Key words: Campylobacter, diarrhea, MIC, drug resistance, erythromycin

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1 Key words: Campylobacter, diarrhea, MIC, drug resistance, erythromycin

2 Table 1 Detection rate of Campylobacter from stool samples taken from sporadic diarrheic patients

3 Table 2 Detection rates of Campylobacter in 16 to 30 year old patients Table 3 Distribution of MICs for 127 C. jejuni and 8 C. coli strains isolated in human stools from 2001 to 2003 in Japan GM. gentamicin ; EM, erythromycin ; CPFX, ciprofloxacin ; TC, tetracycline

4 Table 4 Resistant rates of four antimicrobaial agents to C. jejuni and C. coli Table 5 Resistant rates of two antimicrobial agents to C. jejuni isolates between the periods of January 2001-June 2002 and July 2002-December 2003

5 Table 6 Erythromycin susceptibility to C. jejuni and C. coli using the agar dilution, Etest, and disk diffusion tests

6 isolated from animal ; Approved standard- second edition. MS 31-A 2: NCCLS, Wayne, 2002 ; p ) National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing ; fourteenth informational supplement. M100-S14: NCCLS, Wayne, 2004 ; p ) Nachamkin I: Campylobacter and Arcobacter. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, 1) Skirrow MB: Campylobacter enteritis: A "new" disease. Br Med J 1977 ; 2: J: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997 ; 41: ) Gaudreau C, Gilbert H: Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from humans in 1998 to 2001 in Montreal, Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003 ; 47: ) Krausse R, Ullmann U: In vitro activities of new fluoroquinolones against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates obtained from humans in 1980 to 1982 and 1997 to Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003 ; 47: ) Gupta A, Nelson JM, Barrett TJ, Tauxe RV, Rossiter SP, Friedman CR, et al.: Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains, United States, Emerg Infect Dis 2004 ; 10: ) Linton D, Lawson AJ, Owen RJ, Stanley J: PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples. J Clin Microbiol 1997 ; 35: ) Fermer C, Engvall EO: Specific PCR identification and differentiation of the thermophilic Campylobacters, Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. J Clin Microbiol 1999 ; 37: ) National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology 7 th edition. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1999 ; p ) Huang MB, Baker CN, Banerjee S, Tenover FC: 3) Aarestrup FM, Nielsen EM, Madsen M, Engberg Accuracy of the E Test for determining antimicrobial susceptibilities of staphylococci, enterococci, Campylobacter jejuni, and Gram-negative bacteria resistant to antimicrobial agents. J Clin Microbiol 1992 ; 30: ) Altekruse SF, Stern NJ, Fields PI, Swerdlow DL: Campylobacter jejuni-an emerging foodborne pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 1999 ; 5: ) Gillespie IA, O' Brien SJ, Frost JA, Adak GK, Horby P, Swan AV, et al.: A case-case comparison of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni infection: A tool for generating hypotheses. Emerg Infect Dis 2002 ; 8: ) Ishihara K, Kira T, Ogikubo K, Morioka A, Kojima A, Tanaka-Kijima M, et al.: Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter isolated from food-producing animals farms ( ): results from the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Program. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2004 ; 24: ) Gaudreau C, Gilbert H: Comparison of disc diffusion and agar dilution methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J Antimicrob mother 1997 ; 39: Che-

7 Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Human Diarrheic Samples Sadao TAKAYAMA1), Sachiko SATAKE2) & Kanako ISHIHARA3) Isesaki Municipal Hospital 1) School of Health Sciences, Gunma 2) University National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, 3) Forestry and Fisheries One hundred forty-seven Campylobacter were isolated using 3,204 samples taken from sporadic diarrheic patients from January 2001 to December The detection rate of Campylobacter in 16 to 30 year old patients (12.9%, 83/641) was significantly higher than that in patients less than16 years of age, 5%, (29/1,155)(p< 0.001) and more than 30 years of age, 2.5% (35/1,408) (p < 0.001), respectively. The highest detection rate was obtained from the stool of males in the 16 to 30 year old range during the months from May to August, 26% (32/123). If the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint for resistance of gentamicin (GM), erythromycin (EM), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), tetracycline (TC) were defined would be 0.0%, 0.0%, 22.0%, 42.8% in C. jejuni, 0.0%, 62.5%, 62.5%, 87.5% in C. coli, respectively. All the Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to GM. Three of the 8 C. coli isolates were multi-resistant in EM, CPFX, and TC. Five highly EM resistant strains with an MIC zone around the EM disk ; 7 susceptible strains with an MIC of less than 24mm to 36mm and revealed a good correlation with the Etest method and the agar dilution method. Between the two time periods of January 2001-June 2002 and July 2002-December 2003, the resistant rate of CPFX in C. jejuni decreased from 27.5% to 15.5%, however, that was not significant decrease (p= 0.133).

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