1 MDR Enterobacteriaceae in community acquired infections Dr.Asad A. Khan FRCPC Consultant, Division of Infectious Diseases Tawam Hospital Al Ain, UAE
2 Introduction Case presentation Epidemiology Objectives Raising awareness about CA-MDRO Clinical impact of CA-MDRO
3 Family Enterobactericeae Important Genus/species include E.coli Enterobacter Klebsiella Morganella Proteus Salmonella Serratia Etc.
4 Family Enterobactericeae These organisms are widespread in nature. Natural habitat for many medically significant members of this family is in the lower GI tract. They also colonize the orophayrnx of alcoholics, diabetics and hospitalized patients. Vaginal colonization in postmenopausal women and those who use diaphragms and/or spermicidal agents.
5 The ISSUE Rising incidence for Community acquired MDR Enterobactericeae infection. Rising incidence of ESBL gram E.coli and Klebsiella. Increased morbidity, mortality, need for hospitalization and increasing cost.
6 Case 50 year old with PMHx. Of dentist underwent prostate Bx. He received Prophylaxis with Levofloxacin 1.5 hours prior to the procedure. He was admitted 2 days later to ICU with high grade fever and hypotension with impression of sepsis Was started empirically on Meropenem.
7 BC grew ESBL E.coli Case Cont. Couple of days later he had B/L pulmonary infiltrate and pleural effusion. DDs was fluid overload, pulmonary infiltrate secondary to sepsis or Hospital acquired pneumonia. Stayed in ICU for 4 days and other 5 days on floor. DC in stable condition back to home.
8 Epidemiology ESBL producing gram-negative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) at Almana General Hospital, Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period August 2003 to October urinary gram-negative isolates for the presence of ESBL. E. coli 9.6% K. pneumoniae 11.3% Enterobacter species 10.14% P. aeruginosa isolates 2.97% Saudi Med J Jun;26(6):956-9.
9 Epidemiology ESBL- producing Enterobacteriaceae among patients in the United Arab Emirates, at Al Qasimi Hospital. 130 Enterobacteriaceae comprising of Escherichia coli (n = 83), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 45) and Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 2) was studied. 41% were identified as having ESBL phenotype. Med Princ Pract. 2008;17(1):32-6.
10 Epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamaseproducing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the United Arab Emirates 662 Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae samples were collected from three UAE hospitals between January and December % samples were identified as ESBL producers Majority of the strains 199 (87%) expressed the CTX- M-15 gene SHV-28 gene was detected in 29 (13%) of the strains. Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(2): Epub 2011 Jan 20.
11 Epidemiology ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood culture, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period between January December tested a total of 601 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae. 15.8% of the isolates were ESBL producers. 48.4% were Klebsiella pneumoniae. followed by 15.8% of both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterobacter cloacae. Saudi Med J Jan;27(1):37-40.
12 Fecal carriage ESBL producing bacteria in a community in KSA 716 fecal samples (505 healthy, 211 community patient) 12.7% isolates were ESBL producers 95.6% of these isolates were ESBL producers. 4.4 % were Klebsiella No statistical difference between healthy individuals and patients. Kader AA, East Mediterr Health J (6)
13 Risk factors for community-onset bacteremia due to ESBL producing E. coli Health care associated infection urinary catheter use recent antimicrobial use, mainly fluroquinolones and cephalosporins 75 case patients (79%) werfound to have been exposed to 1 of them, 34 (36%) to 2 6 (20%) to 3; 20 (21%) were not exposed to any of them CID 2010:50 (1 January) Rodrı guez-ban o et al
14 Epidemiology Risk factors for community-onset bacteremia due to ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae 25/33 were classified as HCAI corticosteroid use p <.009 percutaneous tube p <.01 prior receipt of antibiotics p<.01 Microb Drug Resist Jun;17(2):267-73
15 Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia Prospective epidemiological monitoring, including all patients admitted for CAP, from 01/01/2002 until 31/12/2004 (over 3 years) in a 16 bed French ICU. CAP was defined by the presence of symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection along with two of the following signs: fever (>38.3 C) or hypothermia ( 36 C), Leukocytosis or leukopenia new infiltrates on chest X-ray, patient not hospitalized. Boyer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:120
16 EnCAP was confirmed if Enterobacter was isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural effusion or Blood cultures Boyer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:120
17 Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia 134 patients were admitted to medical ICU microbiologically-documented severe CAP. Ten patients (7.5%) had EnCAP. Empirical antimicrobial therapy did not differ significantly between the two groups For EnCAP, empirical therapy was appropriate in only 20% of patients compared to 97% in other CAP (P <.01) Boyer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:120
18 Clinical improvement was delayed 2 additional days between the initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy and subsequent definitive appropriate antimicrobial therapy (p < 0.01) Increase length of mechanical ventialtion and ICU stay Boyer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:120
19 All patients in the EnCAP group were classified retrospectively as HCAP as prior hospitalization within the preceding 12 months. All patients were living at home but one was considered as a home care patient since he received intravenous therapy at home Boyer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:120
20 HCAP criteria, and particularly history of previous hospital admission, should be systematically and thoroughly investigated at the time of admission of such patients. Boyer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:120
21 HCAI criteria comprised one of the following Admission from a nursing home or other long-term nursing care facility; Receiving outpatient haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or infusion therapy Requiring regular visits to a hospital-based clinic; prior hospitalization within the preceding 12 months
22 Case 2 23 year old unmarried Indian female was admitted to hospital with high grade fever. She recently came back from India. Gives hx. Of having diarrhea and abd. pain at India. On admission Temp. was 39 0 celsius. BP 110/70, mild abd. tenderness, rest of PE was unremarkable.
