n Algemene resep wat gebruik kan word vir die A general recipe for raising hand-reared lambs: grootmaak van hanslammers is:

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3 stelsel word ooie in n kampie geplaas waar hulle rustig kan lam en by hulle lammers bly totdat hulle sterk genoeg is (± 2 3 weke), waarna hulle dan in groter troppe gevoeg kan word. Verkieslik nie meer as 10 ooie per halwe hektaar kampie. Indien daar te veel ooie per oppervlakte is, steel ooie mekaar se lammers (veral ooie wat self naby lam is) wat tot groter lamverliese kan lei. Elke ooi wat lam (en haar lammers) kry dieselfde verf nommer. n Afsonderlike kleur kan gebruik word vir een, twee en drielinge. Al wat die arbeider doen is om drie keer per dag tussen die ooie te loop en te sorg dat die bokkie wat afgedwaal het by sy maatjie kom en toe te sien dat die ooi hom laat drink. Drielinge verg spesiale aandag en voeding en kan as volg hanteer word: a) Sonder drieling ooie af in heel klein kampies of hokkies vir een week. b) Aangesien daar nie plek is vir drie bokkies om tegelyk te drink nie, veroorsaak drielinge gewoonlik die probleem dat die swakste een altyd weggedruk word. Indien drie by die ooi gelos word, kan sy hulle suksesvol groot maak mits sy baie goeie kos kry of die derde bokkie kan afgevat word onder die volgende stelsel: As dit moontlik is om van n drieling ooi een af te vat en aan n eenling ooi wat dieselfde tyd gelam het, te sit, is dit voordelig. So n eenling ooi sal in n klein plekkie (hok) gesit moet word om die bokkie te vat. Vryf die aangee bokkie se rug goed in die ooi se agterkant sodat dit die ma se reuk kry. Bietjie geduld gaan maak dat die bokkie beter uitgroei as n drieling. c) Maak die derde bokkie hans groot met n bottel of aan n melkbok. Laasgenoemde werk uitstekend en n goeie melkbok kan tot vier lammers gelyk baie goed groot maak met n afhok stelsel. period, appears to be the appropriate method for the future, particularly when large numbers are dealt with. In this system ewes are placed in a small camp where they can lamb peacefully and stay with their lambs until they are strong enough (± 2 3 weeks), after which they can be added to larger flocks. Preferably no more than 10 ewes per half a hectare camp. If there are too many ewes per surface area, ewes steal one another s lambs (especially ewes that are close to lambing), leading to greater lamb losses. Every ewe that lambs (and her lambs) gets the same paint number. A separate colour can be used for singles, twins and triplets. The labourer walks among the ewes three times a day and makes sure that a stray lamb is put with its partner and to see that the ewe allows it to suckle. Triplets require special attention and feeding and can be dealt with as follows: a) Isolate triplet ewes in very small camps or pens for one week. b) As there is not enough room for three lambs to suckle at the same time, triplets usually result in the weakest one always being pushed aside. If three are left with the ewe, she can raise them successfully provided she gets very good feeding or the third lamb can be removed under the following system: It would be beneficial if one of the triplets is removed and allocated to a singleton that was born at the same time. Such a singleton s ewe must be put into a small pen to take the lamb. Rub the adopted lamb s back well against the ewe s hindquarters so that it assumes the mother s odour. A little patience will result in this lamb growing up better than a triplet. c) Hand rear the third lamb by bottle or with a milk goat. The latter works very well and a good milk goat can successfully raise up to four lambs simultaneously in an enclosed system. 8 8 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

4 n Algemene resep wat gebruik kan word vir die grootmaak van hanslammers is: 1 liter volroom koeimelk 250ml room 1 x eiergeel (dit is belangrik dat dit net die geel is die wit veroorsaak diarree) 1 lepel glukosepoeier Vir hierdie algemene resep, word daar aanbeveel dat die kalwers en lammers 10 15% van hul liggaamsmassa per dag kry bv. n kalf wat 10kg weeg moet 1 liter per dag kry, opgedeel in 4 6 voedings van ml per voeding. Die hoeveelheid glukosepoeier moet aangepas word by die kondisie van die kalf of lam. Swak kalwers of lammers sal bietjie meer glukosepoeier benodig. In sterker diere kan te veel gelukospoeier lei tot diarree. By die gebruik van die algemene resep of enige ander van die melkvervangers is die volgende baie belangrik: n Vars mengsel moet daagliks aangemaak word en in die yskas gebêre word. Die nodige hoeveelheid vir die spesifieke voeding moet warm gemaak word tot liggaamstemperatuur. Dit kan gedoen word deur die bottel met melk binne in n houer met kookwater te plaas. Toets dan die temperatuur op die agterkant van die hand soos wat n mens vir babas sou doen. Die bottels en spene moet na elke voeding ontsmet word middels vir die gebruik by babas kan gebruik word. Dit is belangrik dat die bottels en spene goed uitgespoel moet word voor hergebruik. In die eerste paar weke van die lammers of kalwers se lewe mag dit nodig wees om hulle te stimuleer om te ontlas en te urineer. Dit word gedoen deur n wattebolletjie nat te maak met lou warm water en dan onder die stertjie of oor die skede te vee. A general recipe for raising hand-reared lambs: 1 litre full cream cow s milk 250 ml cream 1 x egg yolk (it is important to use only the yolk the albumin causes diarrhoea) 1 spoon glucose powder For this general recipe it is recommended that the calves and lambs take in 10 15% of their body mass per day. For example, a calf weighing 10 kg must get 1 litre per day, divided into 4 6 feeds of ml per feed. The amount of glucose powder must be adjusted to the condition of the calf or lamb. Weak calves or lambs will need a little more glucose powder. In stronger animals too much glucose powder can cause diarrhoea. When using the general recipe or any other of the milk substitutes, the following is most important: A fresh mixture must be made every day and stored in the fridge. The required amount for the specific feed must be warmed to body temperature. This can be done by placing the bottle of milk into a container with boiling water. Test the temperature on the back of the hand as for babies. The bottles and teats must be disinfected after every feed use the products for babies. It is essential that the bottles and teats must be well rinsed before re-using. In the first few weeks of the lambs or calves lives it may be necessary to stimulate them to defecate and urinate. Do this by dampening a ball of cotton wool with lukewarm water and then wiping it under the tail or over the sheath. Kontrolelys vir lamtyd 60ml vervangbare plastiese spuite Antibiotika Betadine of soortgelyke steriliseermiddel vir sterilisasie van toerusting Jodium Steriele smeermiddel om lammers mee uit te haal Rubberbuis Handskoene Maagbuis Gereedskap en toerusting 2 Kort toue of kabeltjies 1 Bababottel ±300 ml met tiet 1 Emmer en seep Rekkies vir kastrasie en stert afsit en tang Handdoeke Check list for lambing period 60 ml disposable plastic syringes Antibiotics Betadine or similar disinfectant for sterilising equipment Iodine Sterile lubricant to take lambs out Rubber tube Gloves Stomach tube Tools and equipment 2 short pieces of string or small cables 1 baby bottle ± 300 ml with teat 1 bucket and soap Elastic bands for castration and cutting tails and pair of pliers Towels B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

5 Infrarooi verhittingslamp Plastiek moue Lam uittrekker Skêre Ander: Register van geboorterekords, teelrekords en lamdatums. Bevrore bies (in vrieskas) Infrared heating lamp Plastic sleeves Lamb extractor Scissors Other Register of birth records, breeding records and lambing dates Frozen colostrum (in freezer) Voeding by bokke Bokke onder ekstensiewe toestande, is afhanklik van die natuurlike veldweiding om voldoende stowwe te voorsien. Dit is die goedkoopste bron van voedsel vir herkouers. Die gebrek aan voedsaamheid en hoeveelheid voedsel, word toegeskryf aan groeistadium van die dier en die weiding en die klimaat. Basiese beginsels van voeding Die bok is n herkouer, hulle het dus vier mae, waarvan die eerste die rumen is en die laaste, die abomasum. Die ruvesel in ruvoer word deur mikroflora (bakterieë en protozoa) wat lei tot die produksie van vetsure en minder komplekse organiese verbindings wat deur die herkouer benut kan word. Die samestelling van die dieet en die inname daarvan, bepaal mikrobe groei en ontwikkeling. Die mikrobe word later in die spysverteringskanaal verteer en vorm n belangrike bron van proteïen. Sellulose word deur hierdie organismes verteer. Die mikrobe organisme bevolking word deur die dieet bepaal, n verandering in dieet bring mikro-organismes mee. Daarom is n aanpassings periode van ongeveer 14 dae nodig. Die reaksie op die veranderinge word beïnvloed deur die beskikbaarheid en verteerbaarheid van voedingstowwe in die dieet. Die voedingbehoeftes van kleinvee hang grootliks af van die produksiestatus van die kudde en kan in twee Feeding goats Under extensive conditions goats depend on natural veld pasture for providing adequate materials. It is the cheapest source of food for ruminants. The lack of nutrition and quality of food is ascribed to the growth stage of the animal, the pasture and the climate. Basic principles of feeding The goat is a ruminant; it therefore has four stomachs of which the first is the rumen and the last is the abomasum. The roughage in coarse fodder is processed by micro flora (bacteria and protozoa) that leads to the production of fatty acids and less complex organic compounds that can be utilised by the ruminant. The composition of the diet and its intake determines microbial growth and development. The microbe is digested in the digestive system later and forms an important source of protein. Cellulose is digested by these organisms. The microbial organism population is determined by the diet; a change in diet results in micro-organisms. That is why an adjustment period of about 14 days is necessary. The response to the changes is influenced by the availability and digestibility of nutrients in the diet. The feeding needs of small stock depend largely on the production status of the flock and can be divided into two categories, namely maintenance feeding 9 0 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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7 kategorieë verdeel word naamlik onderhoudsvoeding en produksievoeding. Kleinvee het verskillende behoeftes tydens die verskillende stadiums van produksie. Hierdie verskillende produksiestadius kan weer in 4 afdelings verdeel word: Reproduksie Laktasie Groei Afronding Voeding van ooie Wanneer na voeding van ooie verwys word, moet al die verskillende fisiologiese stadiums van die ooi in ag geneem word. Die voeding van die ooi is sekerlik die belangrikste en kan volgens die fisiologiese stadiums ingedeel word. Uitgroei van jong ooie Die speen van lammers is n traumatiese ervaring vir die lammers en dikwels gaan dit gepaard met gewisverlies, n tendens waarna vewys word as speenskok. Indien lamooie geoormerk word vir teling, is dit belangrik dat die ooilammers vanaf speen steeds groei teen n konstante tempo en geensins gewig verloor voor paartyd nie. Dit is bewys dat daar n korrelasie is tussen die massa van n ooi wat tweetand bereik (12-14 maande) en haar uiteindelike grootte en produksie. Daar word aanbeveel dat jong ooitjies byvoeding ontvang vanaf speen tot een maand nadat hulle gedek is. Die ooitjies kan dan ingeskakel word by die volwasse dragtige ooie se voedingsprogram. Kragvoermengsels kan self saamgestel word, maar die grondstowwe/ruwe/onverwerkte materiale is nie altyd beskikbaar nie, wat dan telkens daartoe lei dat die rantsoen nie volledig gebalanseerd is nie. Wanneer rantsoene self gemeng word, is dit raadsaam om lekkonsentrate wat kommersieel beskikbaar is, te gebruik vir voorsiening van spoorminerale en proteïene. Voer gebalanseerde rantsoen teen g/ooi/dag waar ooitjies op droë grasweiding loop of g/ ooi/dag waar die ooitjies op groenweiding loop. Praktiese riglyne vir prikkelvoeding Ooie moet ten minste ses weke voor dektyd geweeg word en kondisietelling moet gedoen word. Ooie wat lammers gespeen het, veral die met meerlinglammers, is gewoonlik in n swakker kondisie as die ooie wat nie lammers gespeen het nie. Dit kan sommer as and production feeding. Small stock has different needs during the different stages of production. These different production stages can be divided into four sections: Reproduction Lactation Growth Rounding off Feeding ewes When referring to feeding ewes, all the different physiological stages of ewes must be taken into account. The feeding of ewes is certainly the most important and can be divided into the physiological stages. Growth of young ewes The weaning of lambs is a traumatic experience for the lambs and it is often accompanied by weight loss, a tendency referred to as wean shock. If the lamb ewes are earmarked for breeding it is important that they continue growing at a constant rate from weaning and not lose any weight before the mating period. A proved correlation exists between the mass of a ewe that has reached two-tooth stage (12-14 months) and her eventual size and production. It is recommended that young ewes are given supplementary feeding from weaning until one month after they have mated. These ewes can then be incorporated into the adult pregnant ewes feeding programme. You can compile power feed mixes yourself, but the raw materials/coarse/unprocessed materials are not always available; this often leads to the ration not being fully balanced. When you mix rations yourself it is advisable to use commercially available lick concentrates for providing trace minerals and proteins. Feed a balanced ration at g/ewe/day where ewes graze on dry grass pasture or g/ewe/day where the ewes graze on green pasture. Practical guidelines for flush feeding Ewes must be weighed at least six weeks before the mating period and condition counts must be conducted. Ewes that have weaned lambs, especially those with multiple lambs, are usually in a weaker condition than those that did not wean lambs. This may be used as a criterion to determine why certain ewes are in good condition. If it is because they did not 9 2 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

8 n maatstaf gebruik word om te bepaal waarom sekere ooie in goeie kondisie is. Indien dit is omdat sy nie lammers grootgemaak het nie, moet die rede daarvoor bepaal word. Wat die rede ook al mag wees, indien ooie in bo gemiddelde of vet kondisie vir teling oorweeg word, moet hulle nie prikkelvoeding ontvang nie aangesien daar n negatiewe korrelasie is tussen oortollige vet en vrugbaarheid. Ooie met n kondisietelling van onder 3 moet vir drie weke (21 dae) voor paring prikkelvoeding ontvang en die voeding moet volgehou word vir nog 21 dae in die paarseisoen. Die ideaal is dat ooie teen dektyd n kondisie-telling van 3.5 sal hê. Die keuse van prikkelvoeding sal afhang van die area en die omstandighede op die plaas: Dit kan bloot die verskuiwing na n nuwe weiding kamp behels, of die verlaging van die aantal ooie per weidingkamp. Die voer van peulgewashooi (grondbonehooi) of mieliekuilvoer mag in seker gevalle voldoende wees. In gevalle waar weiding skaars of van swak gehalte is, sal konsentraatbyvoeding (energie en proteïen) nodig wees teen g/ooi/dag. Prikkelvoeding het dit ten doel om die ovulasietempo te verbeter en indien dit reg gedoen word, sal dit ook so wees. Daar moet egter ook aan ander baie belangrike aspekte aandag gegee word tydens die tydperk voor dektyd: Ses tot vier weke voor dektyd moet ooie Multimin (essensiële minerale) en vitamiene A en E gespuit word. Doen ook tydens hierdie tydperk die nodige doserings: lewerslak, rondewurms en neuswurm. Doen belangrike inentings: Slenkdalkoors, ensoötiese aborsie en multi-klostridiale siektes. Nadat hierdie take gedoen is, met ander woorde vier weke voor dektyd, moet die ooie nie weer aan stresvolle aktiwiteite onderwerp word nie. Normale raise lambs, the reason must be determined. Whatever the reason, if ewes are considered at above average or fat condition for breeding, they must not be given flush feeding, as a negative correlation exists between excessive fat and fertility. Ewes with a condition score of below 3 must be given pre-mating flush feeding for three weeks (21 days) and the feeding must be maintained for a further 21 days in the mating season. The ideal is for ewes to have a condition score of 3.5 by the mating period. The choice of flush feeding depends on the area and the conditions on the farm: It could entail the mere shifting to a new pasture camp, of the reduction of the number of ewes per pasture camp. Feeding legume hay (peanut hay) or maize silage may be adequate in some cases, but where pasture is scarce or of poor quality, concentrate supplementary feeding (energy and protein) will be necessary at g/ewe/day. Flush feeding is aimed at improving the ovulation rate and, if done properly, it will do so. However, many other very important aspects must also be taken care of during the pre-mating time: Six to four weeks prior to mating ewes must be injected with Multimin (essential minerals) and vitamins A and E. At this time also conduct the necessary dosing: liver fluke, roundworm and nasal bot. Give important vaccinations: Rift Valley fever, enzootic abortion and multi-clostridial diseases. Once these have been completed, in other words, four weeks before mating, the ewes must not be subjected to stressful activities. Normal management tasks such as driving ewes, handling, dipping, dosing and vaccination can be stressful to ewes and such tasks must be finalised at least four weeks before the mating period. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

