3/08 WCA2A No F 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/4/08 ENP-EST No F 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/4/08 ENP-EST Yes M 34

41 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/4/08 ENP-EST No M 11/5/08 ENP-FC No M 11/5/08 ENP-FC Yes M 11/5/08 ENP-FC No F 11/5/08 ENP-FC No F 11/5/08 ENP-FC No M 11/5/08 ENP-FC No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 35

42 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No M 11/5/08 WCA3A-N No F 11/6/08 ENP-FC No F 11/6/08 ENP-FC No F 11/6/08 ENP-FC No F 11/6/08 ENP-FC No M 11/6/08 ENP-FC No M 11/6/08 ENP-FC No F 11/6/08 ENP-FC No F 11/6/08 ENP-FC No M 11/6/08 ENP-FC No F 11/7/08 LOX 1076 No M 11/7/08 LOX 1077 No M 11/7/08 LOX 1078 No F 11/7/08 LOX 1079 No M 11/7/08 LOX 1080 No M 11/7/08 LOX 1081 No M 11/18/08 LOX 1082 No M 11/18/08 LOX 1083 No F 11/18/08 LOX 1001 Yes M 11/18/08 LOX 1084 No M 11/18/08 LOX 1085 No M 11/24/08 ENP-SS No F 11/24/08 ENP-SS Yes F 11/24/08 ENP-SS Yes M 36

43 Date Area Web tag/ Scute clip Recapture HL (cm) SVL (cm) TL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (kg) Sex 11/24/08 ENP-SS Yes F 11/24/08 ENP-SS No M 11/24/08 ENP-SS No F 11/24/08 ENP-SS No M 11/24/08 ENP-SS No F 11/24/08 ENP-SS No F 11/24/08 ENP-SS No M 11/24/08 ENP-SS No F 11/24/08 ENP-SS Yes M 11/24/08 ENP-SS No M 11/24/08 ENP-SS No F 11/25/08 ENP-EST No M 11/25/08 ENP-EST No M 11/25/08 ENP-EST No M 11/25/08 ENP-EST No M 11/25/08 ENP-EST No M 11/25/08 ENP-EST No M 11/25/08 ENP-SS No F 11/25/08 ENP-SS Yes M 37

44 Table II-5. Range of alligator condition for Fulton s K from Everglades data for October 1999 to November 2006 (n = 1755) in South Florida. This shows division of condition by quartiles. 1 st quartile: low condition 2 nd quartile: low to average condition 3 rd quartile: average to high condition 4 th quartile: high condition 38

45 Table II-6. Alligator Monitoring and Assessment Program (MAP) average and standard error (SE) of alligator body condition for each survey route. UTM Easting and UTM Northing (datum WGS R) are for the center of the survey routes. UTM UTM Survey Route Easting Northing Habitat 2008 Mean SE 2007 Mean SE BICY Marsh BICY Canal ENP SS Marsh ENP FC Marsh ENP SR Estuary LOX Canal LOX Marsh WCA 2A Marsh WCA 3N Marsh WCA 3TW Marsh * WCA 3HD Marsh WCA 3HD Canal WCA 3B Marsh * Fall captures only 39

46 Table II-7. Trends in relative density (animals/km) of non-hatchling alligators counted during night surveys throughout the Everglades of Southern Florida, Latest Mean Best Route Habitat N Trend 1 P trend R 2 P hydrology Model BICY Marsh QS 4 ENP-EST River 24 NT QS 4 ENP-FC Marsh 27 NT QS 4 ENP-SS Marsh 23 NT QS 4 ENP-L67 Canal 13 NT QS 4 LOX Marsh 26 NT <0.001 QS 4 LOX L39 Canal 18 NT QS 4 LOX L-40 Canal 28 NT LW 2 WCA2A Canal 20 NT QS 4 WCA2A Marsh 26 NT QS 4 WCA3A-HD Canal 18 NT QS 4 WCA3A-HD Marsh 24 NT QS 4 WCA3A-N41 Canal 18 NT QS 4 WCA3A-N41 Marsh 25 NT QW 3 WCA3A-TW Canal 17 NT QS 4 WCA3A-TW Marsh 24 NT QS 4 WCA3B Canal 14 NT QW 3 WCA3B Marsh 20 NT QS 4 1 No trend detected 2 Linear (year) + water depth 3 Quadratic (year +year 2 ) + water depth 4 Quadratic (year + year 2 ) + season 40

47 Table II-8. Trends in relative density (animals/km) of adult alligators counted during night surveys throughout the Everglades of Southern Florida, Latest Seasonal Route Habitat N Trend 1 P trend R 2 P hydrology Model Best BICY Marsh QS 4 ENP-EST River 24 NT QS 4 ENP-FC Marsh 27 NT QW 3 ENP-SS Marsh 23 NT QS 4 ENP-L67 Canal 13 NT QS 4 LOX Marsh 36 NT QW 3 LOX L39 Canal 18 NT QS 4 LOX L-40 Canal 28 NT LW 2 WCA2A Canal 20 NT QS 4 WCA2A Marsh 26 NT QS 4 WCA3A-HD Canal 18 NT QS 4 WCA3A-HD Marsh 24 NT QS 4 WCA3A-N41 Canal 18 NT QS 4 WCA3A-N41 Marsh 25 NT LW 2 WCA3A-TW Canal 17 NT LW 2 WCA3A-TW Marsh 24 NT QW 3 WCA3B Canal 14 NT QS 4 WCA3B Marsh 20 NT QS 4 1 No trend detected 2 Linear (year) + water depth 3 Quadratic (year +year 2 ) + water depth 4 Quadratic (year + year 2 ) + season 41

