1 Updates in Antimicrobial Stewardship Andrew Hunter, Pharm.D., BCPS Infectious Diseases Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center
2 Disclosures No disclosures to report
3 Learning Objectives Review the importance of prudent antimicrobial prescribing Describe key components of antimicrobial stewardship programs Discuss antimicrobial stewardship strategies in inpatient and outpatient settings
4 Antimicrobial Use Majority (2/3) of antimicrobial prescriptions are written in the outpatient setting Of 184,000 ambulatory care visits in the US in , 12.6% resulted in antimicrobial prescriptions Of all outpatient antimicrobial courses in this study 30% were deemed to have been inappropriately prescribed Of all inpatient antimicrobial prescriptions up to 50% are inappropriately prescribed JAMA. 2016;315(17): Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44:
5 Lowest state: 502 per 1000 Highest state 1285 per 1000
6 Consequences of Antimicrobial Use Clin Infect Dis 2007;44: Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(6): MMWR 2014;63(9):
7 Global deaths attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. Wellcome Trust, UK Government, cover.pdf.
8 Which providers are prescribing outpatient antimicrobials? J Am Pharm Assoc. 2016;56(6):
9 What outpatient antimicrobials are being prescribed? J Am Pharm Assoc. 2016;56(6):
10 Antimicrobial Stewardship Definition Coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotic agents by promoting the selection of the optimal antibiotic drug regimen including dosing, duration of therapy, and route of administration Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:322-7.
11 Goals of Antimicrobial Stewardship Primary To optimize clinical outcomes while minimizing unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity, the selection of pathogenic organisms (such as Clostridium difficile), and the emergence of resistance Secondary To improve rates of antimicrobial susceptibilities to targeted antimicrobials To optimize resource utilization Clin Infect Dis 2007;44: Clin Infect Dis 2016;62(10):e51-77.
12 Antimicrobial Stewardship Team Multidisciplinary Approach Hospital Administration Inpatient Physician/ Hospitalist Quality & Safety Management Information System Specialist Antimicrobial Stewardship Team ID Physician ID Pharmacist Primary Medical Provider Hospital Epidemiologist Infection Prevention and Control Microbiology Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44:
13 CDC. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States,
14 Recent Antimicrobial Stewardship Legislation and Policy January 2014 VHA Directive 1031: Each VA facility must develop and implement an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) March 2014 CDC Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs September 2014 California Senate Bill 1311: Hospitals to adopt and implement ASPs September 2014 Report to the President on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance and Executive Order 13676: Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
15 Recent Antimicrobial Stewardship Legislation and Policy March 2015 National Action Plan for Combating Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria October 2015 National Quality Forum announces Advancing Antibiotic Stewardship in Healthcare Initiative November 2015 Joint Commission Proposed Medication Management Standards for ASPs (MM ) April 2016 IDSA/SHEA Guidelines on Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program May 2016 National Quality Forum publishes Antibiotic Stewardship Playbook
16 Recent Antimicrobial Stewardship Legislation and Policy June 13, 2016 CMS Publishes Proposed Standard: Antibiotic Stewardship Program Organization and Policies November 11, 2016 CDC Core Elements of Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship December 13, st Century Cares Act: Emphasizes antimicrobial drug development for serious infections in a limited patient population January 1, 2017 Joint Commission Medication Management Standards for ASPs in effect
17 CDC Core Elements of Hospital Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs Leadership Commitment: Dedicating necessary human, financial and information technology resources Accountability: Appointing a single leader responsible for program outcomes. Experience with successful programs show that a physician leader is effective Drug Expertise: Appointing a single pharmacist leader responsible for working to improve antibiotic use. Action: Implementing at least one recommended action, such as systemic evaluation of ongoing treatment need after a set period of initial treatment (i.e. antibiotic time out after 48 hours)
18 CDC Core Elements of Hospital Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs Tracking: Monitoring antibiotic prescribing and resistance patterns Reporting: Regular reporting information on antibiotic use and resistance to doctors, nurses and relevant staff Education: Educating clinicians about resistance and optimal prescribing
19 What is the current status of ASPs in the United States? Antibiotic stewardship programs in U.S. acute care hospitals: findings from the 2014 National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Annual Hospital Survey Analyzed 2014 NHSN Annual Hospital Survey to describe ASPs in U.S. acute care hospitals as defined by the CDC s Core Elements for Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs Among 4,184 U.S. hospitals, 39% reported having comprehensive ASPs that met all 7 CDC defined core elements Major teaching hospitals (54%) were more likely to have comprehensive ASPs compared to hospitals with undergraduate education or no teaching affiliation (34%) Written support (RR 7.2; 95% CI, [ ]) or salary support (RR 1.5; 95% CI, [ ]) were significantly associated with having a comprehensive ASP Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):443-9.