9 bestuurstake soos aanjaag van ooie, hantering, dip, doseer en inenting kan stresvol wees vir die ooi en sulke take moet tenminste vier weke voor dektyd afgehandel wees. Voeding tydens vroeë dragtigheid Net soos prikkelvoeding belangrik is om vrugbaarheid te verbeter, is dit ook belangrik om daarop te Let dat die ooi haar kondisie moet handhaaf gedurende die eerste maande na paring om sodoende die oorlewing van die embrio te verseker. Daar is bevind dat die meeste embrionale verliese wat tot so hoog as 23% kan wees, voorkom gedurende die eerste 30 tot 40 dae van dragtigheid. Ten einde die ooi in staat te stel om haar paringskondisie te handhaaf, moet daar voortgegaan word om haar dieselfde voer te gee wat gebruik is vir prikkelvoeding. Voeding alleen is nie die enigste aspek van belang by ooie in vroeë dragtigheid nie. Dit is van uiterste belang dat ooie in die eerste maand van dragtigheid nie onderwerp word aan enige stresvolle aktiwiteite nie. Onthou ook dat take wat vir die mens nie stresvol voorkom nie, wel stres en spanning kan veroorsaak by die ooi. Take soos skeer, dip, doseer, inentings, kampverskuiwings, weeg, hantering en veral isolasie het almal die potensiaal om stres te veroorsaak by die ooi wat embrionale verlies tot gevolg kan hê. Voeding tydens laatdragtigheid Tydens die laaste ses weke voor die ooi lam, is daar n geweldige toename in massa by die fetus, (ongeveer 70% van die geboortemassa). Hierdie vinnige tempo waarteen die fetus groei, het tot gevolg dat die kapasiteit van die rumen drasties verklein. Terselftertyd plaas die vinnig groeiende fetus meer druk op die ooi om te voldoen aan sy voedingsbehoeftes. Met die pens se kleiner kapasiteit en die fetus se verhoogde behoeftes is dit verstaanbaar dat die kwaliteit van die voer nou veel beter moet wees as blote onderhoudsrantsoen. Dit is ook tydens hierdie laaste 8 weke dat die ontwikkeling van die uier baie belangrik is om optimale bies- en melkproduksie te verseker na geboorte. Om te voldoen aan al hierdie faktore is dit noodsaaklik om deurvloeiproteïen aan die ooi te voorsien. Deurvloeiproteïen kan direk deur die ooi benut word. Dit is baie belangrik om te onthou dat enige konsentraataanvulling met n aanpassingsperiode gegee moet word. Begin deur ongeveer 100g/ooi/dag te voorsien en vermeerder dit daagliks met 20g tot uiteindelik g/ooi/dag. Voeding van lammers Kruipvoer Kruipvoer het sy naam ontleen aan die tipe voerder wat gebruik word om die lammers van voer te voorsien, maar wat die ooi verhoed om by die voer Feeding during early pregnancy Just as flush feeding is important to improve fertility, it is also important to note that the ewe must maintain her condition during the first months after mating to ensure the survival of the embryo. It has been found that most embryonic losses, that can be as high as 23%, occur during the first 30 to 40 days of pregnancy. To enable the ewe to maintain her mating condition, continue giving her the same feed used for flush feeding. Feeding alone is not the only significant aspect for ewes in early pregnancy. It is extremely important that ewes in the first month van pregnancy not be subjected to any stressful activities. Remember that tasks that do not appear stressful to people can indeed cause stress and tension among ewes. Tasks such as shearing, dipping, dosing, vaccinations, moving camps, weighing, handling and particularly isolation all have the potential to cause stress among ewes that may result in embryonic loss. Feeding during late pregnancy During the last six weeks before the ewe gives birth there is a massive gain in mass by the foetus, (about 70% of the birth mass). This fast growth rate of the foetus results in the drastic decrease of the capacity of the rumen. At the same time the fast-growing foetus places more pressure on the ewe to meet its feeding needs. With the smaller capacity of the stomach and the foetus s increased needs it is logical that the quality of the feed must now be much better than a mere maintenance ration. It is also during these last 8 weeks that the development of the udder is very important to ensure optimal colostrum and milk production after birth. To satisfy all these factors it is essential to provide the ewe with flow-through protein. Flowthrough protein can be directly utilised by the ewe. It is most important to remember that any concentrate supplement must be given in an adjustment period. Start by providing about 100 g/ewe/day and increase it daily by 20 g up to g/ewe/day eventually. Feeding lambs Creep feeding Creep feeding derived its name from the type of feeder used to provide the lambs with food, but prevents the ewe from accessing it. Years ago farmers built these feeders so that the lam had to crawl to get into the feeder. This resulted in lambs learning early on to crawl under wire to get to better pasture. Creep feeding is a balanced ration for lambs still suckling. Unweaned lambs have a very efficient feed turnover ratio of 3:1 to 4:1; in other words, for every 3 to 4 kg feed that a lamb takes in, the mass increases by 1 kg. That is why the provision of creep feeding makes sense it leads to greater profit. 9 4 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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11 uit te kom. Vroeër jare het boere die voerder so gebou dat die lam moes kruip om in die voerder te kom. Dit het daartoe gelei dat lammers van vroeg af geleer is om draad te kruip om by beter weiding uit te kom. Kruipvoer is n gebalanseerde rantsoen vir lammers wat nog aan die ooi suip. Ongespeende lammers het n baie goeie voeromsetverhouding, 3:1 tot 4:1, met ander woorde vir elke 3 tot 4kg voer wat die lam vreet, neem die massa met 1kg toe. Dit is juis daarom dat die voorsiening van kruipvoer sin maak want dit lei tot verhoogde wins. Die melk van die ooi is proteïenryk. Die doelwit van kruipvoer is om die energie behoeftes van die lam aan te vul eerder as om proteïen te voorsien wat hy vanaf die melk verkry. Die jong lam se rumen het nog nie ten volle ontwikkel nie en daarom moet NPN (nie proteïen stikstof) bronne nie gebruik word in die formulering van kruipvoer nie. (NPN word in die volwasse rumen omgeskakel deur rumenmikrobes na bruikbare proteïen). Ruvoer, ongeveer 15%, is belangrik in die formulering van kruipvoer. Dit sal die ontwikkeling van die rumenfunksie aanhelp en oorinname van konsentraat, wat asidose, kan veroorsaak voorkom. Lammers kan so vroeg as 3 weke kruipvoer ontvang wat dan ad lib beskikbaar moet wees. Navorsing het bewys dat die gemiddelde inname van kruipvoer van drie weke ouderdom tot speenouderdom ten inste 250g/dag moet wees om groei aan te help. Die voorsiening van kruipvoeding het definitiewe voordele en dit kan uit tuisgeproduseerde roumateriale saamgestel word om dit ekonomies ook te maak. Voordele wat kruipvoeding inhou: Lammers wat kruipvoeding ontvang, kan vroeër gespeen word: op 60 dae in plaas van op 90 dae Ooie herstel vinniger aangesien die lam minder melk nodig het en vroeër gespeen word. Lammers leer vroeg om te vreet en dus is speen nie so traumaties vir hulle nie. Rumenfunksie word vroeg reeds gestimuleer. Die aanpassing vir die lam op voer of weiding na speen, kan verkort word. The ewe s milk is rich in protein. The purpose of creep feeding is to supplement the energy needs of the lamb rather than providing protein that it obtains from the milk. The young lamb s rumen has not yet developed fully and therefore NPN (non-protein nitrogen) sources are not used in the formulation of creep feeding. (In the adult rumen the NPN is converted to usable protein by rumen microbes). Coarse fodder, about 15%, is important in the formulation of creep feeding. It will promote the development of the rumen function and prevent an over intake of concentrate that can cause acidosis. Lambs can be given creep feeding at as early as 3 weeks; it must then be available ad lib. Research has shown that the average intake of creep feeding from the age of three weeks up to wean age must be at least 250 g/day to promote growth. Providing creep feeding holds definite advantages and it can be composed of home produced raw materials to make it economical as well. Advantages of creep feeding: Lambs given creep feeding can be weaned earlier: at 60 days instead of at 90 days. Ewes recover more quickly as the lamb needs less milk and is weaned earlier. Lambs learn to eat early on and therefore weaning is not as traumatic to them. Rumen function is stimulated early on. The adjustment for the lamb from weaning to feed or pasture can be shortened. Basic creep feeding rations the farmer can compile himself: Ration 1: - Chopped/ground Eragrostis hay 15 kg - Maize meal 82 kg - Urea free high protein concentrate (HPK40-urea free) 3 kg Ration 2: - Ground lucerne hay 20 kg - Coarsely ground maize meal 80 kg 9 6 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

12 Basiese kruipvoerrantsoene wat die boer self kan saamstel: Rantsoen 1: - Gekapte/gemaalde Eragrostishooi 15kg - Mieliemeel 82kg - Ureumvrye hoë proteïen konsentraat (HPK40- ureumvry) 3kg Rantsoen 2: - Gemaalde lusernhooi 20kg - Grof gemaalde mieliemeel 80kg Droë ooie en kapaters Dit is die twee groepe diere met die laagste voedings vereistes. Hulle is hoofsaaklik weiveld benutters, tensy winste produksie voeding moontlik maak. Energie is die hoof voedingstof wat aangevul moet word (graan en suikerriet produkte). IDENTIFIKASIE Die Vereniging se amptelike stelsel van permanente identifikasie van alle aangetekende bokke is tatoeëring en dubbele oorplaatjies en/of oorkodemerke. Die identifikasie sal bestaan uit - - n kuddekenmerknommer wat nie meer as VIER spasies mag beslaan nie; - n jaarsyfer wat sal bestaan uit die laaste TWEE syfers van die jaar waarin die bok gebore is; en - n volgnommer van elke bok wat nie meer as VIER syfers sal beloop nie. Die kuddekenmerknommer kom in die regteroor, terwyl die jaarnommer en volgnommer in die linkeroor getatoeëer word en met n spasie geskei word (m.a.w. n spasie tussen die jaarnommer en volgnommer (byvoorbeeld: ). - Die nommer op die oorplaatjie en/of tatoeëring mag verskil in sover dit die uitskakeling van nulle aangaan. Byvoorbeeld nommer is dieselfde as 5 1 op die oorplaatjie en/of tatoeëring. Die jaar van geboorte moet altyd die volgnommer voorafgaan. - Wanneer identifikasiemerke eenmaal aan n bok aangebring is, selfs as dit foutief, vaag, defektief of onleesbaar is, mag dit onder geen omstandighede reggemaak, verbeter, verander of gewysig word nie, tensy vooraf skriftelik deur die Vereniging Dry ewes and castrated rams These are the two groups of animals with the lowest feeding requirements. They utilise mainly pasture, unless profit makes production feeding a possibility. Energy is the main nutrient that must be supplemented (grain and sugar cane products). IDENTIFICATION The Association s official system of permanent identification of all recorded goats is tattooing and double ear tags and/or ear code marks. The identification will consist of - - a flock hallmark number that may not occupy more than four spaces; - a year number that consists of the last TWO digits of the year in which the goat was born; and - a sequence number of every goat that does not amount to more than four digits. The flock hallmark number is placed in the right ear, while the year number and sequence number are tattooed in the left ear and separated with a space (i.e. a space between the year number and sequence number), for example: The number on the ear tag and/or tattoo may differ as far as the elimination of zeros is concerned. For example, number is the same as 5 1 on the ear tag and/or tattoo. The year of birth must always precede the sequence number. - When identification marks have once been made on a goat, even if it is incorrect, vague, defective or illegible, it may not be corrected, improved, changed or altered under any circumstances, unless prior written permission has been given by the Association. In such a case the breeder must request Council in writing and give reasons why the goat must be re-identified. - No goat may be sold or transferred if the goat is not clearly identified. - All lambs born alive and not destroyed within seven days after birth must be code marked by the breeder within seven days after date of birth or marked with ear tags in numerical order. Every year must start with the number ONE. - Ear tags must be attached in the right ear and the top of the tag must indicate the following details: B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

13 daartoe toestemming gegee is. In so n geval moet die teler die Raad skriftelik versoek en redes aanvoer waarom die bok weer geïdentifiseer moet word. - Geen bok mag verkoop of oorgedra word indien die bok nie duidelik geïdentifiseer is nie. - Alle lammers wat lewend gebore is en nie binne sewe dae na geboorte vernietig is nie, moet binne sewe dae na datum van geboorte deur die teler gekodemerk of met oorplaatjies in numeriese volgorde gemerk word. Elke jaar moet by nommer EEN begin word. - Oorplaatjies moet in die regteroor aangebring word en die bokant van die plaatjie moet die volgende besonderhede aandui: Die kuddekenmerknommer van die teler, die verkorte jaartal en die volgnommer. TATOEëRING Volgens die Wet op Identifikasie van Diere, (Wet nr.6 van 2002) is die tatoeëring van kleinvee verpligtend. Dit word gedoen met n spesiale tatoeëertang wat die registrasienommer van die eienaar bevat en tatoeëerink. Die onus berus by die boer om sy spesifieke identifikasiemerk te registreer by: Die Registrateur van Identifikasie van Diere (The Registrar of Animal Identification) Privaatsak X138 Pretoria 0001 Versuim om dit te doen, kan tot boetes lei wat veral opgelê word waar die veediefstal eenheid van die polisie by skoue en vendusies verrassingsondersoeke doen. Hoe om n tatoeëermerk aan te bring: - Maak die binnekant van die oor skoon met n watte wat in spiritus gedoop is. - Wend tatoeëerink aan tussen die twee riwwe in die middel van die oor. - Druk nou die tatoeëertang sodat die pennetjies dwarsdeur die oor gaan. Dit is pynlik vir die dier en n helper moet die dier hanteer, anders kan daar ernstige beserings opgedoen word. - Die gaatjies sal aanvanklik bloei maar dit sal gou stop. RAAD MET DIE AANKOOP VAN BOKKE: Slag n bees/skaap/bok wat van u veld af kom. Neem die warm maagsap/penswater (gooi lou water by indien dit te min is), en gee elke nuwe dier ongeveer 20ml van dié sap. Hierdie sap gee die nuwe dier die regte weerstands ensieme. Bronnelys: Boer met Kleinvee (Die Skaapherder); Vleisbok Produksie (Kejafa Knowledge Works) The flock hallmark number of the breeder, the abbreviated year and the sequence number. TATTOOING In terms of the Animal Identification Act (Act no. 6 of 2002), the tattooing of small stock is compulsory. It is done with a special pair of tattoo pliers that contains the registration number of the owner and tattoo ink. The onus is on the farmer to register his specific identification mark at: The Registrar of Animal Identification Private Bag X138 Pretoria 0001 Neglect to do so can lead to fines being imposed, especially where the Stock Theft Unit of the SAPS at shows and sales conduct surprise investigations. How to make a tattoo mark: - Clean the inside of the ear with cotton wool dipped in methylated spirits. - Apply tattoo mark between the two ridges in the middle of the ear. - Press the pair of tattoo pliers so that the pins pierce the ear. It is painful to the animal and a helper must handle the animal, otherwise serious injuries may occur. - The small holes will initially bleed but will soon stop. ADVICE ON PURCHASING GOATS: Slaughter an ox/sheep/goat from the veld. Take the warm gastric juice (add lukewarm water if it is too little), and give every new animal about 20 ml of this liquid. This liquid will provide the new animal with the right resistance enzymes. 9 8 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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15 Veearts Vra die Aborsies Aborsie is die verlies van dragtigheid wanneer die fetus uitgeskei word voordat dit kan oorleef. Aborsies in n veekudde kan tot erge finansiële verliese lei weens d ie verlies aan n toekomstige generasie, die verlies aan teelmateriaal, produksieverliese en die koste om die uitbreking onder beheer te kry. Aborsies kan niebesmetlike of besmetlike oorsake hê. Nie-besmetlike oorsake sluit die volgende in: Koper-, selenium-, vitamien A- en magnesiumtekort; plant toksiene; sekere medisyne; hitte stres; trauma en koors. Besmetlike oorsake sluit die siektes in wat veroorsaak word deur patogene organismes, soos bakterieë, virusse en swamme. Soönotiese siektes n Soönotiese siekte is n dieresiekte wat na mense toe oorgedra kan word. Mense wat immunologies onderdruk is, is meer vatbaar vir soönotiese siektes. Immuunonderdrukking kom algemeen voor by bejaarde mense, maar kan ook die gevolg wees van verskeie ander oorsake, soos besmetting met MIV. Brusellose word deur Brucella abortus, B. Melitensis, B. Ovis en B. suis veroorsaak. B. melitensis word deur die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie uitgewys as een van die belangrikste soönotiese siekes. Hoewel B.abortus en B.suis ook soönotiese siektes is, lei menslike infeksie weens B. melitensis tot baie erger kliniese siekte by mense. Brucella melitensis by vee B. melitensis (biovar1,2 of 3) is die hoofoorsaak van aborsies weens brusellose by skape en bokke. B. melitensis kom baie selde in beeskuddes voor, waar dit lei tot aborsies by dragtige koeie en die uitskeiding van die organisme in die melk. Let op vir die volgende siektetekens: Die eerste siekteteken wat gewoonlik in n vatbare skaap- of bokkudde waargeneem word, is grootskaalse aborsies. n Groot persentasie van die aborsies vind gedurende laatdragtigheid plaas. Gedurende opeenvolgende paartye kan die hoeveelheid dragtige diere wat aborteer, stelselmatig verminder en die aborsies selfs ophou, maar die kuddes bly nog vir jare besmet. Die lammers van besmette ooie kan swak gebore word, of sonder enige siektetekens wees. Die vermoede bestaan dat sommige van hierdie lammers draers kan word van B.melitensis. n Draer is besmet met die organisme, maar wys geen siektetekens nie. B.melitensis-organismes word deur sulke draer diere uitgeskei en hulle dien dus as n bron van besmetting in die kudde B O E R B O K N U U S N O