48 Table II-9. Trends in relative density (animals/km) of juvenile alligators counted during night surveys throughout the Everglades of Southern Florida, Latest Seasonal Route Habitat N Trend 1 P trend R 2 P hydrology Model Best BICY Marsh 16 NT QS 5 ENP-EST River 24 NT QS 5 ENP-FC Marsh 27 NT QW 4 ENP-SS Marsh QS 5 ENP-L67 Canal 13 NT QW 3 LOX Marsh LW 2 LOX L39 Canal 18 LOX L-40 Canal 28 WCA2A Canal 20 WCA2A Marsh 26 WCA3A-HD Canal 18 WCA3A-HD Marsh 24 WCA3A-N41 Canal 18 NT QW 4 NT QS 5 NT NT NT NT WCA3A-N41 Marsh 25 NT QW 4 WCA3A-TW Canal LS 3 WCA3A-TW Marsh 24 NT QS 5 WCA3B Canal LW 2 WCA3B Marsh 20 NT QW 4 LS 3 QS 5 QW 4 QW 4 QS 5 1 No trend detected 2 Linear (year) + water depth 3 Linear (year) + season 4 Quadratic (year +year 2 ) + water depth 5 Quadratic (year + year 2 ) + season 42

49 Table II-10. Trends in alligator body condition during captures throughout the Everglades of Southern Florida, Latest Mean Final Best Study Area Habitat N Annual Trend 1 P trend P model Model BICY Marsh 112 NT a 0.3 < Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL c *Year ENP-EST River 226 NT a Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL c *Year ENP-FC Marsh < < Year + Year 2 ENP-SS Marsh 250 NT a 0.07 < Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL c *Year Lox-M Marsh 305 NT a 0.8 < Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL c *Year Lox-L40 Canal 71 NT a Year + SVL c + Sex WCA2A Marsh 267 NT a 0.07 < Season + SVL c + Sex*Year WCA3A-HD Canal 64 NT a 0.2 < Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL c *Year WCA3A-HD Marsh 252 NT a 0.2 < Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL c *Year WCA3A-N41 Marsh < < Year + SVL c + Sex WCA3A-TW Marsh 152 NT a 0.2 < Season + SVL c + Sex + SVL*Year WCA3B Marsh Year + Year 2 a No trend detected b Snout-vent length 43

50 Table II-11. Occupancy of alligator holes observed during May 2008 SRFs in Everglades National Park (ENP). Area Date Area Surveyed (km 2 ) No. of holes observed Density in Holes/km 2 No. of holes w/gators Percent of holes w/gators Overall % NESS AM 5/27/ % NESS AM 5/28/ % NESS PM 5/27/ % NESS PM 5/28/ % Rocky Glades AM 5/29/ % Rocky Glades AM 6/2/ % Rocky Glades PM 5/29/ % Rocky Glades PM 6/2/ % Shark Slough AM 6/3/ % Shark Slough AM 6/9/ % Shark Slough PM 6/3/ % Shark Slough PM 6/9/ % 44

51 Figure II-1. Alligator spotlight survey routes in South Florida,

52 Figure II-2. A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge alligator capture and survey locations,

53 Figure II-3. Water Conservation Area 2A alligator capture and survey locations,

54 Figure II-4. Water Conservation Area 3 alligator capture and survey locations,

55 Figure II-5. Everglades National Park alligator capture and survey locations,

56 Figure II-6. Big Cypress National Preserve alligator capture and survey locations,

57 Figure II-7. South Florida alligator capture locations,

58 Adult Total Figure II-8. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in BICY-Marsh, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 52

59 Figure II-9. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in ENP-EST, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 53

60 Figure II-10. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in ENP-FC, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 54

61 Juvenile Figure II-11. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in ENP-SS, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 55

62 Figure II-12. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in ENP-L67, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 56

63 Figure II-13. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in LOX L-39, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 57

64 Figure II-14. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in LOX-L-40, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 58

65 Juvenile Figure II-15. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in LOX Marsh, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 59

66 Figure II-16. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA2A Canal, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 60

67 Figure II-17. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA2A Marsh, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 61

68 Figure II-18. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3AHD Canal, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 62

69 Figure II-19. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3AHD Marsh, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 63

70 Juvenile Figure II-20. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3AN41 Canal, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 64

71 Figure II-21. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3AN41 Marsh, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 65

72 Juvenile Figure II-22. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3ATW Canal, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 66

73 Figure II-23. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3ATW Marsh, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 67

74 Number of alligators per km Water depth (cm) Juvenile Adult Total Water Depth Linear Juvenile (Juvenile) Figure II-24. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3B Canal, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual mean count was detected. Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 68

75 Figure II-25. Mean count densities (alligators/km) for 3 TL size classes: (1) 25 cm ("total population"), (2) cm ("juvenile"), and (3) 175 cm ("adult") during nightlight survey in WCA3B Marsh, Water depths are mean measurements taken during survey. 69

76 Figure II-26. Range of Fulton s K body condition index values (mean) by alligator capture area in South Florida. Values are for captures made from October 1999 to November 2008 (n = 2321). 70

77 Fulton's K Figure II-27. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in ENP-FC, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual index of body condition was detected. 71

78 Fall 1999 Spring 2000 Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Fulton's K Figure II-28. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in WCA3AN41, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual index of body condition was detected. 72

79 Fulton's K Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Figure II-29. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in WCA3B, A trend line indicates a significant trend (p < 0.05) in the annual index of body condition was detected. 73

80 Fulton's K Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Figure II-30. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in BICY,

81 Fall 1999 Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Fulton's K Figure II-31. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in ENP-EST,

82 Fall 1999 Spring 2000 Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Fulton's K Figure II-32. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in ENP-SS,

83 Fall 1999 Spring 2000 Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Fulton's K Figure II-33. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in LOX-M,

84 Fulton's K Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Spring 2006 Spring 2007 Spring 2008 Figure II-34. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in LOX-Canal,

85 Fall 1999 Spring 2000 Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Fulton's K Figure II-35. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in WCA2A,

86 Fulton's K Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Spring 2007 Spring 2008 Figure II-36. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in WCA3AHD- Canal,

87 Fall 1999 Spring 2000 Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 Spring 2003 Fall 2003 Spring 2004 Fall 2004 Spring 2005 Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2007 Spring 2008 Fall 2008 Fulton's K Figure II-37. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in WCA3AHD,

