Herpetology Biol 119. Herpetology Introduction. Philip Bergmann. Philip Bergmann - Research. TA: Allegra Mitchell. Philip Bergmann - Personal

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1 Herpetology Biol 119 Clark University Fall 2011 Lecture: Tuesday, Thursday 9:00-10:15 in Lasry 124 Lab: Tuesday 13:25-16:10 in Lasry 150 Office hours: T 10:15-11:15 in Lasry 331 Contact: Phone: Herpetology Introduction Instructors Course syllabus What is herpetology? History Groups studied Uniting characters & an evolutionary perspective Philip Bergmann Philip Bergmann - Research Assistant Professor Clark University Simpson Postdoc University of Arizona ( ) Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Amherst (2008) M.S. (2003), B.S. (1999) University of Calgary 20 + years of experience keeping reptiles and amphibians The evolution of body shape and segmentation Functional morphology of locomotion Ecology of lizards and amphibians Primary foci are lizards and amphibians Phylogenetic perspective Philip Bergmann - Personal TA: Allegra Mitchell Canadian Parents Czech Interests: Road Biking Running Hiking Climbing Yoga Cooking Reading Photography Office: Office hours: By Appointment 5 th year MA student BA Environmental Science Research on the effects of hydration and temperature on frog behavior and locomotor performance 1

2 Textbooks Herpetology, 3 rd Ed. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians, Eastern & Central North America Grades Lecture 500 pts. 50% of grade Research Topic 150 pts. 15% Lab 350 pts. 35% TOTAL 1000 pts. 100% Lectures Midterm 1 100pts/10% Sep 19 Midterm 2 100pts/10% Oct 17 Midterm 3 100pts/10% Nov 14 Final Exam 200pts/20% TBA Midterms will not be cumulative Half of final exam will be cumulative Fill-in-the-blank, short answer, long answer Synthetic questions as well as basic knowledge Research Topic Topic Selection 10pts/1% Sep 27 Bibliography 40pts/4% Nov 1 Next Logical Step 50pts/5% Dec 6 Presentation 50pts/5% Nov 24, 26 Research a topic that you are interested in Must be closely related to herpetology Do a literature search and learn to assemble a bibliography Explore one source in depth and develop an idea for future research Present what you learned about your topic to the class Laboratory Lab Exam 1 100pts/10% Oct 8 Lab Exam 2 100pts/10% Nov 19 Lab Activities 100pts/10% Ongoing Course participation 50pts/ 5% Ongoing Field Trips Westboro WMA Sep 15 Sunday Mus. Comp. Zool. Oct 20 Sunday All trips are mandatory 2

3 Class schedule In syllabus Lists topics and relevant chapters Late assignments Not accepted Missed exams/trips Must be made up Must have documented excuse Plagiarism Copying, cheating, not citing sources DON T DO IT! Herpetology Introduction Instructors Course syllabus What is herpetology? History Groups studied Uniting characters & an evolutionary perspective What is Herpetology? Herpetology = the study of crawling things ΕΡΠΕΤΟΝ Greek for crawling thing Herps comprise two groups: These are grouped together historically and because of some biological similarities Do not comprise a natural/monophyletic group. Elaphe longissima Religions contrasting opinions Religions contrasting opinions Carolus Linnaeus nomenclature Systema Naturae Did not distinguish amphibians and reptiles foul and loathsome A Molon 3

4 Body temperature varies during the course of a day is used to control body temperature Dipsosaurus dorsalis Ectotherms Performance/ physiological function vary with Important to maintain near body temp for survival Pough et al. 2004: Fig. 1-6 Pough et al. 2004: Fig. 1-8 Ectotherms Amphibians and reptiles use ~3% of energy of a size-matched mammal Also have lower than mammals Herps are ectothermic However: Ectothermy is an Fishes are also ectotherms Other tetrapods also exist mammals, technically birds Herps form a paraphyletic group More on this next lecture Pough et al. 2004: Fig. 1-7 Amphibians Amphibians (Amphibians) Extant species form a monophyletic group teeth crown growing from the base a structure involved in hearing Smooth, scale-less skin allows, permeable to water and gases egg prone to desiccation, like the skin Lissamphibia (Amphibians) Short ribs do not wrap around the body Simplification of the skull fusion and loss of many bones Pough et al 2004, Fig 2-5 Pough et al. Fig 2-6b, Kardong & Zalisko Fig

5 Reptiles /Reptilia? A paraphyletic group (more on this next lecture) Monophyletic if dinosaurs and birds are included Have epidermal scales, often Adaptations to drier environments and an Evolutionary Perspective Lissamphibia Tetrapoda Amniota Reptilia? Photos PJB, KP Bergmann Pough et al. 2004: Fig. 2-1 Lissamphibia: ~5,500 total species, three clades: Salamanders and newts ~520 species Generalized morphology Frogs and toads ~4,800 species Short body specialized for jumping Caecelians ~170 species Very elongate bodies Turtles ~315 species Protective shell Crocs, alligators, caimans 23 species All are threatened Archosaurs, related to birds Photos KP Bergmann, Pough et al. Fig 3-8 Photos PJB Tuatara 2 extant species in New Zealand Once cosmopolitan and diverse Outgroup to Squamata (more later) (~7800 spp) Snakes ~3150 species All elongate & limbless Many venomous Lizards (paraphyletic) ~5080 species Very diverse Snakes nested within 168 species Elongate, fossorial Photos PJB, Pough et al. Fig

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