16 n Onvermoë om die nageboorte uit te skei. Dit kom veral by bokooie voor. Vaginale afskeidings. Die volume daarvan is gewoonlik groter by bokooie as by skaapooie. Dit kan voortduur vir n tydperk van tot drie maande nadat die bokooie gelam het. Hierdie afskeidings bevat gewoonlik n groot aantal B.melitensisorganismes. n Verlaging in melkproduksie, asook n verlaging in die melk gehalte. B.melitensis kan jare lank in die uier van bokooie voorkom. Dit is n konstante bron van besmetting omrede B.melitensis-organismes gedurende opeenvolgende laktasies uitgeskei word. Minder B.melintensis-organismes word op dié manier deur skaapooie uitgeskei. By ramme veroorsaak dit ontsteking van die teelballe en die byballe (ook genoem die epididimis die lang, gedraaide buis wat op die boonste deel van die teelbal vasheg en waar sperms verder ontwikkel en opgeberg word voor ejakulasie). Hierdie ontsteking kan tot n afname in vrugbaarheid lei. Brucella melitensis by mense B.melitensis veroorsaak Maltakoors by mense. Mense word besmet deur regstreekse of onregstreekse kontak met besmette diere of hul produkte. Die roetes van besmetting sluit onder meer besmetting deur wonde of snye, die bindvlies van die oog, die inaseming van aërosol en die inname van besmette materiaal per mond in. Mense word egter meestal op die volgende maniere besmet: Die inname van vars melk en ander ongepasteuriseerde suiwelprodukte, byvoorbeeld sagte kase. Kontak met besmette karkasse. Die hantering van wol of hare van besmette diere. Die hantering van besmette materiaal wat geaborteer is. Gewrigsontsteking (artritis). Die hoofroete van besmetting is deur die inname van die organisme per mond, wat die lek van geaborteerde fetusse, nageboortes, asook vaginale afskeidings, insluit. Besmetting kan ook weens die inname van besmette melk of voer plaasvind. Wanneer skape en bokke dus snags in krale ingejaag word, lei dit tot die ideale omgewing vir die die verspreiding van B.melitensis-besmetting. Die besmetting kan ook van ooie af na hul lammers oorgedra word. n Klein persentasie word binne die baarmoeder besmet, terwyl die meeste deur die inname van besmette melk of biesmelk besmet word. Besmette lammers het dikwels geen teenliggaampies teen B.melitensis in hul bloedstroom terwyl hulle jonk is nie. Teenliggaampies teen B.melitensis mag eers in dié diere teenwoordig wees wanneer hulle volwassenheid bereik. Besmette ramme wat ontsteking van die teelballe en/ of byballe ontwikkel, is n bron van besmetting weens die teenwoordigheid van B.melitensis-organismes in die semen. Verdere bronne van besmetting sluit in die besmette omgewing, apparaat wat gebruik word vir die melk of inseminasie van besmette kuddes, asook permanente kampe waarin ooie lam, veral wanneer hierdie kampe nat en modderig is. Honde wat saam met B.melitensis-besmette kuddes aangehou word, kan ook besmet raak en siek word. Sulke honde, veral tewe, kan as n bron van besmetting dien. Gedurende die melkproses wanneer melkers snye of wonde het, asook wanneer melk in hul oë spat. B.melitensis word gedurende die pasteurisasie van melk of room vernietig, asook wanneer melk vir lang tye gekoop word. Sulke melk en suiwelprodukte is dus veilig, so ook vleis wat goed gaargemaak is. Simptome en komplikasies Die simptome van B.melitensis-besmetting by mense is soortgelyk aan dié van griep of malaria. Dit sluit in afwisselende koors, sweet gedurende die nag, kouekoors, hoofpyn, been- en gewrigspyn, spierpyn, swakheid, gewigsverlies, naarheid en depressie. Die siekte mag voortduur as chroniese brusellose. Chroniese brusellose word gediagnoseer wanneer die simptome vir 12 maande of langer ná die maak van die aanvanklike diagnose voortduur. Chroniese brusellose kan in die drie kategorieë verdeel word: Insinking. Dit beteken simptome kom weer voor nadat behandeling toegepas is. Chroniese gelokaliseerde infeksie. Dit is die B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

17 onvermoë om n diep bron van besmetting te verwyder. Vertraagde genesing. Die simptome bly voortduur nadat die pasiënt behandeling ontvang het. Brucellose by mense kan lei tot die ontsteking van die bene en gewrigte, die lewer, die asemhalingstelsel, die geslagkanale, die senuweestelsel, die vel en die oë. Been- en gewrigskomplikasies kom die algemeenste voor in meer as 40% van menslike B.melitensisgevalle. Komplikasies van die geslagskanale kan lei tot aborsie of die besmetting van die fetus in die baarmoeder gedurende swangerskap. Voorkoming Dra beskermende oorklere, insluitende oorpakke of jasse, rubber- en of plastiek voorskote, maskers, rubberhandskoene, stewels en oogbeskerming wanneer risiko materiaal gehanteer word. Risiko materiaal sluit in ooie wat besig is om te lam, geaborteerde fetusse, besmette vaginale afskeidings en besmette karkasse. Indien daar bevestig is dat vee met B.melitensis besmet is, moet hierdie diere na n goedgekeurde slagplaas geneem word waar opgeleide personeel beskikbaar is om die risiko te hanteer. Weefsel en organe wat besmetlik kan wees, sal verwyder, afgeskeur en vernietig word. Dit is dus uiters belangrik om ingevolge afdeling 11 van die Wet op Dieresiektes (Wet 35 van 1984) enige verdagte besmetting van B.melitensis in n kudde onmiddellik by u naaste staatsveearts aan te meld, sodat hy: Bystand kan verleen ten opsigte van die neem en stuur van monsters na die laboratorium om n diagnose te bevestig, asook finansiële bystand te opsigte van diagnostiek. Indien dit wel B.melitensis is, kan help om die besmetting onder beheer en sodoende die risiko te verlaag vir mense wat met die kudde in kontak is B O E R B O K N U U S N O

18 Diarree & vrektes by BOKLAMMERS - Dr dave Midgley Ek wens daar was n maklike antwoord vir die probleem. Ek het n lysie gemaak van siektes en toestande wat alles maagwerkings of diarree by skape en bokke veroorsaak. Ek verwys graag daarna: Voeding: Dit sluit in geil, jong weiding; n ruvoertekort; skielike voerveranderings; sekere mineraaltekorte; en ooie met te veel melk gee aanleiding tot diarree by lammers. Inwendige parasiete, naamlik die bruinmaagwurm, die bankrotwurm, die knoppieswurm, die sambokwurm, die lintwurm en die peervormige slak. Koksidiose: By boklammers behoort dit die eerste gedagte te wees. Plantgif Bakterieë, soos E.coli en Salmonella Septisemie (bloedvergifting) Johne se siekte FKS ( floppy kid syndrome ) Deur die lysie hierbo deur te werk en eers die oorsake af te haal wat dit moontlik nie is nie, dwing ek myself om stapsgewys alle moontlikhede te ondersoek pleks van om goedsmoeds n diagnose te maak. As veearts het ek opleiding oor al hierdie siektes ontvang en is ek geleer om n dier eers deeglik te ondersoek en dan monsters te neem wat my kan help om n diagnose te maak. Diarree is n siekteteken en nie n diagnose nie. Simptomatiese behandeling help dikwels deurdat die liggaam versterk word en die natuurlike verdedigingsmeganismes kans kry om aan die gang te kom en die vyand self te oorwin. Onthou om diere teen ontwatering te behandel. Aan die ander kant, as ons die oorsaak vasstel en die diere behandel, gaan die diarree vanself verdwyn. So, wat kom eerste die oorsaak of die kliniese teken; die behandeling of voorkoming? Die beste manier om die oorsaak vas te stel, is om n volledige nadoodse ondersoek te laat doen waartydens monsters geneem kan word vir histopatologie (snitte van organe daarom mikroskopies vir abnormaliteite te ondersoek) en bakteriologiese ondersoek. Uiteraard kan ek nie n diagnose oor die telefoon of per e-pos maak nie. Daarsonder is dit ook onmoontlik om n behandeling voor te skryf. Moontlike oorsake Kom ons begin by die begin. Die lammers is vier weke oud. Fisiologies is n lam in hierdie stadium baie afhanklik van sy moeder se melk, maar hy peusel waarskynlik al vir n week of twee aan grassies en vaste kos. Hy is besig om van n funksionele enkelmaagdier na n herkouer oor te skakel en is geweldig vatbaar vir voedingsveranderinge. Verder is hy n babatjie en behoort hy in hierdie stadium babakos te eet (kruipvoeding). Baie boere gee dit nie en nou moet hierdie babamagie grootmenskos verteer, wat hy nie regtig goed kan doen nie. Voeding, voeding en nogmaals voeding! Indien sy ma baie melk het, kan dit op sigself tot maagwerkings lei. Aan die ander kant, as die moeder te min melk het moet hy vroeër begin wei en word hy dan vroeër aan parasiete blootgestel, wat ook diarree kan veroorsaak. Biesinname is baie belangrik. Ooie gee deur middel van bies aan hul lammetjies beskerming teen siektes waaraan hulle blootgestel was en teenliggame teen ontwikkel het. Dit kan deur die siekte self wees of deur inenting. Die geheim is dat die lammetjie so gou moontlik na geboorte genoeg bies van goeie gehalte moet inneem, aangesien die dermpie dit nie meer na so 12 ure na geboorte kan opneem nie. Indien daar aan enige van hierdie kriteria nie voldoen is nie, gaan die bies die lammetjie vir n korter tydperk beskerm as die twee maande waarop ons normaalweg reken. Stel dus vas watter kieme moontlik n rol speel en ent die ooi ses weke voor lamtyd teen hierdie siektes in om te verseker dat sy die regte teenliggaampies in die bies sit. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

19 Voorkoming en behandeling Daar is ongelukkig nie n wondermiddel wat alles gaan regmaak nie. Begin deur alles moontlik te doen om n diagnose te maak. Werk saam met jou veearts. Neem monsters, stuur dit weg en ontleed die resultate. Dood het n oorsaak. Siekte ook. Stel die oorsake vas wat daartoe aanleiding kan gee en stel dit reg. Help die lammetjies wat klein en swak is deur addisionele bies met n maagbuisie in te gee en deur dit te verseker dt. Hulle gou genoeg voldoende bies inkry. Op vier weke kan ons die situasie hê waar die bies beskerming begin afneem. Indien die uitdagings groot is, kan die lam net nie meer sterk genoeg wees om siekte tekens te voorkom nie. Nattigheid, koue en onhigiëniese toestande in krale of op slaapplekke lei alles tot n opbou van kieme. Al het die lam dan soldate, het die kieme die oorhand en gaan hulle hierdie stryd wen. Higiëne is dan hier die wagwoord. Indien die ooie altyd in dieselfde kampies lam, kan jy ook n opbou van kieme daar kry. Baie boere gebruik kalk om in en om die krale te strooi en sodoende die ph van die grond te verhoog en kiemgroei te belemmer. Ander ontsmet die lammers se naeltjies kort na geboorte met jodium of pers wondsproei. Lammers kry dikwels naelstring infeksies net na geboorte. Die kieme vermeerder dan geleidelik om op sowat vier weke oud toe te slaan. Somtyds gaan dit in hierdie stadium ook in gewrigsontsteking oor. Bu bokkies is daar n interessante sindroom genaamd die floppy kid syndrome. Hierdie toestand kom in die eerste paar weke van lammetjies se lewens voor. Ongelukkig weet ons nog nie regtig wat die definitiewe oorsaak is nie. Die lammers begin gewoonlik met maagwerkings, word dan swak en vrek. Glukose-aarvoeding blyk te help as deel van die behandeling. Hoewel baie boere beweer en glo dat bokke nie plantvergiftiging opdoen nie, is dit nie die geval nie en moet ons maar altyd op die uitkyk wees daarvoor. Kyk veral om die kraal wat daar groei en of daar aan die plante gevreet is. Laastens is dit ook belangrik om in ag te neem dt. Die bloednier-kiem, Clostridium perfingens tip D, nie klassieke bloednier by bokke veroorsaak nie, maar diarree. Begin deur simptomaties te behandel: Haal die lammers vir n dag of twee van melk af, indien prakties moontlik. Gee iets wat die maagwerking gaan laat ophou, verkieslik n oplossing wat elektroliete bevat om ontwatering reg te stel. In erge gevalle en by waardevolle diere kan n aarvoeding al wees wat n swak lammetjie kan red. Wees versigtig met antibiotika, aangesien dit die goeie dermorganismes sowel as die kieme gaan doodmaak en dikwels meer kwaad as goeddoen. Besluit saam met die Veearts of die geval antibiotika regverdig en besluit saam met hom watter antibiotika die geskikste is vir gebruik by bokke en spesifiek vir dermtoestande. Indien koksidiose vermoed word (dit is baie algemeen by bokkies), gebruik ek graag n sulfamiddel wat dit ook dek. Vul vitamien A aan, asook spoorelemente wat veilig vir gebruik by baie jong of klein bokkies is. Gee probiotika om die pens te normaliseer. Sonder siek bokkies van die res af. Dit voorkom omgewingsbesoedeling en keer dat hulle gesonde diere aansteek. Sit hulle eers weer by die ander as hulle goed herstel het. Verbeter higiëniese maatreëls. Kyk na die voorkomende optrede, soos inentings en goeie biosekuriteit. Die belangrikste is om met jou veearts saam te werk. Hoewel ek hier op diarree gekonsentreer het, geld dieselfde beginsels by ander siektes en toestande. Begin deur vas te stel wat die oorsaak is. Indien jy sê dat 60% van die bokkies siek was of gevrek het, is my vraag dadelik: Hoeveel het jy veearts toe geneem en wat was sy diagnose. Watter organe of orgaanstelsels was die ergste aangetas? B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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21 Koksidiose - Dr faffa malan Koksidiose word veroorsaak deur parasiete wat onder die groep protosoë val. Daar is baie spesies van koksidia. Oösiste, wat n eieragtige vorm met n sterk dop het, word in die mis uitgeskei. Ooie is gewoonlik simptoomlose draers van koksidia. Die oösiste kan lank oorleef en benodig nattigheid omte ontwikkel. Bokooie lê in die kraal en mis wat oösiste bevat, sit aan die spene vas en word deur die lammetjies ingeneem wanneer hulle suip. Nat plekke, wat dikwels deur lekkende waterbakke veroorsaak word, speel n groot rol in die voorkoms van koksidiose. Die siektetekens by lammers is laksering, wat dikwels slymerig en bloederig kan wees. Dit word veroorsaak deur die parasiet se ontwikkelingstadiums in die dermslymvlies. Die lammetjies word swak, loop met n gekromde rug en swaaiende agterlyf en hulle kan vrek. By nadoodse ondersoek kan gesien word dat die dunderm gelerige slym bevat. Die slymvlies is dikwels rooierig met grys vlekkies so groot soos n speldekop. Deur n mismonster onder die mikroskoop te ondersoek, kan die oösiste geïdentifiseer word. Volgens die aantal oösist in die midroskoopveld, tesame met siektetekens wat voorkom, kan u saam met u veearts op n gepaste behandeling besluit. Vir behandeling is die volgende middels vir bokke en skape geregistreer: o o o o o Vecoxan (G1405), met die aktiewe bestanddeel diclazuril. Disulfox (G3212), met die aktiewe bestanddeel diclazuril. Maxi-sulf LA (G3657), met sulfadimetoksien. Sulfazine 16% Solution (G1123) en Sulfazine (G1124), met sulfadimedien. Sulphamezathine 16% (G802) en Sulphamezathine 33,3%, met sulfamesatien. Middels wat by voer ingemeng kan word om koksidiose te voorkom (koksidiostate), is die volgende (vir bokke en skape geregisteer): o Sacox 120 (G574), met salinomisien. o o o Salecox 120 (G1882), met salinomisien. Salinopharm (G1882), met salinomisien. Taurotec Liquid Premix (G3064), met lasalosied. Maak lekkende waterbakke reg en verwyder loop dit mis krale. Voorsien krale van n sementvloer wat gereeld skoongemaak word. NASPEURBAARHEID In verskeie lande is daar bevind dat naspeurbaarheid uiters belangrik is in die bekamping van beheerde en aanmeldbare siektes. Toe daar in Kanada n postiewe geval van BSA (malkoeisiekte) was, het dit hulle deur hul naspeurbaarheidstelsel slegs drie weke gekos om al die diere waarmee die positiewe geval in aanraking gekom het, op te spoor. Kanada is die enigste land wat sy status vir die uitvoer van vleis na die Europese Unie teruggekry het nadat daar n bevestigde BSEgeval was. In Australië maak naspeurbaarheid al sedert 2006 deel uit van hul bekamping van Johne se siekte. Naspeurbaarheid kan dus saam met die ander, bestaande metodes in Suid-Afrika gebruik word om Johne se siekte beter te bekamp. n Naspeurbaarheidstelsel in die land sal ook help met die bekamping van ander aanmeldbare en beheerde siektes. Kuddebestuur sluit die hou van toetsresultate van aanmeldbare, beheerde en erosiesiektes in, met behulp van u veearts. Bronne: Bath, G& de Wet, J.2000 Sheep and Goat Diseases. Tafelberg Publishers sheep-goats-nlis.htm B O E R B O K N U U S N O