88 Fulton's K Spring 2000 Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall 2006 Fall Spring Fall 2008 Figure II-38. Fulton s K body condition index of alligators captured in WCA3ATW,

89 Figure II-39. Transects flown in Everglades National Park for alligator hole occupancy. (Basemap is Everglades physiographic areas courtesy of ENP.) 83

90 Figure II-40. Alligator holes observed in Everglades National Park (ENP) during 2008 occupancy flights (Base-map is Everglades physiographic areas courtesy of ENP.) 84

91 III. American Crocodile Introduction Monitoring and Assessment Plan (MAP) project tasks for crocodiles can be divided into conducting monitoring surveys and evaluating and refining sampling parameters and methods. Monitoring surveys for crocodiles are designed to test the CERP hypothesis that restoration of freshwater flows to estuaries and salinity regimes will increase growth and survival of crocodiles. Determining growth and survival is dependent on finding and marking hatchling crocodiles, therefore monitoring nests is also a component of this task. For the second task, we have been analyzing existing crocodile databases (Mazzotti and Cherkiss 2003) to evaluate effectiveness of using nesting, growth, and survival of crocodiles to monitor and assess CERP projects. In this report we present results of crocodile monitoring surveys for 2008 and preliminary analyses of the effectiveness of using nesting, growth, and survival of crocodiles as indicators of ecological change. Databases from all research and monitoring programs for crocodiles conducted in Florida between 1978 and 1998 were collected as part of the Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative, funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior (Mazzotti and Cherkiss 2003). These databases contain information on nests and captured crocodiles for all three main nesting areas. Additional data on crocodile captures, nests (to 2007) were obtained from records of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the U.S. National Park Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Florida Power and Light Company, Inc. Portions of these databases were used in the analyses described below. Crocodile Monitoring Surveys Methods.-Growth and survival were determined by periodic efforts to recapture marked crocodiles. Non-hatchling crocodiles were captured by hand, tongs, net, or by wire-noose as described by Mazzotti (1983). All crocodiles captured were weighed and measured. Total length (TL) and snout-vent length (SVL) were measured for all crocodiles, and head length, tail girth, hind foot length, mass, and other body measurements were recorded occasionally. Surveys for nests were conducted by motorboat, airboat, jon boat, canoe, foot, and helicopter during June through August (hatching period). Nests were located from evidence of crocodile activity (tail drags, digging, and scraping), and successful nests were determined by presence of hatchlings or hatched shells. Hatchlings were captured by hand or tongs and marked by removing tail scutes according to a prescribed sequence (Mazzotti 1983). Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) conducted nest surveys at the Turkey Point Power Plant site, and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) conducted nest surveys at the Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge (CLNWR). Results.- Survey areas included Key Largo, Key Biscayne, and most of the accessible coastal and estuarine shoreline from Southwest Florida around the coast to the mouth of the Miami River (Figures III-1 to III-5). Core areas of high crocodile activity were surveyed once each quarter; additional capture events were conducted in these areas. Surveys resulted in 278 crocodile 85

92 observations, 63 alligator observations, and 218 unidentified eyeshines (Table III-1). One hundred eleven captures were made of 102 individual non-hatchling crocodiles during surveys of Everglades National Park, Biscayne Bay, and the southwest coast of Florida. Of the 111 captures, 65 were recaptures, 7 of which were captured twice during 2008 and one captured three times. Personnel at the Turkey Point Power Plant originally marked 4 of the recaptured crocodiles, FWC marked 4, and the University of Florida originally marked the remaining 57. One hundred forty-one confirmed nests were located in 2008, 138 of which were within ENP. In ENP One hundred thirteen (82%) were successful, 24 (17%) were depredated by raccoons and the remaining 1 (1%) failed for unknown reasons (Table III-2). One successful nest was located at Ocean reef on North Key Largo and two failed nests on Sugarloaf Key in the Florida Keys, one of which was reportedly destroyed by humans. A total of 900 hatchlings (Table III-3) were captured, of which 896 were from nests in Everglades National Park. Two hatchlings were captured from the outlying Turkey Point canals and from Ocean Reef on North Key Largo. Twenty-eight nests were reported at Turkey Point and five nests were found at CLNWR. Discussion.- During 2008, 59% of crocodiles caught were recaptures. This demonstrates the effectiveness of current surveys techniques at finding and catching crocodiles, and supports the use of growth and survival as performance measures for Everglades restoration. It should be noted that condition of crocodiles can be determined from the same morphometric measurements as growth rates. As we have shown in the alligator portion of this report, condition of crocodilians can be used to monitor responses to ecosystem changes, albeit at a faster time step than growth. Since morphometric data are already being collected we recommend that condition of crocodiles also be evaluated for its usefulness in monitoring and assessment. Crocodile Data Analyses Growth and Survival Methods- To accommodate a management-driven time frame, we used measures of absolute growth and minimal survival as indices of relative growth and survival for purposes of comparing populations of crocodiles and for setting performance measures. For growth rate, we used changes in total length (TL) for crocodiles marked as hatchlings and recaptured as juveniles (less than 1.5 m TL), because those data were available for all three nesting areas and for other populations of C. acutus. Minimal survival was defined as proportion of hatchling crocodiles known to have survived for at least 12 months. Minimum survival does not differentiate between death, dispersal, and wariness. Dispersal was described as a direct enumeration of hatchling crocodiles that survived and dispersed from a nesting area. We estimated growth rates of 546 individual juvenile crocodiles using data from original captures and most recent captures. Mean and range of growth (change in TL) were calculated for each nesting area, and differences in growth were determined by ANOVA. A Chi Square test was used to test for difference in survival and dispersal among the three nesting areas. Results - Mazzotti et al. (2007a) reported hatchling crocodiles in Florida Bay, ENP had the lowest survival and growth rates (Table III-4). Further, hatchling crocodiles had the highest 86