20 U.S. Acute Care Hospitals Implementing all CDC Core Elements by State Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):443-9.
21 Joint Commission Medication Management Standards for ASPs (MM ) Element of Performance Description 1 Leaders establish antimicrobial stewardship as an organizational priority. 2 Educate staff and licensed independent practitioners involved in antimicrobial ordering, dispensing, administration, and monitoring about antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship practices. Education occurs upon hire and annually thereafter. 3 Educate patients, and their families as needed, regarding the appropriate use of antimicrobial medications, including antibiotics. 4 The hospital has an antimicrobial stewardship multidisciplinary team that includes the following members, when available in the setting: Pharmacist(s), Infection disease physician, Infection preventionist(s)
22 Joint Commission Medication Management Standards for ASPs (MM ) Element of Performance Description 5 The hospital's antimicrobial stewardship program includes the following core elements: Leadership Commitment, Accountability, Drug Expertise, Action, Reporting, Education 6 The hospital's antimicrobial stewardship program uses organization-approved multidisciplinary protocols. 7 The hospital collects and analyzes data on its antimicrobial stewardship program, including antimicrobial prescribing and resistance patterns. 8 The hospital takes action on improvement opportunities identified in its antimicrobial stewardship program.
23 CDC Core Elements of Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Commitment: Demonstrate dedication to and accountability for optimizing antibiotic prescribing and patient safety. Action for policy and practice: Implement at least one policy or practice to improve antibiotic prescribing, assess whether it is working, and modify as needed. Tracking and reporting: Monitor antibiotic prescribing practices and offer regular feedback to clinicians, or have clinicians assess their own antibiotic prescribing practices themselves. Education and expertise: Provide educational resources to clinicians and patients on antibiotic prescribing, and ensure access to needed expertise on optimizing antibiotic prescribing. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(6):1-12.
24 Antimicrobial Stewardship Strategies Antimicrobial Restriction Preauthorization and/or Prospective Audit and Feedback Delayed Prescribing, Watchful Waiting Education of Staff and Patients Clinical Practice Guidelines Interventions for Specific Infectious Disease Syndromes Reassessment of Antimicrobial Therapy Antibiotic Time Outs IV to PO Conversion Duration of Therapy Tracking and Reporting
25 Antimicrobial Restriction Preauthorization Strategy to improve antibiotic use by requiring clinicians to get approval for certain antibiotics before they are prescribed Prospective Audit and Feedback (PAF) An intervention that engages the clinician after an antibiotic is prescribed Clin Infect Dis 2016;62(10):e51-77.
26 Preauthorization Advantages Reduces initiation of unnecessary/ inappropriate antibiotics Optimizes empiric choices and influences downstream use Prompts review of clinical data/prior cultures at the time of initiation of therapy Decreases antibiotic costs, including those due to high-cost agents Provides mechanism for rapid response to antibiotic shortages Direct control over antibiotic use PAF Advantages Can increase visibility of antimicrobial stewardship program and build collegial relationships More clinical data available for recommendations, enhancing uptake by prescribers Greater flexibility in timing of recommendations Can be done on less than daily basis if resources are limited Provides educational benefit to clinicians Prescriber autonomy maintained Can address de-escalation of antibiotics and duration of therapy Clin Infect Dis 2016;62(10):e51-77.