22 Vuilbek - Dr faffa malan Vuilbek is n siekte wat vratagtige letsels in die vel van skape en bokke veroorsaak en word ook orf genoem. Vuilbek tas skape, bokke EN DIE MENS aan. Dit is dus n soönose n siekte wat van diere na mense oorgedra kan word. Vuilbek kom wydverspreid in Suid-Afrika voor. Die virus kan vernietig word deur reinigers wat vet oplos. Jong lammers is meer vatbaar en toon dus ernstiger kliniese tekens as volwasse diere. Indien volwasse skape en bokke al voorheen aan die vuilbekvirus blootgestel was, ontwikkel hulle n weerstand teen die siekte. Die vuilbekvirus is baie stabiel wanneer dit aan omgewingsfaktore blootgestel word en kan vir maande of selfs jare besmetting op n plaas veroorsaak. Oordrag van besmette na vatbare skape vind deur regstreekse kontak plaas of wanneer die virus wonde binnedring. Insekte, soos riviermuggies, kan ook klien wondjies veroorsaak. Permanent besmetlike diere kan in n kudde voorkom, wat as bron van besmetting dien. Bokke wat aan doringbosse en steekgras vreet, doen wonde op waardeur die virus die liggaam binnedring. Ná twee tot ses dae raak die plek van indringing rooi en effens geswel en n roof ontwikkel. n Vitamien A-tekort kan tot n verhoogde voorkoms van die siekte bydra. Groot uitbrekings van vuilbek kom in nat jare voor. Die vel versag en klein wondjies ontstaan op die vel (veral op die pote). Daarom kom letsels veral op die hoefkrone voor. Die virus tas die lippe, kloue, sterte, ore, geslagsdele of die hele liggaam aan. Die lipvorm is meer algemeen. Die lippe, neusspieël, ooglede, tandvleis en selfs die slukderm en rumen kan aangetas word. Die vratagtige letsels is enkel of veelvuldig. Die klouvorm kom voor waar diere op lang, stekelrige gras wei en waar nat toestande heers. Letsels ontwikkel op die hoefkroon en die tussenklouspasies. In ernstige gevalle kan die klougewrigte aangetas word. Letsels kan na die uier en geslagsdele versprei wanneer besmette lammers aan die ooi of aan mekaar suip. Sekondêre bakteriese besmetting veroorsaak komplikasies, soos mastitis, lewerabsesse, longontsteking en selfs septisemie, wat veral by jonger skape tot vrektes kan lei. Die verspreide vorm word selde gesien. Die dier het nooit n koors nie, aangesien die virus lokaal in die letsels bly. Vuilbekletsels is pynlik en veroorsaak dat die diere weier om te vreet. Dit lei tot gewigsverlies, n swakker kondisie en selfs vrektes. Brommer aanvalle kan ook in die aangetaste dele plaasvind. Mense raak besmet wanneer hulle klein wondjies op die vel het en met besmette diere werk. Dra liewer handskoene wanneer aangetaste diere behandel word. Honde wat aan besmette karkasse vreet, kan ook die siekte opdoen. Differensiële diagnose Siektes wat met vuilbek verwar kan word, is: Skaap- en bokpokkies (nie in Suid-Afrika teenwoordig nie). Swaminfeksies Dermatofilose (klontwol, n bakteriese infeksie). Bloutong swelsels en bekswere. Vrotpootjie Bek-en-klouseer B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

23 Stafilokokkus-besmetting Aktinobasillose Ulseratiewe dermatose Hierdie toestande kan saam met vuilbek voorkom. Behandeling Behandel die letsels met salf wat n antibiotikum of sulfamiddel bevat. n Melksalfmiddel kan ook gebruik word om die rowe sag te hou. Verder kan aërosolmiddels wat antibiotika bevat, op die letsels gespuit word. Aangetaste lammers wat nie meer kan suip nie, moet op sagte groenvoerweidings geplaas word. Melkkan met n maagbuis aan lammers gegee word. Diere kan antibiotika toegedien word om sekondêre bakteriese besmetting te bekamp. Bespreek die behandeling met u veearts. Voorkoming en bekamping Die beskikbare entstof moet slegs gebruik word op plase waar vuilbek n probleem is, aangesien n lewende, onverswakte virus gebruik word. Dragtige ooie moet minstens vier weke voor lamtyd ingeënt word sodat hulle teen uierbesmetting beskerm kan wees. Jong lammers kan vanaf die ouderdom van een week ingeënt word. Inenting help selfs tydens n uitbreking van die virus en sal genesing bespoedig. Die aktiewe bestanddeel van die entstof is in poeierof klontvorm in n klein botteltjie. Dra van die 10ml steriele gliserienwater wat saam met die entstof kom, met n steriele spuit na die botteltjie gedroogde entstof oor. Dra die entstof na die res van die gliserienwater oor en meng goed. Gebruik n skoon spuitnaald en maak twee of drie parallelle skrape op die kaal vel net agter die voorbeen, diep genoeg om rooi merke op die vel te maak, maar nie so diep dat dit bloei nie. Doop die kwassie wat voorsien word in die suspensie en wend die entstof daarmee op die skraapplekke aan. Inenting moet verkieslik nie in die lies van die diere gedoen word nie, aangesien dit tot besmetting van die uier of manlike geslagsdele kan lei. n Jaarlikse skraagdosis word aanbeveel. Na ongeveer drie dae is die vel om die skapies rooi en opgeswel. Later ontwikkel n roof oor die entplek. Immuniteit duur een tot twee jaar, maar kan nie by alle diere gewaarborg word nie. Aangesien die mens vatbaar is vir vuilbek, moet die suspensie versigtig gehanteer word. Vermy kontak met die suspensie as daar wonde of skrape op die vel van die hande of arms is deur handskoene te dra. Bron: du Preez, J & Malan, F Entstowwe en Immunisering van Plaasdiere. Agri Connect. Die opstel van n immuniseringsprogram - Dr faffa malan Die beste mens om u met die opstel van n bestuursprogram te help, is u plaaslike veearts, aangesien hy of sy op hoogte is van die plaaslike toestande. Die volgende moet in gedagte gehou word wanneer so n program opgestel word: Maak n lys van die siektes wat in jou gebied voorkom en waarteen diere geïmmuniseer moet word (noodsaaklike entstowwe). Bespreek met jou veearts watter siektes die algemeenste voorkom. Voorbeelde by skape en bokke is bloednier, bloutong, pasteurellose, ensoötiese aborsie, Slenkdalkoors en absesse. Maak n lys van siektes wat nie gereeld in die gebied voorkom nie, maar wel n bedreiging vir jou diere kan inhou (nie-noodsaaklike entstowwe). Voorbeelde is sponssiekte, klem-in-die-kaak, bloedderm, Bloedpens, dikkop-sponssiekte, blouuier, vuilbek, E.coli en hartwater, om maar n paar te noem. Nadat n lys van noodsaaklike en nie so noodsaaklike entstowwe opgestel is, moet beplan word wanneer die entstowwe toegedien gaan word. Die handboek Entstowwe en immunisering van plaasdiere deur drr. Jan du Preez en myself, verkrygbaar by die koöperasie, bevat immunisering programme vir alle plaasdiere B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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25 n Aanvanklike voorgestelde immuniseringsprogram vir skape en bokke wat nog nie voorheen ingeënt is nie Tyd en ouderdom van toediening Entstowwe 9 weke voor paartyd (ooie) Bloutong 3 entstowwe (A,B en C), 3 weke uitmekaar. 4-6 weke voor paartyd Slenkdalkoors (ooie), Ensoötiese aborsie (ooie), Dikkop en ander klostridiale siektes (ramme) Net ná paartyd (ramme) Bloutong 3 entstowwe (A,B en C), 3 weke uitmekaar 6 8 weke voor lamtyd (ooie) Tetanus, Sponssiekte, Kwaadaardige edeem, Pasteurellose, Bloednier, Bloedderm, Bloedpens 2 4 weke voor lamtyd (ooie) Tetanus (skraagdosis), Sponssiekte (skraagdosis), Kwaadaardige edeem (skraagdosis), Bloednier (skraagdosis), Bloedderm, Bloedpens (skraagdosis) Eerste week van lewe (lammers) Hartwaterbloed in endemiese gebiede Voor speentyd (lammers 2-4 maande oud) Brucella Rev. 1 (ramme), Tetanus, Sponssiekte, Kwaadaardige edeem, Pasteurellose, Bloednier, Bloedderm, Lamsieke, Slenkdalkoors 3-4 weke later (lammers) Tetanus (skraagdosis, Sponssiekte (skraagdosis), Kwaadaardige edeem (skraagdosis), Pasteurellose (skraagdosis) Bloednier (skraagdosis), Bloedderm (skraagdosis), Lamsiekte (skraagdosis), Miltsiekte Voorgestelde volgehoue immuniseringsprogram vir skape en bokke Tyd van toediening Entstowwe Laat winter, vroeë lente (Augustus tot September Bloutong 3 entstowwe (A,B en C) 3 weke uitmekaar, Slenkdalkoors Herfs (April-Mei) Bloednier, Lamsiekte 6 weke voor paartyd Ensoötiese aborsie (lewend) 4 weke voor lamtyd (ooie) Tetanus, Sponssiekte, Kwaadaardige edeem, Pasteurellose, Bloednier, Bloedderm, Bloedpens Raadpleeg u veearts om vas te stel of daar ander siektes in u omgewing is waarteen diere ingeënt moet word, byvoorbeeld absesse (Corynebacterium (ovis) pseudotuberculosis en Trueperella pyogenes), Escherichia coli, blou-uier, vuilbek en Wesselsbronsiekte. Maak seker dat die inenting teen bloednier op datum is waar diere gevoer gaan word of op geil weidings geplaas en gedoseer word B O E R B O K N U U S N O

26 Know your goat diseases Bacterial Disease Abscesses Distrubution Abscesses occur to a greater or lesser extent on every small-stock farm in South Africa and elsewhere. He main form of the disease, caused by bacteria is called caseous lymphadenitis, cheesy gland disease or Preisz- Nocard disease. It is a progressive condition which can become more serious with time. Cause Abscesses develop following an injury which has been infected by one of two bacteria, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, previously known as C. Ovis, which occurs almost exclusively in sheep and goats; and Arcanobacterium pyogenes, previously called Corynebacterium pyogenes, which normally causes abscesses in cattle but is found in sheep and goats as well. Spread Corynebacterium and arcanobacterium organisms are commonly found in dust, in dung, on the ground and in kraals and shearing sheds. Most commonly, infection results from faulty management practices and shearing, such as: Dirty shears. Dirty, dusty shearing pens. Infected shearers clothing. Dipping sheep before shearing wounds have healed. Infected dip tank. Wounds caused by tail docking or castration. Infection resulting from certain tick bites and grass seed awns which penetrate the skin. Injuries caused by thorns on thorn trees, which can be an important source of infection in goats. A dipping stick used during dipping, can damage the skin of the sheep and allow infection to penetrate. An abscess lanced or nicked during shearing, which can infect the floor and surroundings. The umbilical cords of newborn lambs, which can become infected. Recently, it has been shown that infection can result when pus is coughed up from burst lung abscesses. If inhaled by other sheep/goats, this can spread infection. Symptoms Abscesses caused by the two bacteria cannot easily be distinguished form one another, but they cause different disease conditions and it is important to determine which one is causing problems in the flock. C.pseudotuberculosis occurs almost exclusively in sheep and goats and causes lymph node abscesses. The glands most affected are those in front of the shoulder, in the head and neck, the flank, the hindleg, below the ear or between the lungs. Abscesses can also be found the liver, lungs, spleen and spinal cord. Arcanobacterium pyogenes usually causes internal abscesses in sheep. It is a very common cause of B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