93 survival rate on North Key Largo but grew a little faster (with more variability) at the TP site (Table III-4). Crocodiles have dispersed from all three natal sites to other sites (Table III-4). Only two crocodile is known to have dispersed from ENP since 1986, and no crocodiles are known to have dispersed from northeastern Florida Bay to the Flamingo/Cape Sable area (or vice versa). Discussion - Because of their small size, hatchling crocodiles are vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stressors. To grow and survive, hatchling crocodiles need to find food and benign environmental conditions (or at least avoid harsh conditions) and avoid predators. Diminished growth rates and higher mortality have been associated with areas that pose greater risk to hatchling crocodiles (Mazzotti 1999). Apparent survival of hatchling crocodiles decreased with increasing distance that hatchlings had to travel to nursery habitat with suitable salinities (Moler 1992, Mazzotti 1999). Nursery habitat can be defined as areas that are protected from wind and wave action and have access to low to moderate salinity (0 20 ppt) water, abundant food, and places to hide from predators. In Florida, estuarine creeks, coves, ponds (natural and humanmade), and canals meet these habitat requirements. At CLNWR, nests are adjacent to nursery habitat. At TP, the distance from nest to nursery can range from meters to hundreds of meters. Until recently, most hatchlings in ENP were produced from shoreline nests, which can be kilometers from nursery habitat. We assume that greater dispersal distance primarily increases risk to predation, however it may also expose a hatchling crocodile to harsher environmental conditions during transit. Historical flow patterns into Florida Bay probably pushed lower salinity water farther out into the bay, reducing the distance hatchlings would have to disperse to find suitable nursery habitat. Less fresh water in Florida Bay means that crocodiles would and do grow slower and have to disperse farther. Both factors negatively impact survival. Our hypothesis is that in northeastern Florida Bay, the combination of saline water and long distance dispersal limits hatchling growth and survival. However, low apparent survival of crocodiles in ENP may be a result of greater proportion of inaccessible habitat decreasing probability of recapture. At CLNWR and TP, creation of canals not only unwittingly created nesting habitat but also resulted in a productive aquatic environment as evidenced by growth rates of crocodiles and abundant prey items at the two locations. Even so, lower growth rates at CLNWR have been associated with temporal patterns of higher salinity (Moler 1992). Richards (2003) found that C. acutus feeding in high salinity water at night and retreating to low salinity ponds during the day grew quite rapidly at the TP site. Platt and Thorbjarnarson (2000a, b) found on atolls off the coast of Belize that fresh and brackish water lagoons adjacent to nest sites provided essential nursery habitat, and Schubert et al. (1996) found that use of and dispersal to freshwater habitat was crucial for survival of hatchlings. In addition to direct effects of salinity on growth of hatchling crocodiles, in northeastern Florida Bay, ENP, lower aquatic productivity has been associated with elevated salinities caused by diversion of fresh water for drainage and flood control (Lorenz 1999). Although faster growth decreases exposure to threats of predation by noncrocodilian predators, it also shortens the time it takes to become a sub-adult crocodile and, hence, susceptible to aggression from adult crocodiles. When a population of crocodiles has good nest success and adequate hatchling survival, mortality and dispersal of older juveniles and sub-adults become the most likely factors to limit population numbers (Magnusson 1986, Abercrombie 1989). 87

94 Effectiveness of using absolute growth and minimum survival as indices of relative growth and survival is unknown but is being tested. However, these indices did allow for comparison among nesting areas and with other populations of American crocodiles, and did meet the purposes of providing information for reclassification of American crocodiles in Florida and setting performance measures (RECOVER 2003). However, these indices could be confounded by a number of factors, including differences in efforts in catching crocodiles, accessibility of crocodile habitat, and ages of crocodiles recaptured. Additional analyses of data for growth and survival are underway to evaluate results reported in this paper. Crocodile Nesting Methods.- Records of crocodile nesting were examined for number, location, habitat, and fate of nests for the period of The Gauss-Newton non-linear regression model was employed for ENP since those data were nonlinear. Linear regression models were used for TP and CLNWR nest data for the same period. Results.- The number of confirmed nests increased in both ENP (from 11 to more than double the previous record with 138), at TP (from 2 to 28, all on artificial substrates) and fluctuated between 4 and 10 at CLNWR between 1978 and 2008 (Figure III-6). Here we update trends reported Mazzotti et al. (2007b), with an increase in nesting within the core area of northeastern Florida Bay at an annual rate of 2.9% from 1978 to 2008 (P = , R 2 = ). However, most of the increase in crocodile nesting in ENP occurred in the relatively new Cape Sable/Flamingo nesting area, where nests increased from 2 in 1986 to 109 in 2008, an annual rate of 17% (P = R 2 = ). During the years prior to 2000, % of crocodile nests were located in northeastern Florida Bay. After 2000, 66% of crocodile nests were located in the Cape Sable/Flamingo nesting area (Table III-5). Mazzotti et al. (2007b) reported a change in the number of crocodiles nesting in different habitats during the period between 1978 and 2004; which we have updated through 2008, where creek nests decreased at an annual rate of -2.1% (P = , R 2 = ), nests on man-made substrates increased at an annual rate of 13.9% (P = , R 2 = ), and the number of nests on mainland and island shorelines increased at annual rates of 6.6% (P = , R 2 = ) and 4.9% (P = , R 2 = ), respectively. All nests on artificial substrates were in the Cape Sable/Flamingo area. One thousand three hundred twenty one crocodile nests were located in the three nesting areas between 1978 and Nine hundred forty-eight (73 %) were successful. In ENP 68 % of all nests (N = 776) were successful (annual success ranged %), and at CLNWR 48 % of nests (N = 195) were successful (annual success ranged %). TP had the highest rate of nest success (proportion of all nests laid that produce at least one hatchling) between 1978 and 2008 at 98 % (N = 332) and the lowest annual range ( %) in success. Predation, flooding, and desiccation caused nest failure in ENP (Mazzotti 1989, 1999), with nests on artificial substrates being prone to predation, sand nests being susceptible to desiccation and predation, and nests along creek banks being prone to flooding (Mazzotti 1989, 1999). Desiccation is rare in ENP and occurs only in years of very low rainfall (Mazzotti et al. 1988). In contrast, desiccation is hypothesized to be the main cause of nest failure at CLNWR (Moler 1992). Fire ants depredated 88