27 Preauthorization Disadvantages Impacts use of restricted agents only Addresses empiric use to a much greater degree than downstream use Loss of prescriber autonomy May delay therapy Effectiveness depends on skill of approver (ID Pharmacist + ID Physician vs. ID Fellows) Real-time resource intensive Potential for manipulation of system (i.e. presenting request in a biased manner to gain approval) May simply shift to other antibiotic agents and select for different antibiotic-resistance patterns PAF Disadvantages Compliance voluntary Typically labor-intensive Success depends on delivery method of feedback to prescribers Prescribers may be reluctant to change therapy if patient is doing well Identification of interventions may require information technology support and/or purchase of computerized surveillance systems May take longer to achieve reductions in targeted antibiotic use Clin Infect Dis 2016;62(10):e51-77.
28 Preauthorization and/or Prospective Audit and Feedback Preauthorization, PAF, or a combination of those strategies, implementation should serve as the foundation of a comprehensive inpatient ASP Effective implementation requires the support of hospital administration, allocation of necessary resources for a persistent effort by dedicated, well-trained personnel, and ongoing communication with clinicians IDSA/SHEA recommends preauthorization and/or prospective audit and feedback over no such interventions (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence) Clin Infect Dis 2016;62(10):e51-77.
29 Delayed Prescribing and Watchful Waiting Delayed Prescribing Used for patients with conditions that usually resolve without treatment but who can benefit from antibiotics if the conditions do not improve (e.g., acute uncomplicated sinusitis or mild acute otitis media) Watchful Waiting Providing symptomatic relief with a clear plan for follow-up if infection symptoms worsen or do not improve MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(6):1-12.
31 Education of Staff on Antimicrobial Stewardship ASP Education should include all healthcare disciplines and all levels of experience: students, trainees and practitioners Education can be provided through didactic lectures, face-to-face or distribution of pamphlets and materials Should address appropriate antibiotic prescribing, adverse drug events, and communication strategies about appropriate antibiotic prescribing Education alone can result in unsustainable improvements in antibiotic prescribing Most likely effective when combined with other ASP strategies like PAF Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;62(10):e MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(6):1-12.
32 Education of Patients on Antimicrobial Stewardship Use effective communications strategies to educate patients about when antibiotics are and are not needed Patients should be informed that antibiotic treatment for viral infections provides no benefit Explanations of when antibiotics are not needed can be combined with recommendations for symptom management Recommendations for when to seek medical care if patients worsen or do not improve Educate patients about the potential harms of antibiotic treatment Provide patient education materials through multiple venues (print, TV, social media) MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(6):1-12.
33 Patient Education
36 Facility-Specific Clinical Practice Guidelines for Common Infectious Diseases Syndromes Implementation of facility specific clinical practice guidelines can lead to substantial changes in antibiotic use Most evidence in CAP and HAP Interdisciplinary development Dissemination to providers via multiple routes: electronic and hard copies, education, peer champions, PAF, electronic order sets Improvements seen with implementation of facility specific guidelines Increase in appropriate initial therapy, use of narrower-spectrum agents, early IV to PO switch, shorter duration of treatment No adverse effects on clinical outcomes Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;62(10):e51-77.
39 MEDVAMC Antimicrobial Stewardship Resources Antibiograms and Antibiotic Guidelines CPRS Tools menu Clinical Guidelines
40 Facility-Specific Clinical Practice Guidelines for Common Infectious Diseases Syndromes Sustainability of the effects of guideline development are not well established Interventions to maintain guideline adherence over time may be needed and outcomes monitored IDSA/SHEA suggest ASPs develop facility-specific clinical practice guidelines coupled with a dissemination and implementation strategy (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence) Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;62(10):e51-77.
41 Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Use and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Specific Infectious Diseases Syndromes Sustained reduction in inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in a long-term care facility through educational intervention Developed a multidisciplinary intervention to discourage collection of urine cultures from asymptomatic patients and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) Education sessions, pocket cards and posters on ASB, reinforcement education, direct feedback to nurses and providers regarding instances of inappropriate urine collection or treatment of ASB Am J Infect Control 2008 ;36:
42 Am J Infect Control 2008 ;36:
43 Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Use and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Specific Infectious Diseases Syndromes IDSA/SHEA suggest ASPs implement interventions to improve antibiotic use and clinical outcomes that target patients with specific infectious diseases syndromes (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence) Am J Infect Control 2008 ;36: Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;62(10):e51-77.