27 abscesses. It does not usually affect the lymph nodes, but causes superficial abscesses just under the skin. In sheep and goats, the abscess destroys the structure of the lymph gland. The enlarged gland can easily be seen from the outside, or felt once it has formed a pus-filled abscess. The abscess usually expands until, finally, it bursts through the skin. It can contaminate the entire farm. The pus of corynbacterium is greygreen in colour and is thick, soft and sticky. Old abscesses have the consistency of dense, cheesy matter and some have concentric circles that look like a slice-opened onion. Animals that have abscesses in their lungs or liver may gradually become emaciated and often die from the condition called hartslagsiekte or pluck disease. Infected umbilical cords can allow the bacterium access to the bloodstream, and if they do, the lamb usually dies soon afterwards. Multiple liver abscesses can cause jaundice. The joints of the lamb can also become infected, causing lameness which can worsen steadily until the animal can no longer use the infected leg. The problem can also effect the spinal cord, and often follows tail docking which becomes infected, resulting in the animal s developing sitsiekte : an abscess forms in the spinal cord which results in paralysis of the hindquarters. Abscesses sometimes form in the brain after tick bites or grass seed injuries in the upper jaw or head have become infected. Corynebacterium abscesses can also from in the teses, usually following a prior Brucecella ovis infection of the epididymis, as well as in the kidneys. Treatment The thick, fibrous layer that forms around the abscesses is the body s natural reaction to isolate the infection, and is the reason a single dose of antibiotic treatment will not cure the condition the antibiotic cannot penetrate the outer covering of the abscess. The only way to treat abscesses is to lance, clean and disinfect them. They should not be allowed to fester and burst, because they can contaminate the surroundings. The abscess should be monitored carefully and when it is about to burst, it should be lanced properly, drained and cleaned. An abscess is ripe when it forms a point on the skin and a soft spot develops where the hair or wol has fallen out. Deeper abscesses may be treated by prolonged high doses of an effective antibiotic. A cross-shaped incision should be made into the soft spot, using a sharp knife, preferably a scalpel. The two lines of the incision, at right angles to one another, should be as long as possible, resulting in four loose flaps of skin which will stop the abscess closing up again. It is usually necessary to use your finger to remove the pus. Wear rubber gloves, wrap cotton wool soaked in surgical spirits around a finger and remove all the pus. Be careful to gather up all the pus and cotton wool and to burn or bury it. Clean the wound with a strong disinfectant; surgical spirits, for example. The treatment of valuable animals should be discussed with a veterinarian B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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29 Prevention Vaccination Before vaccinating, it must be established whether it is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or Arcanobacterium pyogenes that is causing the disease. A veterinary laboratory can identify the bacterium involved. A severely affected animal can be taken to the laboratory, where the abscess matter is cultured, and the bacterium isolated. Several vaccines are used against corynebacterium but they do not offer total protection. Consequently, vaccines should be seen as just one measure against the bacterium and farmers should continue to apply strict hygiene measures during shearing and similar procedures. Some vaccines are one component of multivalent vaccines. Sheep and goats should be inoculated against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in accordance with the manufacturer s specifications. The initial vaccination for Arcanobacterium pyogenes should be given to sheep 3 times, 10 days apart, and thereafter every 6 months. The dose for sheep and goats is 5ml and for lambs under 2 months old it is 2ml. Vaccination is valuable in preventing the disease and reducing the level of infection on the farm. The vaccine is more effective in controlling the disease if severely infected sheep are culled, as they are a source of infection. Management practices Lambs should be docked and ear-tagged in a clean, uncontaminated area of the kraal, where adult sheep are not treated. Disinfect all wounds with tincture of iodine (an alcohol solution of iodine.) Instruments such as knives used to mark and castrate lambs should first be properly disinfected or boiled. Animals should be dipped regularly to control ticks. Control of the disease is best achieved by removing the causes. Implement good hygiene, good veld management to reduce the number of thorns and steekgras or Aristida grasses, and cull severely infected animals. PASTEURELLOSIS Pasteurellosis is a zoonotic disease. It is caused by infection with bacteria of the Pasteurella genus. Pasteurella multocida is the most commonly reported organism in this group, and is well known as both a common commensal (part of the normal bacterial flora) and pathogen in a variety of animal species. Pasteurellosis is a fatal disease usually associated with upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia. Pasteurella bacteria are carried by healthy animals and only cause disease when the animals are subjected to stress. It is a sporadic, but common, disease in sheep and goats. Causes The condition is caused by Pasteurella haemolytica and P. multocida, commonly found in the respiratory system of many animals, especially in the nose, pharynx, bronchi and lungs. The disease occurs when the animals condition deteriorates or they are subjected to stress, and the bacteria multiply rapidly. The following factors play a contributory role: The concentration of animals and their adaptation to the conditions leads to pasteurellosis being the single largest killer of stock in feedlots. Dramatic changes in climatic conditions for example, drought, sudden changes in temperature (as when it snows), windy weather and heavy rain or extreme cold particularly soon after shearing, precipitate the disease. Exhaustion after being driven over a long distance or transported to feedlots in poorly ventilated trucks predispose animals to pasteurellosis. The disease can also follow jaagsiekte or lungworm infestation B O E R B O K N U U S N O

30 The lungs can be damaged if sheep choke when dosed, and this can lead to pneumonia caused by pasteurella organisms. Sometimes Chlamydia organisms, or mycoplasms, precipitate pasteurellosis or aggravate the condition of it already exists. The para-influenza 3 virus can also lead to pasteurellosis. Symptoms The pasteurella organism causes mastitis in ewes and occasionally affects the liver of sheep and goats, causing jaundice. In rare cases the P. haemolytica organism can cause arthritis and encephalitis. The most important, and most common, condition caused by pasteurella is pneumonia. (The disease has also been called bloutong pied lung because of this). Young lambs and kids are most at risk and die rapidly, having shown few signs of the illness beforehand. Sudden deaths occur in the flock and farmers can suffer enormous losses without any symptoms being evident. The following symptoms can be observed in animals suffering from pasteurellosis: Depression and listlessness animals fall behind when the flock is moved. They have a raised temperature and do not eat properly. Breathing complications rapid, laboured breathing is evident and the animals gasp for air and cough. They may have a mucous discharge from the nose. Some animals develop acute pasteurellosis and die without displaying any symptoms. Post-mortem signs When the skull is sawn open along its length, the nasal cartilage will be conspicuously dark red or purple. In acute cases, obvious red patches occur in the lungs and there is a solid red-colored mass in the lower parts of the front lobes. The lungs often adhere to the ribcage. In chronic cases the lungs are grayish in colour leading to confusion with jaagsiekte. Bleeding in and around the heart. The liver and kidneys are enlarged and appear redder than usual. Diagnosis Pasteurella organisms occur naturally in the upper respiratory tract of animals. Evaluation of the diseased lung of a dead animal by a veterinarian is necessary to establish whether the animal died of pasteurellosis, and at least a third of the lung would have to be Fibrin attaching to pleura of eight-week-old lamb with pasteurellosis. Photo: Donal Toolan. The lung is from a sheep in the early stages of infection with Pasteurella multocida affected before a diagnosis of pasteurellosis can be made. Histopathology would reveal fibrinous purulent pneumonia with soft, fibrous threads binding the lung to the ribs. Examination should only be conducted on formalin-fixed specimens. Treatment Pasteurella haemolytica vaccines manufactured by Onderstepoort include the following types: Pasteurella haemolytica, types 1, 2 and 6 Pasteurella maltocida, types A and D Fifteen strains of P.haemolytica have been identified in South Africa and 4 of P.multocida. for this reason, even though a farmer vaccinates his flock every 6 months with Onderstepoort pasteurella vaccines, he can nevertheless still have pasteurellosis deaths. These deaths could be caused by a strain not covered by the vaccine. If it is established that the deaths are caused by strain or type 8, or example, Onderstepoort can prepare a specific vaccine for that particular outbreak or farm. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

31 On farms where pasteurellosis is a problem, all sheep should be vaccinated every 6 months. Lambs can be vaccinated after the agte of 2 weeks, with 2 inoculations 4 weeks apart. A booster should be given just before weaning. Older lambs can be vaccinated at 6 months, and again 4 weeks later. Sometimes the vaccines cause a shock reaction, so it would be wise to vaccinate a few animals and then wait for 2 days. If nothing untoward happens to the vaccinated sheep, the rest of the flock can be inoculated. The dosage for a lamb 2 months or younger is 2 ml and for an older animal, 5 ml. The vaccine should be stored at temperatures between 4 and 20 o C. Commercial vaccines are also available and can be combined with other vaccines. They comprise a selection of common P.haemolytica strains and are very effective. Note: Pasteurella pneumonia is usually precipitated by feeding or management problems. Farmers should not rely on the vaccine alone to control the disease, but should try to rectify the underlying problems. FOOT ABSCESSES Foot abscesses are often confused with foot rot. Distribution Foot abscesses are found throughout South Africa but are more common in areas of thorny bushveld or where ticks are a serious problem. Under spray irrigation conditions or in high rainfall areas, where hooves are continuously wet, the skin of the hoof softens, which leads to a high incidence of foot abscesses. Causes The organisms that cause foot abscesses penetrate the skin of the hooves through small wounds and injuries. Ticks commonly cause these injuries, and those with long mouth parts are particularly dangerous, especially Thipicephalus glabroscutatem and R Simus. Other tick species, such as the bont tick (Amblyommn hebraeum) and the bont-legged tick (Hyalomma) can also cause injuries. Some parts of South Africa have dense stands of thorn trees or thorny shrubs and goats browsing these plants stand against them and injure their hooves on the thorns. the sheep. Lengthy periods of wet weather soften the skin to the point where it is weakened enough to allow organisms to penetrate, even when there are no obvious injuries. A specific form of abscess, called toe abscess, results when the hoof separates from the sole. Symptoms The first sign of foot abscess infection in sheep and goats is lameness, but lameness is not always caused by foot abscesses or foot rot. The infection usually affects only 1 foot, but in bad cases, 2, 3 or even all 4 can be affected. In the early stages of the disease, the feet show no outward signs of infection. Check for ticks in the split in the hof or injuries to the skin which might allow the organisms access to the body. If the foot is hot to the touch or the animal shows pain when the hoof is pressed, the farmer should suspect foot abscesses. As the disease progresses, the foot swells just above the hoof, and becomes hot and very painful. A soft area develops in the skin just above the hoof and, in time, bursts. Sticky yellow pus drains out. Sometimes the abscess opens under the hooves, which is why there is confusion with Although sharp stones, wood splinters and wire can also cause injury to hooves, this is unusual. The organisms entering through these wounds tend to form abscesses which then affect the foot joints of foot rot. In serious cases, the bone and joint of the foot can be seen clearly or felt through the opening in the skin. In some long-standing cases, the hoof becomes enlarged and deformed, especially if ligaments have B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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33 been destroyed. Foot abscesses cause animals to lose condition because the pain makes it difficult for them to graze and move around. In advanced cases, they will not eat at all and can die from emaciation and blood poisoning. Post-mortem signs If the foot of the dead animal is cut open, the abscess will be clearly visible. It often forms in the last joint, which will be full of pus. The horny layer of the hoof is seldom affected. Treatment There is no quick way to treat the animal it takes 2 to 3 months of rest and nursing to restore the use of the foot, with or without treatment. This is important for valuable animals. Treatment is difficult even for those animals that appear to be less severely affected; the reason is that it is usually very difficult to lance and drain abscesses, and antibiotics to not easily penetrate the thick fibrous wall of the abscess. They should, however, be lanced and drained as much as possible, and rinsed every day with a liquid antibiotic. Giving large doses of antibiotic, e.g. tetracycline, every day for 3 weeks or longer can sometimes cure an animal. For the best results in an intensive treatment programme, a veterinary laboratory should identify the organism and recommend the best antibiotic to use. The veterinarian will also suggest an effective treatment programme. Prevention The first move is to establish what is causing the foot abscesses and then to ut effective preventative measures into practice. If ticks are the major cause of infection, strict tick infestation control mechanisms should be instituted before the anticipated outbreak. Remember that it takes a few weeks for a tick infestation to lead to foot abscesses. In most cases, a 10 cm deep foot dip, filled with a registered tick dip, should be sufficient. The frequency of treatments depends on the remedy s residual action, the severity of the tick infestation, and the rainfall pattern. It may be necessary to bodydip animals to reduce the level of tick infestation on the farm. Farmers sometimes use spot treatments, but some of these are not intended for small stock and it can be risky to use them. Very little can be done to prevent foot abscesses caused by thorns or prolonged wet weather. Formalin foot bath could be used to toughen the skin and hoof, so that organisms cannot enter the foot. Regular vaccination with Arcanobacterium pyogenes or Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis vaccines may also reduce the incidence. FOOT ROT The names of foot diseases in sheep and goats often cause confusion. Any lameness or foot infection tends to be called foot rot, regardless of its cause. There are a number of diseases, however, which could be responsible for lameness or infection. Distribution Foot rot occurs in sheep and goat flocks in many countries. It was introduced into South Africa, and has established itself in KwaZulu Natal and in the Eastern and Western Cape. No measures are in place to stop its spread into ohter provinces, or areas where conditions are favorable. Incidense Some breeds of sheep are more susceptible to foot rot than others. Merinos and related breeds are susceptible, while certain meat breeds, such as the Romney, are resistant to the infection. No breed is totally immune, however. In any one breed there will be some animals that are more resistant than others. What is important is that this resistance is an inheritable trait it is associated with the structure of the hoof an d the width between the claws of the hoof, the so-called inter-digital space, as the animal walks. Cause Contagious ovine foot rot is caused by a bacterium, Dichelobacter modosus, which lives only in the hooves of infected sheep. Other organisms also play a role in the infection, helping in the penetration of the foot-rot bacteria. D. Nodusus develops in oxygen B O E R B O K N U U S N O

34 free conditions during wet, buddy periods, and lives on the hoof material and skin, which it digests. The bacterium can survive for a long time in the hoof and not be apparent until conditions change. The disease is also associated with the presence of certain worms that penetrate the skin, especially the white bankrupt worm (Strongyloides papillosus). Another possible cause of initial injuries is sharp kikuyu grass, that breaks the skin in the interdigital space. Spread Carrier animals that appear to have recovered from an infection can continue to harbour the organism in their hoof material for up to 3 years. Also, the bacteria can remain viable in mud in contaminated camps for up to 2 weeks. The carrier animal becomes a constant source of infection in grass and muddy conditions. Prolonged wet conditions, lasting weeks or months, activate the organism and, once activated, the outbreak spreads quickly. Regular irrigation can also create ideal conditions for an outbreak. In some overseas countries, warm weather is a predisposing factor, but it is doubtful whether the temperature in South Africa plays a role in an outbreak. Symptoms In favorable conditions, the disease spreads through the flock very quickly. A large number of animals become lame at almost the same time, either walking with difficulty or on their knees. The pain and lameness can become so severe that they stop eating and lose weight, with a consequent decrease in the wool growth. One or more feet can be infected on each sheep. In the early stages of the infection, the inter-digital skin becomes red and moist with a characteristic foul-smelling, yellow-grey, puslike discharge. This allows the bacteria to multiply and causes inflammation, which results in the separation of the soft tissue from the hoof. The sole and external hoof material are damaged. The hoof becomes soft and crumbly and is easily loosened from the soft tissues within it. Infected hooves are hot and painful and soon become obviously deformed. If the horny exterior is cut away, the same smelly pus discharge is exposed. Eventually the inflammation can result impermanent lameness. Contagious ovine foot rot seldom causes death, but severely affected animals should be culled. Treatment Contagious ovine foot rot should be treated as follows: To limit the spread of the infection to the rest of the flock, isolate infected animlas immediatly in a dry shed until they have recovered. Have the infected animals stand for several minutes in a foot bath containing a 10 percent zinc sulphate solution, until the hooves appear healthy, and dry. All infected parts of the hooves should be pared thoroughly. If any infected material is left behind, the infection may recur after the treatment ends. Treat the exposed parts of the hoof with suitable antibiotics, antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide. Antibiotics such as tetracycline, or those available on prescription from veterinarians, should be administered intramuscularly to promote healing. Treated animals should not rejoin uncontaminated flocks during the wet season. If it is at all possible, they should stay separate, even if they appear to be healthy, as they are potential carriers and should not be allowed to spread the infection to healthy flocks. Prevention The following guidelines may be followed to reduce the incidence of foot rot: Pare hooves vigorously every year, before the beginning of the foot-rot season (November to May in KwaZulu-Natal). Stand the animals in a foot bath containing a 5 percent formalin or 10 percent zinc sulphate solution for several minutes, every week. The foot bath should be large enough to accommodate several sheep at the same time, and shallow enough to wet just the hooves. Scraps of wool, wood shavings or hay should be placed in the foot bath to reduce splashing and wastage. The hooves should first be washed with water in a foot bath, B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