95 all three nests lost at TP. Further, nests were found outside of the three primary nesting areas in or near two Miami-Dade County Parks (nine nests, seven successful, ), a private residence on Lower Matecumbe Key (seven nests, six successful, ), and a private resort on northern Key Largo (three successful, ) and two on Sugarloaf Key in the Florida Keys (both failed) during Discussion.-Mazzotti (1989) defined optimal nesting habitat for American crocodiles as presence of elevated, well drained, nesting substrate adjacent to relatively deep (greater than 1 m), low to intermediate salinity (< 20 ppt) water, protected from effects of wind and wave action, and free from human disturbance. Man-made nesting areas along canal banks (berms) at CLNWR, East Cape Canal in ENP, and the cooling canal system at TP provide nearly ideal nesting conditions. Unwitting creation of man-made nest sites has provided good conditions for nesting, and to some extent has compensated for loss of nesting areas elsewhere in South Florida. As exemplified in South Florida, one of the most striking aspects of nesting habits of the American crocodile is a crocodile s ability to find and use artificial substrates for nesting. In fact, virtually the entire increase in crocodiles nesting in Florida is due to nesting on artificial substrates in the Cape Sable/Flamingo area of ENP on canal banks that were created more than 40 years ago (Beard 1938, Lodge 1994), and on the peat canal banks created at CLNWR, and at TP (Mazzotti 1983, Ogden 1978). Mazzotti et al. (2007a) hypothesized that plugging canals in the Cape Sable/Flamingo area in the 1980s and 1990s to reduce saltwater intrusion and retain fresh water provided more suitable habitat for nesting for the few crocodiles present in the area and for growth and survival of hatchling crocodiles. Crocodiles responded positively and the rapid increase in nesting effort and success (Figure III-6) observed in the Cape Sable/Flamingo area of ENP since 2000 may be the result of offspring of the original nesting crocodiles on artificial substrates at East Cape Canal entering the breeding population (Mazzotti et al. 2007b). This suggests that restoring salinity patterns in estuaries can have a positive effect on this indicator and that monitoring is effective at determining population responses. It also indicates that nesting effort and success should be added to growth and survival as monitoring parameters. Although the number of island nests has increased, crocodiles have not returned to nest on many of the islands where they were known to nest in the 1950s (Moore 1953, Ogden 1978). Instead, crocodiles are now nesting on islands close to the mainland in northeastern Florida Bay (Mazzotti et al. 2007b). Mazzotti et al. (2007b) hypothesized that the overall increase in nests on islands and the mainland shoreline is related to an increase in relative density of crocodiles in the area. Further, nesting islands in the southern portion of northeastern Florida Bay were probably used by crocodiles from Key Largo and were abandoned when crocodile habitat on Key Largo was developed. Islands in central Florida Bay, like islands in northern Florida Bay, are in an area where we suspect that relative densities of crocodiles have increased (Mazzotti 1999); however, it wasn t until 2007 that an increase in nesting on these islands began to occur (current study). In ENP, nest failure is the result of embryonic mortality caused by flooding or desiccation, and depredation by raccoons (Mazzotti 1989, 1999). For example, Mazzotti et al. (2007b) reported that nesting in ENP is timed to avoid the wettest and driest times of the year, and embryonic mortality is limited to years with extreme rainfall events. Further, sand nests were more susceptible to desiccation and creek nests were most susceptible to flooding; with fewer creek nests embryonic mortality has been reduced. 89

96 Depredation of crocodile nests by raccoons has only occurred in ENP, despite the presence of raccoons at both of the other nesting areas (TP and CLNWR) (Mazzotti et al. 2007a, Moler 1992). One difference among the nesting areas is that, until recently, all nesting at TP and CLNWR was on man-made substrates, whereas most nesting in ENP was on natural substrates. When nesting in ENP began on man-made substrates, it appeared as if those nests were particularly vulnerable to depredation (Mazzotti 1999). However, that trend has not continued (current study). Crocodile nesting patterns, as exhibited in Figure III-6, emphasize the importance of long-term data sets in evaluating population trends, as well as a species response to ecosystem restoration. For example, looking at numbers of crocodile nests in ENP over any given 3-5 year period could yield outlooks for the population that were either overly optimistic or pessimistic. This underscores the importance of long-term monitoring programs for federally listed species. Also, this highlights the value that relatively simple projects can have for endangered species recovery and ecosystem restoration. 90

97 Table III-1. Observations from American crocodile spotlight surveys performed during 2008, size estimates provided when an animal was not captured and a size estimate was possible. Date Clip # Recapture Observation TL (cm) SVL (cm) HL (cm) TG (cm) Mass (g) Sex Location 1/22/ No Crocodile M Taylor River 1/22/ No Crocodile F Little Madeira Bay 1/24/2008 FPL Yes Crocodile M Card Sound 1/24/2008 Eyeshine Turkey Point Canal 2/4/ Yes Crocodile M Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/ Yes Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/ No Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/2008 FWC Yes Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/2008 Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/ Yes Crocodile F C111 Canal 2/4/ Yes Crocodile F Barnes Sound 2/4/2008 Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/4/2008 Crocodile Steamboat Creek 2/4/2008 Eyeshine Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2/5/ No Crocodile M Joe Bay 2/5/ No Crocodile M Joe Bay 2/5/ No Crocodile M Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 2/5/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 2/6/2008 Crocodile Blackwater Sound 2/6/2008 Crocodile Tarpon Basin 91

98 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 2/6/2008 Eyeshine Lake Surprise 2/13/ Yes Crocodile M Flamingo Boat Basin 2/18/ Yes Crocodile F East Creek 2/18/2008 Crocodile Little Madeira Bay 2/18/ Yes Crocodile F Taylor River 2/18/2008 Eyeshine Davis Cove 2/18/2008 Eyeshine Black Betsy Key 2/18/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 2/18/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 2/20/2008 Crocodile Middle Lake 2/20/2008 Crocodile Seven Palm Lake 2/20/ Yes Crocodile M Middle Lake 2/20/2008 Eyeshine Middle Lake 2/20/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 2/20/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 2/20/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 2/25/ Yes Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile Little Sable Creek 2/25/2008 Crocodile Lake Ingraham 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/ No Crocodile M East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine Lake Ingraham 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 92