44 Reassessment of Antimicrobial Therapy For Outpatients: Follow up on culture results, contact ASP or Infectious Diseases for assistance if needed For Inpatients: common strategies include antibiotic timeouts and antibiotic automatic stop orders at hours of therapy to prompt clinicians to re-evaluate current antibiotic therapy Clinicians may require additional prompting from pharmacy or the ASP to comply with these interventions Mechanisms should be in place to prevent unintended interruptions in therapy if automatic stop orders are used IDSA/SHEA suggest the use of strategies (eg, antibiotic time-outs, stop orders) to encourage prescribers to perform routine review of antibiotic regimens to improve antibiotic prescribing (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence) Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;62(10):e51-77.
45 Principles of an Antibiotic Time Out An Antibiotic Timeout offers the opportunity to modify therapy based upon the clinical course of the patient and preliminary and/or final microbiology results This information may lead to one of the following assessments: An infection requiring antibiotic therapy is no longer present The patient may have clinically improved to such an extent that oral antimicrobial therapy can be substituted for parenteral therapy The infecting micro-organism may be susceptible to an antibiotic that has a more narrow spectrum or activity and/or a less toxic antibiotic The infecting micro-organism may be resistant to the initially selected therapy and require therapy with an antibiotic with enhanced activity Slide courtesy of Dr. Chris Graber.
46 TheraDoc Broad Spectrum De-escalation Alert
47 Increased Use of Oral Antibiotics (IV to PO) Associated with reduced drug costs and hospital length of stay without adverse effects on efficacy or safety Avoidance of IV catheters and associated complications (infection, thrombosis) Mandatory Infectious Diseases consultation for Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy has also been shown to facilitate IV to PO conversion or discontinuation of antimicrobial therapy IV to PO conversion should be incorporated into routine pharmacy activities Automatic vs. Discussion with Provider IDSA/SHEA recommend ASPs implement programs to increase both appropriate use of oral antibiotics for initial therapy and the timely transition of patients from IV to oral antibiotics (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence) Clin Infect Dis 2016 ;62(10):e51-77.
48 MEDVAMC Antimicrobial IV to PO Conversion Criteria
50 Reducing Antibiotic Therapy to the Shortest Effective Duration Recommendations on duration of therapy can be incorporated into other ASP interventions such as during preauthorization or PAF, education or institutional guidelines IDSA/SHEA recommend that ASPs implement guidelines and strategies to reduce antibiotic therapy to the shortest effective duration (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence) Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):e51-77.
51 Tracking and Reporting Data on antimicrobial use should be shared with clinicians to inform them of their practices and monitor adherence to institutional guidelines and procedures Rates of C. difficle infection or antibiotic resistance are complex metrics that can be influenced by factors other than antimicrobial stewardship (patient population, infection control procedures, pathogen and host factors) but can be assessed as secondary outcome measures Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):e51-77.
53 MEDVAMC PACT Outpatient Antimicrobial Prescription Report Ciprofloxacin October 2016
54 Conclusion Antimicrobial Stewardship is gaining recognition outside Infectious Diseases on a local, state, national and international level Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs should be multidisciplinary and include ID Physicians, ID Pharmacists, Infection Control Practitioners and Clinical Microbiologists among others Either Preauthorization or Prospective Audit and Feedback should be utilized as the primary mode of inpatient antimicrobial restriction
55 Conclusion Education about Antimicrobial Stewardship should be provided to every clinician and trainee and include reinforcement of Antimicrobial Stewardship Program guidelines Antibiotic timeouts for re-evaluation and de-escalation of current antimicrobial therapy at hours should be encouraged of all inpatient providers Antimicrobial Utilization should be tracked and reported out as feedback to clinicians on their prescribing practices and adherence to Antimicrobial Stewardship Program guidelines
56 Things you can do to practice Antimicrobial Stewardship Observe antibiotic best practices Obtain appropriate samples for cultures and follow up results Choose antibiotics based on local antibiograms, severity and location of infection Use the most narrow antibiotic possible Use the shortest duration of treatment possible based on the indication AVOID antibiotics for inappropriate indications Upper respiratory tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria Take the time to educate your patients on when antibiotics ARE and ARE NOT needed Recommend symptomatic relief and back-up plans, Reassure your patients Seek out the personnel of the local Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at your facility
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