35 or with a hose. After treatment, the sheep should stand on dry concrete to allow the treatment time to act. Dipping should be done in the shade, to reduce evaporation and formalin fumes. Muddy areas should be attended to because that is where infection occurs. Cover areas around kraals, gates and watering points with agricultural lime or gravel. Keep animals out of contaminated camps for at least 2 weeks so that the organisms have time to die off. Zinc sulphate can be added to a lick in areas where its intake in the diet is low. This should be done judiciously and in consultation with a expert, as mineral imbalances could result. Separate infected animals and keep them apart from the flock, even after treatment. Badly or repeatedly infected animals should be slaughtered as soon as possible; they are possible carriers of the bacterium and could have an inherited susceptibility to the infection. Select animals for purchase very carefully. If carrier animals are brought onto a previously uncontaminated farm, the disease could establish itself there permanently, or even worse a more severe strain of the disease could be introduced to an area where a mild form existed before. Vaccines for the control of foot rot bacterium have been used successfully, but have limitations. They are fairly expensive and have to be injected often. Immunity is short-lived, and does not offer full protection. The oil base of the vaccine can cause reactions and swelling at the site of the injection. The vaccine is, nevertheless, valuable in controlling contagious ovine foot rot and preventing major outbreaks. In New Zealand and Australia, virulent foot rot is eradicated on individual farms by examining the hooves of all sheep in the dry season and culling all sheep showing signs of being carriers (they have misshapen hooves). Eradication often needs more than one season, and must be accompanies by a closed flock policy: no sheep are bought from other farms unless they have been certified free of foot rot B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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37 ORF Orf is an infectious viral disease of the skin of sheep and goats. It occurs in all parts of the world where sheep and goats are farmed, and is common throughout South Africa. Occurrence All sheep and goat breeds are susceptible to the orf virus, which is related to the group of viruses that cause smallpox. Animals of all ages can be affected, enters these small lacerations and causes a red lump which later forms a scab. Insects such as blackflies (river midges) can also cause injuries that allow the virus to enter the body, and accelerate the spread of the outbreak. Symptoms The lesions occur mainly on the lips of affected animals, and may spread to the gums and palate. The but lambs are the most susceptible. Adult sheep and goats usually develop an immunity to the disease because of exposure to it when they were young. Humans handling infected animals can also contract the disease, usually on their hands or arms but occasionally also on the face. People should therefore be careful not to become infected when touching animals that have orf, and they should wear gloves when treating or vaccinating infected animals. There have been report of dogs developing the disease after eating the meat of animals that died from the orf virus, but infection of dogs and people is rare. Orf is not seasonal and can occur throughout the year, but it is associated with the lambing season because of the number of susceptible young lambs. Transmission The virus can survive in the veld or in kraals from one lambing season to the next. The new lambs become infected from the grazing or from old scabs in kraals in other words, by contact with the virus. Lambs can also infect each other by direct contact when they are kept in crowded conditions. Large outbreaks, that spread rapidly, occur where there are thorn bushes or Aristida grasses or steekgras, because of the wounds inflicted around the mouths of the animals and on their skin. The thorns cause small wounds on the lips and in the mucous membranes of the mouth. The virus nose and nostrils are often also infected. In some cases, thee are wart-like lesions on the eyelids and ears and even between the claws of the hoof and around the crown. Ewes can develop lesions on their teats from their infected lambs. Any injury to the lamb is a potential site of infection by the virus, no matter where it is, and the infected injury will develop a lesion. The initial lesions look like small lumps or pox. These multiply rapidly and form large scabs. It the scabs are removed, the skin underneath is lumpy, wart-like and bleeds easily. Orf is usually not fatal and the scabs fall off after 2 to 3 weeks, without leaving a lesion. But some lesions become so dense that the lambs refuse to eat and lose condition, and ewes that have lesions on their teats refuse to allow the lamb to suckle and can develop mastitis B O E R B O K N U U S N O

38 Some lambs develop a more serious form of the disease, where the lesions continue to develop inside the mouth and on the tongue, and even in the rumen, abomasum and small intestine. These lesions can have serious consequences: Secondary bacterial infections can lead to death caused by pneumonia or liver abscesses. Lesions on the mouth and lips can become so painful that the animal cannot eat or drink. Lesions on the udder of ewes can lead to mastitis. Blow flies sometimes attach the lesions and lay their eggs around the scabs. Some lesions become infected with the Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteria, which is fatal. The lumpy wool bacteria can also infect the lesions, which makes treatment and healing more difficult. Treatment Affected areas should be treated with an ointment containing an antibiotic or antiseptic to keep the scabs soft. An aerosol spray containing an antibiotic can also be used. If an infected lamb can no longer drink from its mother, it should be placed in a camp where there is soft green pasture, such as Lucerne of oats. Very young lambs should be fed milk by stomach tube. Prevention A veterinarian can prepare a vaccine against orf by collecting scabs from several lambs and grinding them up in a 50 percent glycero-saline solution. The mixture is made up of 1 g of scabs to 1 ml of glycero-saline. An antibiotic is added to kill any bacteria. A vaccine is also available from Onderstepoort. The scab vaccine is used like other pox virus vaccines: the skin is scratched off inside the leg of the animal where no hair or wool grows, and the liquid suspension is applied to the scratches. The scratches should be about 2,5 cm long and not be deep enough to bleed. Check the vaccination site a week later to make sure that scabs have developed. The inner leg is used for vaccinating so that he lesion will not bother the lamb. Vaccination will also speed up the healing of the lesions. Vaccination need only be done on farms where the disease is a problem, to prevent lamb losses and mastitis in ewes. Many palatable, spiny plants, such as Eberlanzia ferox, are grazed by sheep and goats in the Karoo. The spines cause wounds in the skin around the lips and mouth, and allow the orf virus to enter the body. The plants contribute to the rapid spread of the disease. HEARTWATER Distrubution Heartwater is caused by a rickettsial organism called Cowdria ruminantium. The tick that transmits the disease prefers warm, frost-free areas and can be found in the Lowveld, Bushveld, parts of Swaziland and KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape coastal area as far south as Mossel Bay. It is also found in most parts of sub Saharan Africa. Heartwater is an acute disease of sheep and goats, and can be fatal if not treated. It can lead to large-scale losses in susceptible animals.

39 Cause The disease is caused by te rickettsial organism transmitted by the bont or heartwater tick (Amblyonna hebraeum). During long periods of drought, tick numbers are reduced and animals lose their immunity. When weather conditions change again and bont tick numbers increase, stock losses resulting from heartwater become a serious problem. If animals carrying the ticks are moved to previously unaffected areas, the disease causes severe losses in susceptible animals. However, the ticks will not survive in unfavorable conditions for longer than 1 season. Transmission Animals that have recently recovered from the disease are carriers of the heartwater organism. Several wild antelope species can harbour both the ticks and the rickettsia organisms. It is almost impossible to eradicate Amblyomma ticks, or heartwater. When the tick nymphs or larvae feed on an infected or carrier animal, they become infected with the organism. In the next development stage, the tick then passes the organism on to a susceptible animal. The organism cannot be transmitted through the eggs of the ticks. If the ticks development stages are interrupted by dipping, the disease can be brought under control. Symptoms The first symptoms are a fever and lislessness. Animals are reluctant to eat and fall behind the flock when it moves on. If animals are not treated at this stage, they develop muscle tremors. The disease affects the brain, causing the animals to display increasing nervousness and to walk in circles, sometimes with a high-stepping gait; they also lean their heads against solid objects. Eventually, the animals lie down, their heads arched backwards and their legs extended stiffly, and make typical paddling movements with their limbs. Animals that have heartwater become very sensitive to light, blink their eyelids rapidly in bright light, and their eyes dart back and froth. Death occurs soon after these signs are seen. Often there is froth at the mouth and nose in the last stages. Post-mortem signs One sign of heartwater in a carcass is the presence of straw-coloured or bloody fluid in the body cavities, as well as in the heart sac. The internal organs are dark and full of blood. The lungs are heavy and dark purple, and there is white foam in the windpipe. The spleen is noticeably enlarged. There is also usually haemorrhaging in the inner and outer walls of the heart chambers. The intestines may be reddened. Diagnosis A veterinarian can confirm heartwater by microscopic examination of a properly prepared brain smear. Treatment There are several tetracycline preparations available for treating heartwater. It is important to treat animals as soon as possible, and with the correct dose, because it becomes increasingly difficult to treat them as the disease progresses. Animals in the advanced stages of heartwater disease seldom respond to treatment. Medicines past their expiry date or stored at the wrong temperature will not be effective. All labels and instructions should be read and followed carefully. Prevention Dipping There are very effective dips available to control ticks, and stock losses can be kept to a minimum. The tick larvae and nymphs are at their most active in autumn, winter and spring, and the adults in summer. In mild coastal areas, all 3 stages of the ticks development may be found simultaneously, at any time of the year. In areas where heartwater is a problem, it is advisable to dip every week in summer and every second week in week in winter. The intervals can be longer, depending on the dip used. The tick population on the veld will also be greatly reduced if dipping continues through the winter months. Animals born in heartwater areas are usually immune, because they are exposed to infection in the first 3 weeks of life, during which time they become naturally immunised and do not contract the disease. They should therefore not be dipped before they are a month old. Tick control should be very light, to maintain immunity. Heartwater susceptibility is not only a matter of the age of the animals but also of the breed angora goats appear to be especially susceptible to the heartwater organism and they do not develop prolonged immunity B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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41 There are different strains of heartwater, and some are more virulent than others. Immunity to one strain will, however, also give immunity to the others. Onderstepoort uses the relatively benign Ball 3-strain to prepare vaccines. Vaccination Vaccinating lambs and kids younger than 3 weeks of age seldom produces serious symptoms. On farms where heartwater immunisation is done routinely, it is preferable to vaccinate all young animals before they are 3 weeks old. These animals should then be watched carefully for a few days to see if they develop clinical heartwater, in which case they must be treated. A veterinarian should be consulted when adult animals are to be vaccinated. The farmer should not vaccinate more animals than he can treat simultaneously, as the temperature of the vaccinated animals must be monitored at least once, but preferably twice, a day after the 8th day. Farmers should look out for reaction to the heartwater vaccine in their adult sheep and goats days after vaccination. Immunity will be improved if the animals have a high temperature for at least 12 hours before they are treated. If they are treated too soon, i munity will not be as effective, because the animals need time to develop good immunity. Block treatment about 10 to 12 days after vaccinating can be considered, but many animals will have poor immunity. Long-acting implants can be used instead of the injected tetracycline treatment. Animals born in heartwater areas are generally immune because they are exposed to infection in the first 3 weeks of life, during which time they become naturally immunised and do not contract the disease. They will retain this immunity for life, if itis boosted from time to tome by re-infection. Animals introduced from heartwater-free areas are very susceptible and may contract severe, acute heartwater. They should be vaccinated at least a month before they are moved into the heartwater area. PARASITES Internal parasites Internal parasites or worms form the most prevalent, and most important, group of diseases in sheep and goats. More money is spent on combating these diseases, and more economic losses are experienced by farmers, than for any other grouping of diseases. It is probable that on many farms, more money is spent on parasite control than on all other diseases together. Classification Internal parasites, apart form nasal bots which are actually the maggot larvae of a fly, are classified as follows: Roundworms: These worms have long cylindrical bodies, are unsegmented and have simple life cycles, which involve free-living larval stages. Some are blood suckling, such as the wireworm, while others imply damage the intestine. Flukes: These have shorter bodies and more complex life cycles, which involve a secondary host through which they must pass to complete their life cycle. In Sheep and goat flukes, these intermediate hosts are certain freshwater snails. Tapeworms: They are characterised by long, segmented bodies and an indirect life cycle. In some cases the sheep or goat is the final host (i.e. it has the adult tapeworm) but in other cases carnivores such as dogs play this role, while the sheep is the intermediate B O E R B O K N U U S N O

42 the effect of parasitism on profits, as many advisors will not advocate treatment at low e.p.g. counts. Reduced milk production: Parasitism affects ewes that are heavily pregnant or lactating much more than otherwise. Estimates of 15 percent lower milk production show that this will impact severely on lamb growth, which has further knock on effects such as later weaning and reduced fertility. Roundworm Flukes Tapeworm host (i.e. it has the intermediate bladder or measle stage in its flesh. ) Worms have a number of effects on the host. Outright death or obvious disease is simply the most dramatic sign in a long list of effects: Weight loss and slower weight gains: Profit from slaughter lambs depends largely on satisfactory weight gains. In young, growing weaners that are particularly prone to parasitism, these gains can be cut dramatically. Some trials indicate that with worms such as the brown stomach worm, an index of infection such as the faecal egg count (f.e.c.) shows a reduction in live-weight fain of 30 g for each 100 eggs per gram (e.p.g.) of faeces. Other trials show that even on good feed, parasitism causes weight gains to drop by 25 percent. This illustrates how easy it is to underestimate Lower carcass quality and value: Not only are weight gains reduced, but parasitism can cause carcass quality to drop, an din extreme cases could lead to the carcass being condemned and being a total loss for the farmer. Lower grading on a number of sheep or goats also cause major financial loss. Individual organs can also be condemned for human consumption at the abattoir, as a result of liver fluke, liver tapeworm or bladderworm cysts. Blowfly: Poor parasite control can lead to diarrhea. Aggravation of other diseases: Existing diseases can be made worse by worm infections. For example, the effects of selenium deficiency become worse in parasitized lambs. Stock also become more prone to infection by other disease organisms. Reduced reproduction: The general effects of parasitism have a secondary effect on reproduction. Reduced lambing and weaning percentages are the end result. Treatment programmes The aim should be to use the right remedy at the right time, for those animals that need treatment, to achieve optimal, cost-effective control of the worm species that pose a danger on the farm in question. This implies that an expert should draw up a programme for each farm, since conditions vry even between neighbouring farms. However, there are a number of principles common to all situations, that should be used in every programme. Consider which parasites do not only occur but constitute a threat on farm or in a region. The expected climatic factors influence when, and how severe, the worm problem will be when it occurs. Deviations from the expected climatic pattern, which alter treatment programmes. The use of strategic treatments, i.e. when drug use is likely to have the best effect on parasites on a farm although usually a relatively fixed time, it has to be adapted to the climatic situation every year. The use of tactical dosing when and if circumstances warrant treatment. The decision is made on the pattern of recent rain, humidity, temperature, how long the animals have been in a particular B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

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45 paddock, the stocking density, the class of animals to be treated, and the faecal egg count pattern. Use the most appropriate drug for the circumstances. This is not necessarily the cheapest, or the most expensive remedy, or the one that has the broadest spectrum. The number of treatments should be the minimum needed to achieve affective control. Use of prolonged activity drugs or formulations should be restricted to situations where they are really necessary; in effect, only in ewes or does around lambing or kidding time, and immature animals afer weaning, when they are most at risk and do not develop good immunity. Although it was a standard recommendation for nearly a century, the practice of treating the entire flock and then moving them immediately to a rested, clean pasture is dangerous and can lead to resistant worms becoming dominant. If the entire flock must be treated, then leave the flock in the infected camp for a few weeks to allow them to pick up larvae that have not survived a treatment. These unselected worms will remain dominant and prevent resistant worms from gaining the upper hand. However, the old assumption of always treating the entire flock should be dropped. Although some circumstances demand this, as other times it would be better to treat only those animals unable to cope with worms. One practical way of identifying sheep unable to cope with wireworm is to inspect the eye mucous membranes of the entire flock at regular intervals during summer, increasing in frequency to every second week, or even weekly, towards the end of summer. The sheep quickly become accustomed to this and 500 sheep can be done in an hour. Only those that are clearly anaemic (pale mucous membranes) are treated. The system has been widely tested and accepted by farmers in the summer rainfall regions. It has some limitations, however, the most important being that it only works for wireworm, and must be part of an overall worm-control programme. Other worm species are much more difficult to monitor in living animals, and some researchers are testing systems in which a significant proportion of the flock is intentionally left untreated at each dosing. Prevention Controlling worms entails a combination of te treatment measures given above and what follows. They cannot be viewed separately. Only an integrated p0rogramme will be successful, long term, in preventing worms from causing financial losses. If we continue to rely too heavily on drugs, the problem of drug resistance, already severe on many farms, will become a major obstacle to profitable sheep/goat farming. Spelling (resting) of pastures. Wherever possible, goats should not return to graze a pasture within 3 months of the last grazing. This is not always feasible, so the second-best scenario is to return adults (other than heavily pregnant or nursing ewes) to the pasture as they are more resistant to infection. The best way of utilizing pastures from a worm control point of view is to alternate goats with other species, such as cattle or horses. They are not really susceptible to most goat parasites and when they graze, they remove the source of in infection a vacuum cleaner effect. Natural grazing systems (veld management) that require long periods of rest (over 6 months) are also beneficial for parasite control, as few parasites survive on the pasture for such a period. Fence off danger areas, if this is feasible. Flukes must have snails, that need permanent water (marshes) to survive, and fencing off these areas makes it possible to limit exposure, and treat only those animals exposed. Leaking water troughs or pipes, especially those in holding pens, are particularly dangerous as they encourage the growth of grass, which becomes very heavily contaminated with worm larvae because of the high concentrations of stock in the pen. Do not graze susceptible stock (especially weaners) with older, immune animals. The immune animals may still be producing large numbers of eggs, which can later cause disease in the weaners. Use the faecal egg count to monitor the worm B O E R B O K N U U S N O