99 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 2/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 3/2/ No Crocodile M East Cape Creek 3/4/ No Crocodile M Homestead Canal 3/5/ No Crocodile F Lake Ingraham 3/5/ No Crocodile F Homestead Canal 3/6/ Yes Crocodile M Buttonwood Canal 3/6/ No Crocodile F East Cape 3/6/ No Crocodile M East Cape 3/11/ No Crocodile M West Lake 3/11/ Yes Crocodile F West Lake Pond 3/11/2008 Crocodile West Lake Pond 3/11/2008 Crocodile West Lake 3/11/2008 Alligator West Lake 3/11/2008 Crocodile West Lake 3/11/2008 Crocodile West Lake 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 3/11/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 3/13/2008 FWC Yes Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 3/13/ Yes Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 3/13/ Yes Crocodile M Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 3/13/ Yes Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 3/13/2008 FWC Yes Crocodile M Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 93

100 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 3/13/ No Crocodile M Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 3/20/ Yes Crocodile M Snapper Creek Canal 3/20/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 3/20/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 3/20/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 3/20/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 3/20/ Yes Crocodile M Snapper Creek Canal 3/20/ Yes Crocodile M Snapper Creek Canal 3/24/ No Crocodile Bear Lake 3/24/ No Crocodile Mud Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Mud Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 3/24/ No Crocodile Bear Lake 3/24/ Yes Crocodile M Mud Lake 3/24/ No Crocodile M Mud Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Bear Lake 3/24/ No Crocodile M Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 3/24/ Yes Crocodile M Mud Lake 3/24/ Yes Crocodile M Mud Lake 3/24/ Yes Crocodile F Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Coot Bay 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Coot Bay 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 94

101 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 3/24/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 3/27/2008 Alligator Long Lake 3/27/2008 Alligator Long Lake 3/27/2008 Alligator Long Lake 3/27/2008 Alligator Long Lake 3/27/2008 Alligator Long Lake 3/27/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 3/27/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 3/27/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 3/27/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 3/27/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 4/5/ Yes Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 4/22/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 4/22/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 4/22/ No Crocodile M South Miami 4/22/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 4/22/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 4/22/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 4/22/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 4/28/2008 Alligator Taylor River 4/28/2008 Eyeshine Davis Creek 4/28/2008 Eyeshine Mud Creek 4/28/2008 Eyeshine Mud Creek 4/28/2008 Eyeshine Mud Creek 4/28/2008 Eyeshine Little Madeira Bay 95

102 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 4/28/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 4/28/2008 Eyeshine Taylor River 4/30/2008 Eyeshine Terrapin Bay 4/30/2008 Eyeshine Monroe Lake 5/6/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 5/6/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 5/6/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 5/6/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 5/6/ Yes Crocodile M Snapper Creek Canal 5/6/ Yes Crocodile M Snapper Creek Canal 5/6/2008 FPL Yes Crocodile M Biscayne Bay 5/6/2008 Crocodile Matheson Hammock 5/6/2008 Eyeshine Black Point Canal 5/8/ Yes Crocodile Bear Lake 5/8/ Yes Crocodile M Bear Lake 5/8/ Yes Crocodile M Bear Lake 5/8/ Yes Crocodile Bear Lake 5/8/ No Crocodile M Bear Lake 5/8/ Yes Crocodile M Bear Lake 5/8/ Yes Crocodile M Bear Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/ No Crocodile M Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 5/8/2008 Alligator Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 96

103 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 5/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 5/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 5/8/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 5/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 5/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 5/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 5/24/2008 Crocodile Little Blackwater Sound 5/24/2008 Crocodile Blackwater Sound 5/24/2008 Crocodile Blackwater Sound 5/24/2008 Eyeshine Blackwater Sound 5/24/2008 Eyeshine Blackwater Sound 5/24/2008 Eyeshine Little Blackwater Sound 5/29/ No Crocodile M Turkey Point Canal 5/29/2008 Crocodile Card Sound 5/29/2008 Crocodile Ocean Reef Resort 5/29/2008 Eyeshine Turkey Point Canal 5/29/2008 Eyeshine Turkey Point Canal 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Crocodile Long Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator Long Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator West Lake 6/19/2008 Alligator Long Lake 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 97

104 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 6/19/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 6/23/ Yes Crocodile M Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 6/23/2008 Crocodile Card Sound 6/23/2008 FPL Yes Crocodile F Card Sound 6/23/2008 Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 6/23/2008 Crocodile Card Sound 6/23/2008 Crocodile Steamboat Creek 6/23/2008 Eyeshine C111 Canal 6/23/2008 Eyeshine Steamboat Creek 6/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 6/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape 6/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape 6/25/2008 Crocodile Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Crocodile Lake Ingraham 6/25/2008 Crocodile East Cape Canal 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Crocodile Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Crocodile Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Crocodile Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Canal 98

105 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Lake Ingraham 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Lake Ingraham 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Lake Ingraham 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Cape Sable 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Creek 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Creek 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Creek 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape Creek 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 6/25/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Clubhouse Beach 6/25/2008 Eyeshine Clubhouse Beach 7/2/ No Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/ No Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 FPL Yes Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/ Yes Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 Crocodile Card Sound Canal 7/2/ No Crocodile M Card Sound Canal 7/2/2008 Crocodile Card Sound Canal 7/2/2008 Crocodile Card Sound 7/2/2008 Crocodile Card Sound Canal 99