23 Case 2 cont. BC grew Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi, sensitive to Ciprofloxacin Was started on Cipro. Defervesced in 4 days and was discharged home in stable condition to complete 10 days of Cipro. Was re-admitted 10 days later again with high grade fever and BC again was + ve for Salmonella enterica, serovar typhi.
24 Case 2 cont. The organism was again sensitive to Ciprofloxacin but resistant to Nalidixic acid and Ceftriaxone She was started on Azithromycin 10mg/kg/day for 7 days. The hospital course was non complicated. Stayed asymptomatic on f/u at one and three months.
25 Treatment Randomized Controlled Comparison of Ofloxacin, Azithromycin, and an Ofloxacin-Azithromycin Combination for Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant and Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Typhoid Fever. Azithromycin is superior to Ofloxacin or Ofloxacin/Azithromycin combination for MDR Salmonella in terms of fever resolution, earlier hospital discharge, failure and clearance of fecal cultures. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Mar. 2007, p
26 Treatment In ciprofloxacin-susceptible S. enterica isolates, nalidixic acid resistance has been proposed as an indicator that infection with such a strain may not respond to fluroquinolone treatment.
27 Case # 3 72 year old male admitted 10/8/10 at referring hospital as a case of NSTEMI complicated by pulmonary edema and sepsis. Required mechanical ventilation, pressor support and antibiotics. Transferred to Tawam on 27/8/10. Improved on treatment. Extubated two days after arrival at Tawam. Sputum culture from admission grew carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae. Blood and urine cultures were negative. Significantly, two weeks prior to his presentation at Kalba Hospital, the patient underwent a TURP and UGI endoscopy procedure in India. Details from that hospitalization are not available for review.
28 Case # 4 26 yrs old Iranian male was admitted on 4/9/10 to the ICU with high fever and acute respiratory failure with a new diagnosis of AML. Was intubated and started on broad spectrum Abs. Has pulmonary infiltrate which was felt to be leukemic infiltrate. Resp. culture showed normal resp. flora. Improved with hydroxurea and pharesis and was extubated.
29 Case 4 cont. Readmitted to ICU 2 days later in sepsis. BC grew MRSA and sputum culture later grew MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. Patient died few days later inspite of full supportive measures and broad spectrum anitibiotic coverage. This patient was in a room next to the earlier described patient with NDM1 KP
30 Case 3 & 4 Both patients were infected by NDM1 K.pneumoniae. Both strains were 100% identical on PGFE and ERIC PCR.
31 These two cases highlight the presence of NDM1 KP in Al Ain It also shows that these organisms can spread if there is any breach in Infection control practice.
32 NDM-1 producers are likely to become highly prevalent in future. It is possible that the dissemination of the NDM-1 gene will mirror the spread of the CTX-M-15 gene, and that thousands of South Asian people may be carriers of multidrug- or pan-resistant E. coli isolates expressing the NDM-1 gene in their faecal flora J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66:
33 One of the major risk is hospitalization in Indian subcontinent. There is contamination of urban water. Fecal colonization of population from or visiting the area of high incidence is fairly possible It is matter of time when we will see more infections like UTI and diarrhea in the community.
34 What need to be done? WHO 2000 comprehensive recommendations for curbing antibiotic resistance national surveillance programmes Rigorous infection control policies banning of non-prescribed antibiotics prudent antibiotic usage in hospitals increased international collaboration
35 Summary A thorough medical hx. is very important that should include travel, hospitalization in last 12 months, recent use of Abx. and contact with health care services either at home or clinics. Prudent use of Antibiotics The rising concern is NDM1 producers which is going to effect the whole world keeping in view the amount of international travel.
Dr Vivien CHUANG Associate Consultant Infection Control Branch, Centre for Health Protection/ Infectious Disease Control and Training Center, Hospital Authority NDM-1, which stands for New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1
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