46 situation on a regular (monthly) basis during the worm season. Use drug treatment carefully and only when needed. This will reduce the selection pressure on worms to develop drug resistance, and prolong the useful life of remedies. Breed for resistance. It has been shown conclusively that some sheep produce far fewer eggs in their dung. More important, this trait is partly genetic and therefore selection is possible. For practical and economic factors, selection is only possible in rams. Make sure that the rams used have also been selected for resistance, on the basis of low f.e.c. This has been extensively tested and also implemented as part of practical breeding in both Australia and New Zealand, and should be used elsewhere. Select for resilience. Animals able to withstand the effects of parasites should be preferred to those needing several treatments. At present, this is only feasible for resistance to wireworm, using the FAMACHA system of treating according to anaemia. Animals treated are marked with plastic cable ties around a leg each time, and those with multiple ties at the end of the season are clearly the ones to be culled. Correct vaccination technique To minimize carcass damage and to prevent further infection after vaccination, it is important to give careful attention to vaccination technique and hygiene. To avoid carcass damage it is important to: Sterilise all needles and metal vaccinator guns by boiling in water for at least 10 minutes before use. If using a plastic vaccinator gun immerse in 500 ml of water plus 20 ml of household bleach (4% w/v available chlorine) for 1 hour. Flush with cool boiled water before use. Avoid the use of strong disinfectants. Needles should be sharp and clean, replace frequently (every animals) Short needles work best. For sheep/goats the recommended maximum size needle is 15 mm x 18 gauge. Avoid injection of animals during wet weather or under dusty conditions. Inject animals only under the skin and not into the muscle. This is best achieved by raising a fold of skin and injecting the dose under the raised skin. Inject animals high up on the neck, behind the ear. Storage of Vaccines It is recommended to store all of the Coopers vaccines in a refrigerator between 2 C and 8 C. Vaccines should be protected from light and used before the expiry date marked on the label. The use of an insulated container is recommended during the day to protect the vaccine. If vaccine is to be hung beside the race, ensure it is on the shady side. Once opened, it is recommended that the vaccine be used up within 24 hours and any remaining vaccine after this time should be discarded. Resealing Instructions A partially used pack can be kept for use the next day if the following steps are taken: 1. Unscrew the delivery tube from the vaccine pack. 2. Empty the delivery tube and vaccinator by depressing the plunger several times. 3. Disinfect the stopper. 4. Store the vaccine in the refrigerator. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

47 The benefits of CREEP FEEDING y o u r k i d s - FAHEEM KALA BUSHRA KALAHARI REDS & BOER GOATS Gakuto, Botswana Creep feeding is a means of providing supplementary feeds for nursing kids. This purpose is to accelerate kidding or weaning management and thus is common practice. Using creep feed for young animals is not only one of the most economical methods of feeding, but also one of the most under-estimated yet rewarding practices in the livestock industry. Shares Jurie Naude of De Heus, South Africa, Creep feed can probably best be described as the feeding of young, growing animals whilst they are still suckling. The three major advantages of creep feed are the development of the rumen, economic growth and the condition of the mothers (does). Key to know is the fact that when goats are fed creep feed, their rumen develops much faster than when they are not given any creep feed at all. These goats get to utilise any feed and/or grazing much sooner and are adapted at a much earlier age for more economical feeding. Statistics show that kids (lambs) on creep feed exhibit an improvement of 15-20% in growth compared to those who do not receive any creep feed. Creep feed may be introduced to kids from as early as a week - ten days old. Creep feed options on the market include Lamb Creep Meal, Superlamb Pellets, Lamb & Ewe Pellets and Chocolate Maize. Lucern and Lab Lab are also very good for growing kids! This means mutual benefit for the animal and for the farmer. According to Felicity Julia Hunter of Technofeeds in Botswana, It is important to feed an animal when it is young as this is when the muscle development, bone density and immune system are developing. E.g. it will become a strong healthy productive animal. You can start the animals on creep feed as early as a couple of weeks up to weaning. Weaning will then as a result take place early taking the stress off the mother with the young animal being able to cope in our sometimes very harsh conditions. Creep feeding increases pre-weaning weight gain, especially for kids reared as a twin or triplet. It reduces the stress associated with weaning. Potential breeding animals and show prospects make the transition from milk to a dry diet much smoother if creep fed prior to weaning. The conversion of creep feed to body weight gain is also a very efficient process. Creep fed kids will have a greater weight per day of age. Kids will reach a target market weight and can be marketed at a younger age. For spring-born kids, avoiding the heat of the summer and large market runs may have a positive effect on net profit. Last but not least, any focus on the benefit to the kids, but use of creep fee is also very beneficial for the mother. The does are able to maintain a better body condition and at the same time a lot of pressure is immediately removed from the doe concerning the well-being of her offspring. The creep feeding of the kids also has a very positive effect on the re-conception and reproduction of the does. This is especially important in intensive farming operations where breeders push does to kid/lamb every 8 months (thrice in 2 years). The growing, almost never-ending, list of benefits of using creep feed are impressive enough, and the words of the experts are a great endorsement. Of course, doing your own research is key, so make sure to explore your options and get to know the statistics and the facts. You will likely find it s the right choice for your kids and your does! B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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49 Boer met bokke op aangeplante weiding - michelle kruger Dit is n alombekende feit dat die natuurlike weiding van Suid-Afrika vir dekades reeds besig is om progressief te verswak. Roux (1983) meld dat sedert die eerste grootskaalse ondersoek na droogtes deur die Droogtekommissie in 1923 en uit die toepassing van veldherstelmaatreëls soos die Veldspaarskema en die Veeverminderingskema was daar tot dusver nog geen stuiting of afname in veldagteruitgang nie. Scotney (1984) ondersteun hierdie stelling en verwys na n ondersoek van 20 jaar gelede in die Booranjerivier-opvanggebied waar gevind is dat minder as 12 % van die veld in n goeie toestand was en dat die weidingskapasiteit in bepaalde distrikte met meer as 50 % oorskry was. In hierdie artikel word daar dus n oorsig gegee van die moontlike aanwending van aangeplante weidings in die veeproduksiestelsels om moontlik die druk op die veld te verlig en ook om die nadelige gevolge van droogtes te verminder. Water is die dryfkrag n Duimreël is dat 100mm plantbeskikbare water, 2,3 ton droëmateriaal / ha kan lewer; 150mm omtrent 3,9 ton droëmateriaal / ha en 200mm omtrent 5,5 ton droëmateriaal / ha. In die somerreënvalgebied is reënval gedurende die groenvoer groeifase beperk en is dit belangrik om water reeds voor vestiging in die grond op te berg. Tewens sukses met droëland groenvoer word gewoonlik bepaal deur die boer se vermoë om water beskikbaarheid te bestuur. Hier is gronddiepte, onkruidbeheer en waterindringing belangrik. n Grond van 1m diep se waterlewerings vermoë wissel van 120 mm vir kleigrond tot 110 mm vir meer sanderige grond. Indien daar nie met plant minstens 100 mm water in die grondprofiel is nie, raak droëland groenvoer vestiging in die somerreënvalgebied n groot risiko. Kultivar-keuse Daar is drie patrone, naamlik; kort seisoen; medium seisoen en lang seisoen. Kort seisoen kultivars het geen koue-behoefte vir blom nie; blom daarom vroeg met n vroeë produksie-piek tot einde Julie. Medium seisoen kultivars het n kort koue-behoefte vir blom; blom later met n vroeë produksie-piek tot middel Augustus. Lang seisoen kultivars het n lang koue-behoefte; blom laaste met n later produksiepiek en produseer tot einde September B O E R B O K N U U S N O

50 Dit geld vir herfs-vestigings. Kultivar-produksie proewe het verder bewys dat lang seisoen kultivars se produksie gemiddeld 50% hoër is as dié van kort seisoen kultivars. Dit geld vir die onderskeie kultivartipes binne al die groenvoergroepe, naamlik rog, hawer en korog kultivars. Kies die regte tipe volgens jou spesifieke voervloeibehoefte. As dit laat raak (einde Maart) en voer is teen middel Mei nodig, plant dan kort seisoen kultivars. n Lang-seisoen kultivar kan so vroeg as moontlik (Februarie) geplant word. Dit sal n sekerder, langer en hoër produksie verseker. Met so n praktyk sal moontlike laat-somer en herfsreëns ook beter benut word en groenvoer sal vanaf middel April tot einde September beskikbaar wees. DROOGTEBESTANDE VOERGEWASSE Die bekendste droogtebestande voergewasse in die RSA is die garingboom (Agave americana), doringlose turksvye (Opuntia spp) en oumansoutbos (Amp/ex nummularia). Rubidge (1961) verwys na die goeie hoedanighede van garingboom en meld dat hy op die plaas Wellwood naby Graaff-Reinet gedurende die droogte Merino-ooie vir n periode van 86 dae op gekerfde garingboomblare alleen, en sonder enige addisionele drinkwater, aangehou het. Die vee het nie alleen oorleef nie, maar selfs in kondisie verbeter. Die waarde van oumansoutbos is reeds sedert die vorige eeu bekend en meld Alston in 1889 dat dit met sukses in die Van Wyksvlei-omgewing verbou kan word (De Kock, 1967) terwyl navorsing op doringlose turksvye en oumansoutbos reeds sedert die twintigerjare in die RSA aandag geniet het (Turpin en Gill, 1928). Die Oumansoutbos - Atriplex nummularia - onder drup is n goeie plan. Kwaliteit: Die voedingswaarde ontleding van oumansbos word in Tabel 67 aangedui. Tabel 67 Gemiddelde samestelling van oumansoutbos op n droë basis (Volgens de Kock, ongedateerd) Voedingstof % Proteïen Vet 3.05 Minerale Koolhidrate Vesel Groen materiaal bevat gemiddeld 74,71% vog en 15,29% droëmateriaal en uit die ontleding is dit duidelik dat oumansoutbos nie n gebalanseerde ratsoen verskaf nie. Die doel van hierdie gewas is egter nie om diere vet te maak of hoë produksie te verkry nie, maar eerder om veeverliese tydens droogtes te voorkom. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

51 LANGSWENKGRAS: (Festuca arundinaceae) Langswenkgras is een van meer as 100 spesies van die genus Gestuca. Hierdie meerjarige polgras is diepgewortel en bly groen gedurende die winter. Dit het kort ondergrondse lopers (Tainton, Bransby & Booysen, 1976). Die blare is gewoonlik donkergoren met duidelike riwwe op die bokant. Die onderkant van die blare is glad en blink. Die bloeiwyse is n oop pluim met groot are. Kultivars Die volgende kultivas verskyn op die Suid-Afrikaanse variëteitslys: Aberystwyth S170 Alta Demeter Festal Fuego Grasslands Roa Kentucky 31 Raba Rebel Gewasvereistes en gebruike: Langswenkgras is goed aangepas in beide die somer- en winterreënvalgebiede van Suid-Afrika. Aangesien dit versuiptoestande vir redelike periodes kan weerstaan is dit utiers geskik vir verbouing op nat lande. Indien die jaarlikse reënval 750mm oorskry kan dit onder droë land toestande verbou word, verkieslik in rye. Normaalweg word langswenkgras egter onder besproeiing verbou in n suiwer stand of in alternatiewe rye met klawers. Langswenkgras het twee piek produksie periodes, nl.: lente en herfs. Met goeie bestuur kan hierdie gras n belangrike deel uitmaak van n voervloeiprogram. In vergelyking met raaigras en kropaargras is langswenkgras nie besonder smaaklik nie. Meer smaaklike kultivars sal egter binnekort beskikbaar wees. Hierdie nuwe kultivars het lae vlakke van endofiet swamme en laer vlakke van die perloliën alkaloïed. Verder is die voorkoms van swenkgrasvergiftiging (toksikose) by hierdie kultivars seldsaam onder beweidings toestande (Buckner, Boling, Burrus, Bush, Hemken & Siegel, 1985) Vestiging: Tyd van vestiging: Soos die meeste gematigde grasse is die beste verstigingstyd gedurende die laat somer of vroeë herfs. Saaidigtheid kg/ha Langswenkgras alleen Breedwerpig Langswenkgras alleen In rye Langswenkgras 8-10 In alternatiewe rye Ladino 3 Bekalking: Indien die kalsium- en magnesium vlakke in die grondlaag is en/of die grond n lae ph het, moet kalk toegedien word. Die hoeveelheid en tipe kalk sal afhang van die grondontledings resultate. Waar klawers n komponent van die weiding gaan uitmaak sal dit in die meeste gevalle nodig wees om kalk toe te dien. Benutting: Langswenkgras is besonder stadig om behoorlik te vestig en sal beskadig word indien dit te gou na vestiging bewei word. Sodra dit egter goed gevestig is behoort dit redelik swaar bewei te word. Dit moet nie toegelaat word om te lank uit te groei nie. Die beste resultate word behaal indien dit vir kort periodes swaar bewei word B O E R B O K N U U S N O