106 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 7/2/2008 Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 Crocodile Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 Eyeshine Card Sound 7/2/2008 Eyeshine Turkey Point Canal 7/2/2008 Eyeshine Card Sound 7/2/2008 Eyeshine Card Sound Canal 7/2/2008 Eyeshine Card Sound 8/5/2008 Eyeshine Long Sound 8/5/2008 Eyeshine Long Sound 8/11/2008 Alligator 75.0 Seven Palm Lake 8/11/2008 Alligator Middle Lake 8/11/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 8/11/2008 Eyeshine Terrapin Bay 8/13/2008 Alligator Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Alligator Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Crocodile Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 8/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 8/25/ Yes Crocodile M Little Madeira Bay 8/25/2008 Crocodile Alligator Bay 8/25/2008 Eyeshine Mud Creek 8/25/2008 Eyeshine Little Madeira Bay 8/27/2008 Crocodile West Lake 8/27/2008 Alligator West Lake 8/27/2008 Alligator West Lake 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 100

107 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 8/27/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 9/15/2008 Alligator Long Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Long Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Crocodile Long Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Crocodile Long Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Long Lake 9/15/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Crocodile Long Lake 9/15/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Alligator Long Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 9/15/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 9/16/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 9/16/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Snapper Creek Canal 9/16/ Yes Crocodile M Deering Bay 101

108 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 9/16/2008 Crocodile Black Point Canal 9/16/ Yes Crocodile M Snapper Creek Canal 9/17/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Mud Lake 9/17/ No Crocodile Bear Lake 9/17/2008 Yes Crocodile F Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Alligator Coot Bay 9/17/2008 Alligator Coot Bay 9/17/2008 Alligator Mud Lake 9/17/ No Crocodile F Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Coot Bay 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Coot Bay 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 9/17/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 9/28/2008 Yes Crocodile F East Cape Canal 9/28/2008 Crocodile East Cape 9/28/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 9/28/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 9/28/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 9/28/2008 Eyeshine Lake Ingraham 9/29/ No Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 9/29/2008 Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 9/29/2008 Crocodile Jewfish Creek 9/29/2008 Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 9/29/2008 Eyeshine Manatee Bay 9/29/2008 Eyeshine Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 102

109 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 9/30/ No Crocodile F C111 Canal 10/1/2008 Crocodile Black Point Canal 10/1/2008 Eyeshine Biscayne Bay 10/6/2008 Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 10/6/ No Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 11/4/ No Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 11/11/2008 Crocodile Taylor River 11/11/2008 Crocodile East Creek 11/11/2008 Crocodile East Creek 11/11/2008 Crocodile East Creek 11/11/2008 Crocodile East Creek 11/11/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 11/11/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 11/11/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 11/11/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 11/11/2008 Eyeshine East Creek 11/12/ Yes Crocodile F Monroe Lake 11/12/2008 Alligator Seven Palm Lake 11/12/2008 Alligator Middle Lake 11/12/2008 Crocodile Seven Palm Lake 11/12/2008 Crocodile Seven Palm Lake 11/12/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 11/12/2008 Eyeshine Madeira Bay 11/12/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 11/12/2008 Eyeshine Seven Palm Lake 11/13/2008 Alligator Joe Bay 11/13/ No Crocodile M Deering Bay 11/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 11/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 11/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 11/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 11/13/2008 Eyeshine Joe Bay 11/18/ No Crocodile M Mangrove Creek 11/18/ Yes Crocodile M The Lungs 103

110 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 11/18/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Yes Crocodile F The Lungs 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Mangrove Creek 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Long Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Mangrove Creek 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Long Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Long Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Mangrove Creek 11/18/2008 Alligator Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Alligator Long Lake 11/18/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Crocodile Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Mangrove Creek 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Long Lake 11/18/2008 Eyeshine The Lungs 11/18/2008 Eyeshine The Lungs 11/18/2008 Eyeshine Cuthbert Lake 11/25/ No Crocodile F Flamingo Boat Basin 104

111 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 12/4/ No Crocodile Joe Bay 12/4/2008 Crocodile Lake Key 12/8/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Bear Lake 12/8/ Yes Crocodile F Mud Lake 12/8/ Yes Crocodile Mud Lake 12/8/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Mud Lake 12/8/ No Crocodile F Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 12/8/ Yes Crocodile F Mud Lake 12/8/ No Crocodile F Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Crocodile Mud Lake 12/8/2008 Crocodile Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Alligator Mud Lake 12/8/ Yes Crocodile F Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Mud Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 12/8/2008 Eyeshine Bear Lake 12/15/ Yes Crocodile East Cape Canal 12/15/2008 Crocodile East Cape 12/15/ Yes Crocodile F East Cape 12/15/2008 Crocodile East Cape 12/15/2008 Crocodile Lake Ingraham 12/15/2008 Crocodile East Cape 12/15/ No Crocodile M East Cape 12/15/ Yes Crocodile M East Cape Canal 12/15/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 105

112 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 12/15/2008 Eyeshine East Cape 12/16/2008 Crocodile 25.0 Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile 25.0 Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile 25.0 Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile 25.0 Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Flamingo Boat Basin 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ No Crocodile Flamingo Boat Basin 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile 50.0 Flamingo Boat Basin 12/16/ No Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ No Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/ No Crocodile Flamingo Boat Basin 12/16/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Flamingo Boat Basin 12/16/2008 Crocodile 75.0 Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Yes Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile Flamingo Boat Basin 12/16/2008 Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Crocodile Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Eyeshine Buttonwood Canal 12/16/2008 Eyeshine Buttonwood Canal 12/18/ No Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 12/18/ No Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 12/18/2008 FWC Yes Crocodile M Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 12/18/2008 Crocodile Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 12/18/2008 Eyeshine C111 Canal 106

113 Table III-1. continued. Date Clip# Recapture Observation TL(cm) SVL(cm) HL(cm) TG(cm) Mass(g) Sex Location 12/18/2008 Eyeshine Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 12/18/2008 Eyeshine Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge 12/30/2008 Crocodile 50.0 West Lake Pond 12/30/2008 Alligator West Lake 12/30/2008 Crocodile West Lake 12/30/2008 Crocodile West Lake 12/30/2008 Crocodile West Lake 12/30/2008 Crocodile West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 12/30/2008 Eyeshine West Lake Pond 107

114 Table III-2. Summary of 2008 nesting season of the American crocodile in Everglades National Park, Biscayne Bay, and the Florida Keys. Location Final Status Location Final Status Middle Cape Sable Depredated East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful East Cape Canal Successful Middle Cape Sable Successful Homestead Canal Depredated Middle Cape Sable Successful Homestead Canal Depredated East Cape Creek Depredated Homestead Canal Depredated East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Creek Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Depredated Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Depredated Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Depredated Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Depredated Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Depredated Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Depredated Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Homestead Canal Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Depredated East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Depredated East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Depredated East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful East Cape Canal Successful Clubhouse beach Successful 108

115 Table III-2. continued. Location Clubhouse beach Clubhouse beach Clubhouse beach Bear Lake canoe trail Buttonwood Canal Buttonwood Canal Buttonwood Canal Buttonwood Canal Buttonwood canal Buttonwood canal Shark Point Club Key Club Key Mud Bay Little Madeira Beach Little Madeira beach Little Madeira beach Little Madeira Mound Little Madeira Mound Little Madeira Mound Little Madeira Mound Little Madeira Mound Little Madeira Point Black Betsy Key Eagle Key Eagle Key Lake Key South Lake Key Cocoa Beach Cocoa Beach Cocoa Beach Cocoa Beach Cocoa Beach Dead Stork Deer Key Deer Key Deer Key Deer Key Deer Key Pass Deer Key Sugarloaf Key Sugarloaf Key Ocean Reef Fate Successful Successful Successful Depredated Failed Depredated Depredated Depredated Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Depredated Depredated Depredated Depredated Depredated Depredated Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Failed Failed Successful 109

116 Table III-3. Summary of hatchling crocodiles captured during the 2008 nesting season within Everglades National Park, the Biscayne Bay Complex and the Florida Keys. Date Clip TL(cm) SVL(cm) Mass(g) Location 7/2/ Turkey Point Canal 7/2/ Turkey Point Canal 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Little Madeira Bay Point 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/3/ Deer Key 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 110

117 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 111

118 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 112

119 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/4/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 113

120 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 114

121 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 115

122 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/7/ East Cape Canal 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 116

123 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Deer Key 7/8/ Eagle Key 7/8/ Eagle Key 7/8/ Eagle Key 7/8/ Eagle Key 7/8/ Eagle Key 7/8/ Eagle Key 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 117

124 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 118

125 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ East Cape Canal 7/9/ Clubhouse Beach 7/9/ Deer Key 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 119

126 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Creek 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ Buttonwood Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 120

127 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/11/ East Cape Canal 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Little Madeira Beach Mound 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 121

128 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/12/ Cocoa Beach 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 122

129 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 123

130 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 124

131 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ East Cape Canal 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/14/ Deer Key 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 125

132 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 126

133 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ East Cape Canal 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 127

134 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Cocoa Beach 7/16/ Deer Key 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/18/ East Cape Creek 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 128

135 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Cocoa Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/19/ Clubhouse Beach 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 129

136 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 7/22/ Buttonwood Canal 7/26/ Little Madeira Beach 7/26/ Little Madeira Beach 7/26/ Deer Key 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ East Cape 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/29/ Buttonwood Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 130

137 Table III-3. continued. Date Clip TL (cm) SVL (cm) Mass (g) Location 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 7/31/ Homestead Canal 8/7/ East Cape Creek 131

138 Table III-4. Growth, survival (proportion of hatchling crocodiles that survived for at least 12 months), and dispersal (proportion of hatchling crocodiles that survived and dispersed out of their natal area) of American crocodiles in South Florida. Growth was different among the three nesting areas (ANOVA, F = 3.91; p = 0.02; LSD T-test, α = 0.05). More hatchlings survived than expected by chance at CLNWR (χ2 = 423.9; p 0.001), whereas more hatchlings dispersed from the TP site (χ2 = 7.4; p 0.025). Different superscripts indicate significant differences among growth rates (Mazzotti et al. 2007a). Minimum Juvenile Growth cm/day # (%) Survived # (%) Dispersed Location Mean (Range) for > 12 months from natal area Turkey Point 0.11 (-0.8 to 1.30) a 59 (1.71 %) 17 (29.0 %) (N = 205) (N 1 = 3452) (N 2 = 59) Crocodile Lake NWR 0.10 (0.000 to 0.42) a 94 (17.97 %) 14 (15.0 %) (N = 246) (N 1 = 523) (N 2 = 94) Everglades National Park 0.07 ( to 0.16) b 28 (1.50 %) 2 (7.0 %) (N = 93) (N 1 = 1871) (N 2 = 28) 132

139 Table III-5. Summary of locations and habitats of American crocodile nests in Everglades National Park (Mazzotti et al. 2007b). Number (%) of Known Clutches Habitat/Location < Total Creek 2 (67%) 3 (18%) 1 (8%) 2 (9%) 28 (35%) 12 (13%) 10 (7%) 10 (2%) 68 (8%) Mainland shoreline 1 (33%) 4 (23%) 5 (38%) 16 (69%) 38 (48%) 53 (58%) 91 (60%) 235 (46%) 443 (50%) Island shoreline 0 10 (59%) 7 (54%) 5 (22%) 14 (17%) 17 (19%) 28 (18%) 52 (10%) 133 (15%) Man-made (10%) 22 (15%) 213 (42%) 244 (27%) NE Florida Bay 3 (100%) 17 (100%) 13 (100%) 23 (100%) 80 (100%) 82 (90%) 119 (79%) 172 (34%) 509 (57%) Cape Sable/Flamingo (10%) 32 (21%) 338 (66%) 379 (43%) Number of clutches

140 Figure III-1. Spotlight survey routes for the American crocodile in South Florida in

141 Figure III-2. Spotlight survey routes and capture locations for the American crocodile in Biscayne Bay from

142 Crocodile Lake NWR Key Largo Figure III-3. Spotlight survey routes and capture locations for the American crocodile in North Key Largo,

143 Figure III-4. Spotlight survey routes and capture locations for the American crocodile in Florida Bay,

144 Figure III-5. Spotlight survey routes and capture locations for the American crocodile in the Flamingo Cape Sable region,

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