52 Anthephora pubescens Borseltjiegras Limpopo: As daar nie besproeiing beskikbaar is nie, is daar net twee grasse wat aangepas is: Borseltjiegras op sandgrond en Bloubuffelsgras op swaarder gronde. Dit is n goeie gedagte om vir n deel van die dag (3 4 ure) daarop te wei, veral dragtige ooie of ooie met lammers. Oumansoutbos is natuurlik ook n goeie keuse vir dié droë omgewing. Beskrywing: Borseltjiegras is n smaaklike regopgroeiende meerjarige polgras. Die blare is kenmerkend dofgroen en die saadhalm mm lank. Die bloeiwyse is enkel, wit en wollerig. Dikwels is die halm net onder die bloeiwyse gekartel en lyk na n dun borseltjie. Kultivars: Geen gesertifiseerde saad is verkrygbaar nie. n Seleksie wat al bekend staan as die Molopotipe is algemeen beskikbaar maar dit is n mengsel van verskeie ekotipes. Gewasvereistes en gebruike: Borseltjiegras is aanpasbaar by n reeks grond en klimaat toestande en kom wydverspreid in Suid-Afrika voor. Dit het veral toepassingsmoontlikhede in die droër, warmer, westelike gebiede, sowel as in die Waterberg gebied. Dit verdra hitte soos wat daar ondervind word goed en floreer veral op sandgronde met n reënvalsyfer van ongeveer 350mm en meer. (Dit kan egter met 250mm reën oorleef.) Borseltjiegras kan op n verskeidenheid van grondtipes gevestig word, maar toon n besliste voorkeur vir sandgrond. Borseltjiegras se belangrikste voordele is dat dit relatief maklik vestig, baie smaaklik is vir diere en minder sensitief is vir toestande van lae grondvrugbaarheid as ander grasse. (Dannhauser, 1987) Die gras maak uitstekende staandehooi. Vestiging: Tyd van Vestiging Die meeste aanplanting van borseltjiegras word aangetref in die droë, warm, westelike gebiede. Weens lae reënval in hierdie gebiede, word die opbouing van voldoende grondvog vir vestiging dikwels eers laat in die seisoen bereik. Hierdie gebied word terselfdertyd gekenmerk deur n redelike betroubare reënval in die vroeë herfs, terwyl ryp ook eers laat verwag kan word. Dit is dus moontlik en selfs wenslik, om aanplantings tot so laat as Maart te vestig. Indien later gevestig word, word die risiko vir voldoende, tydige reën vir ontkieming en goeie vestiging ook groter. Metodes van vestiging: Die saad is baie wollerig en kan dus slegs met die spesiale wolsaadplanters doeltreffend geplant word. Die saadomhullingstegniek verbeter die hanteerbaarheid egter sodanig dat dit geredelik deur gewone graanplanters behartig kan word. Die saad kan suiwer of in n mengsel met fosfaatkunsmis gesaai word. Indien saad met kunsmis gemeng word moet dit verkieslik dadelik gebruik word aangesien die saad na lang blootstelling aan kunsmisstowwe beskadig kan word. Omdat hierdie gras regopgroeiend is en relatief klein polle vorm, word dit soms breedwerpig gevestig. Rye van ongeveer 0.75 m word egter vir die hoërproduksiegebiede aanbeveel en 1,5m rye in die droër weste. Dit kan ook tussen kontantgewasse gevestig word. Fourie, du Pisani & Baard meld dat n uitstaande kenmerk van A. Pubescens sy vermoë is om geredelik te vestig en bevredigend te produseer, selfs bylae P-vlakke in die grond. Winderosie op seker gronde en versuiptoestande op ander kan egter probleme skep vir suksesvolle vestiging. Saaidigtheid: Volgens Donaldson & Kelk (1984) moet slegs saad gebruik word wat vir minstens 6-9 maande na oes n rypword proses deurgaan het. Die volgende saaidigthede kan as riglyn gebruik word. Breedwerpig: 7kg/ha 0.75 m ry 5kg/ha 1.5 m rye 3kg/ha Produksiepotensiaal: Oor die algemeen kan n opbrengs van 0.75 t/ha/100mm reën verwag word. Die goeie benutbaarheid van borseltjiegras vergoed grootliks vir die relatief lae produksiepotensiaal. Die waarde van borseltjiegras is dat, alhoewel die produksie daarvan nie hoog is nie, dit n lae koste gras vir droë gebiede is. Dit lewer ekonomiese diereproduksie op n semi-ekstensiewe vlak. Benutting: Weens die smaaklikheid kan borseltjiegras uiters goed deur diere benut word en moet dit tydens die aktiewe groeistadia noulettend wisselbewei word. n Ander moontlikheid is om die gras gedurende die somer nie te bewei nie en dan gedurende die winter en vroeë lente as staandehooi te benut. Bron: prof Chris Dannhauser, Grass SA, vodamail.co.za Weidings Handboek Yara B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

53 Piet en Cois Delport boer in die Wesselsbron omgewing suksesvol met bokke op aangeplante weiding wat bestaan uit Akkerbone, Voersorghum en radyse. Raphanus sativus Japanese radys Die genus Raphanus bestaan uit 8-10 spesies wat wissel van eenjarig, tweejarig tot meerjarig en is inheems in Europa en Oos-Asië. Dit word aangeplant ter wille van die verdikte penwortel wat varieer in vorm en kleur. Daar is twee kultivars op die mark beskikbaar, nl.: Nooitgedacht en Sakurajima. Nooitgedacht, wat die meeste gebruik word, het n lang groeiseisoen. Dit blom en vorm nie vroeg saad nie en het n langwerpige knol. Nooitgedacht is egter geneig daartoe om sy kwaliteit en blare vroeër in die seisoen te verloor as wat die geval met Sakurajima is. Laasgenoemde word hoofsaaklik vir laat vestigings (Februarie en Maart) gebruik. Die knol is kleiner en gerond en dit behou sy kwaliteit deur die hele winter (tot in Augustus). Gewasvereistes en gebruike: Radyse word gewoonlik in die koeler oostelike dele van die land as n herfs- of wintervoergewas geplant. Die afgelope jare het die Japanese radys ook in die droër westelike dele van die hoëveld, meer gewild begin word (Dickinson, 1982). Japanese radys is bestand teen koue en word nie deur ryp beïnvloed nie. Dit vaar die beste in koel dele met n betroubare reënval vanaf Januarie tot April. As daar 350mm reën versprei oor die vier maande val, sal dit genoeg wees om n goeie oes te verseker. Gronde met n goeie voghouvermoë moet gebruik word om hierdie gewas te verbou. Produksiepotensiaal: Daar word groot verskille in produksiepotensiaal aangetref, afhangend van planttyd en reënval. Opbrengs kan tussen ton groenvoer per ha wees, ongeveer 4-6 ton droëmateriaal/ ha. As dit in die herfs goed reën en aanplanting is goed bemes, is 100t/ha (10t droëmateriaal/ha) n heeltemal realistiese oesverwagting. Indien die lande besproei word, kan tot 12t droëmateriaal/ha geoes word. Droë ooie wat op veld wei en so min as 1,5kg radys/ bok/dag gevoer word, toon n opvallende verbetering in kondisie. Japanese radys kan ook met groot sukses deur ooie en lammers benut word. PW Botha in die Jansenville distrik boer op aangeplane weidings wat bestaan uit Tef vir die Maart lamtyd en Hawer as wintervoer. Eragrostis tef TEF Tef is n eenjarige somergroeiende gras, mm hoog met fyn stingels en blare. Die blare kan tot 300mm lank en 4 mm breed wees. Die bloeiwyse is n pluim wat oop of saamgetrek kan wees. Daar is ook verskille in die kleur van die pluim asook die kleur van die graan. Dit word beweer dat tef selfbestuiwend is B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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55 Tef is hoofsaaklik bekend as n gewas wat vinnig groei maar in Ethiopië word dit op redelike groot skaal as graangewas verbou (Bogdan, 1977) Tef kultivars verskil hoofsaaklik ten opsigte van die lengte van hul groeiperiodes. Gewonde Bruin Tef (Ou bruin) is betreklik vinnig en neem ongeveer dae om die hooistadium te bereik, terwyl die sogenaamde verbeterde kultivars (byvoorbeeld Unie Bruin en Unie Wit) n dae langer groeiperiode het en ook sterkter strooi eienskappe toon (dis meer bestand teen omval, veral die witsadige kultivars). Gewasvereistes en gebruike Tef is wyd aangepas vir verskillende gronde en kan op sand tot turfgrond gesaai word, maar dis nie vir versuipgrond aangepas nie. Die gras word gewoonlik op droëland gesaai en kan in gebiede met n reënval van so laag soos 400mm per jaar groei. Hierdie gewas word uitsluitlik vir hooi gebruik. Dit word as die ideale grastipe hooigewas beskou. Daarbý is dit maklik om goeie hooi van die dunstammige plante te maak. Die is die gras se fyn struktuur wat dit so gewild by perdeboere maak. Tef word ook dikwels as dekgewas gesaai om verspoeling en erosie op oorlê lande te voorkom. Produksiepotensiaal: Tef is vinnig groeiend en is in staat om meer as een snysel gedurende die somergroeiseisoen te lewer. Dit is moontlik om die tef dae na saai te sny. Twee snysels is normaalweg prakties moontlik, maar indien dit vroeg in die lente geplant en goed bemes word, is drie snysels soms moontlik. Die jaarlikse produksie van tef kan van 2 tot 8 ton droë materiaal varieer. Die ruproteïeninhoud van hooi wissel normaalweg van 8 11 persent, ruvesel van 30 tot 35 persent en verteerbaarheid tussen 55 en 60 persent. Verwysing: Bogdan, A.V Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants (Grasses and Legumes). Longman, Londen and New York Attie Brits boer in die Bronkhorstspruit omgewing op 44ha met 560 bokke. Attie plant Smutsvinger, en hawer vir groenvoer in die winter. Digiatria eriantha subsp. Eriantha SMUTSVINGERGRAS Smutsvingergras is n meerjarige somergroeiende polgras met halms wat dikwels vertak is en wat 1 200mm lank groei. Die bloeiwyse ontwikkel 6 tot 10 vingervormige trosse elk, 70 tot 130 mm lank. Die basis van die blaarskedes is baie harig maar die blaarskywe is feitlik sonder hare. Die blare groei tot 600 mm lank en 13 mm breed (Roberts & Fourie 1975). Ongelukkig is daar huidig geen suiwer Smutsvingergras tipes of kultivars nie. Die saad wat beskikbaar is, is n mengsel van n groot aantal variërende tipes. Gewasvereiste en gebruike: Smutsvingergras aard goed waar die jaarlikse reënval hoër as 500 mm is en groei op n verskeidenheid van toestande en gronde insluitende vlak klipperige gronde. Dit het homself alreeds bewys op n groot aantal medium en laepotensiaal gronde. Op gronde met n hoë klei inhoud kan die gras suksesvol gevestig word indien die saaidigtheid hoër as normaal is. Selfs al is die stand op sulke gronde relatief yl, stoel die individuele plante goed en gee sodoende n bevredigende opbrengs per ha. Dit is egter belangrik dat onkruidbeheer goed toegepas word. Smutsvingergras sal nie vir lank onder versuiptoestande oorleef nie. Smutsvingergras is in hoofsaak n weidingsgras wat vanaf die middel somer en later benut kan word. Dit is n soetgras wat sy smaaklikheid tot in die laat winter behou selfs al ryp dit vroeg in die witner dood. Dit is dus n uitstaande gras om as staandehooi te benut. Alhoewel hooi gemaak kan word, wod dit stadig ryp vanweë sy blaarrykheid en volume. Dit is dus nie n maklike gras om hooi van te maak nie. Dit maak egter goeie kuilvoer indien dit fyn genoeg gekerf word. Die kuilvoer gehalte kan verbeter word deur die toevoeging van een of ander vorm van koolhidraat. Omdat Smutsvingergras op n ekstensiewe skaal gevestig kan word, is dit besonder aantreklik in semi B O E R B O K N U U S N O

56 ekstensiewe vleisbees- en skaapproduksiestelsels. n Navestigings probleem in die medium en hoë reënvalgebiede is die indringing deur Eragrostis spesies. Ernstige indringing sal dus die bruikbare leeftyd van Smutsvingergras as n weiding beperk. Vestiging: Saad kan enige tyd gedurende die somer gesaai word maar in die meeste jare is November, Januarie en Februarie die beste maande. Om die kanse vir algehele mislukkings te verminder kan saaitye vanaf November tot Februarie versprei word. Vestiging moet gestaak word ongeveer agt weke voordat die eerste swaar ryp verwag word. Produktiwiteit en drakrag: Somer: In n proef deur Pieterse (1983) in die Noord-Oos-Vrystaat uitgevoer, het 140 kg N per ha, aan die begin van Januarie toegedien, n droëmateriaalopbrengs van 5,82 ton gelewer met n ruproteïeninhoud van 10,3% in Mei. Die opbrengs sonder stikstof was 2,22 ton per ha en die ruproteïen 7,05%. Dannhauser (1982) het aangetoon dat ongeveer 50 persent van die somergroei van Smutsvingergras teen die einde Desember plaasgevind het. Winter: Smutsvingergras is besonder waardevol as n staandehooi vir winterbeweiding. Waar dit vir hierdie doel bestuur word moet die gras in November/Desember bewei word en dan vir die res van die groeiseisoen onttrek te word. Vir algemene doeleindes is die beste tyd vir onttrekking Januarie, maar dan behoort n proteïen-aanvulling ongeveer n maand na hervatting van beweiding gevoer te word. Waar die weiding later onttrek word behoort n proteïen aanvulling onnodig te wees. n Belangrike punt ten gunste van staandehooi is dat die reënval oor die algemeen in die tweede helfde van die somer meer bestendig is. Dit beteken dat staandehooi opbrengste van 5ton en hoër per ha verwag kan word met voldoende bemesting. n Ruproteïen -inhoud van ongeveer 8% is ook normaal in die winter. Waar somergroei oorgedra word vir winter-beweiding moet sekere riglyne gevolg word nl.: Alhoewel dit moontlik is om die totale somergroei op die land na die winter oor te dra, is dit onwenslik omdat die materiaal hard sal wees met n hoë stingel tot blaarverhouding, n lae proteïeninhoud en lae verteerbaarheid. n Weiding wat al vroeg in die somer onttrek word sal n groot hoeveelheid voer van n lae kwaliteit produseer. n Weiding wat laat in die somer onttrek word sal van n goeie kwaliteit wees maar met n lae opbrengs. Hoe later in die somer die weiding onttrek word, hoe hoër sal die blaar tot stingel verhouding in die winter wees en die stingels sal ook sagter wees. Staandehooi sal goeie resultate in die vroeë en middel winter lewer, maar kan in die laat winter teleurstellend wees. Aanvullende voer soos hooi behoort in die laat winter gevoer te word. Winter staandehooi moet gerantsoeneer word of in n wisselbeweidingstelsel gebruik word. Met onbeheerde beweiding van groot oppervlaktes is vertrapping en vermorsing hoog. Die kwaliteit van Smutsvinger staandehooi is hoog in die eerste twee winters na vestiging. Daar is egter aanduidings dat ouer aanplantings minder goed vaar. Dit beteken dat hulle later in die somer onttrek moet word en dat n goeie aanvullende winterlek benodig word. Besproeiing: Dit is nie normale praktyk om Smutsvingergras onder besproeiing te verbou nie. Verwysings: Dannhauser, C.S., Die geskiedenis van Smutsvingergras met spesiale verwysing na die Hoëveldstreek. Hand. Weidingsvere. S. Afr. 17: in suksesvolle groenvoerweiding tydens die wintermaande. Bemestingaanbevelings kan meer akkuraat gedoen word vanaf grondontledings, omrede die voedingstatus en voghouvermoë van die grond n belangrike rol speel. As norm kan met 150 tot 200 kg 4:2:1 (28) per hektaar geplant word. Ideale grond vir groenvoer is diep sanderige gronde met n kleilaag in die ondergrond wat help met vogbewaring. Lande met meer klei in die bogrond moet eerder vroeër geplant word, omrede vogbewaring swakker is. Hawer as weiding Hawer word nog algemeen in die Oos Vrystaat gebruik as winterweiding. Korrekte grondvoorbereiding en grondvogbewaring speel n belangrike rol Daar is twee redes waarom hawer nie meer algemeen as weidinggewas gebruik word nie : 1) Dit is en bly riskant al word vogbewaring toegepas. 2) Die relatiewe lae opbrengs maak dit n duur voergewas. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

57 Drakrag Normaalweg word die droë materiaalproduksie op ongeveer 2 ton per hektaar bereken. Dit beteken n drakrag van 1 GVE of 6 KVE per hektaar vir ongeveer drie maande. Indien die weiding gedurende Augustus tot Oktober gebruik wil word, moet daar eerder gedink word aan n kombinasie van hawer en korog. Vir n moontlike pakket wat voldoende groenvoer kan verskaf, sal n 25% hawer en 75% korogkombinasie wat op drie verskillende datums geplant word, n opsie wees. In die besluit oor kombinasies, moet daar gekyk word na die agronomiese eienskappe van die beskikbare kultivars en hoe dit gaan inpas by die bestuur. Koste Die totale direk geallokeerde koste vir hawer is ongeveer R1500 per hektaar (VKB Burodiens,2010). Voeg daarby n vaste koste van R650/ha en die totale koste per hektaar is meer as R2000. Met n opbrengs van 2 ton is die koste per ton dus meer as R1000. Geskryf deur: dr. Hannes Dreyer, Veekundige WESKAAP Aangeplante weiding onder vloed- en sprinkelbesproeiing aan Weskus die weskus, waar brakwater n probleem vir sommige gewasse kan wees. Rhodesgras (Chloris gayana) is n meerjarige somergroeiende gras wat baie goed in braktoestande doen. Ek sal die gras dus vir die somer aanbeveel. Hier volg n kort beskrywing: RHODESGRAS: (Chloris gayana) Kultivars: Katambora (soms is Boma ook beskikbaar) Reënvalbehoefte: 550 mm + Smaaklike weiding en maak baie goeie hooi. Ontkiem vinnig en vestig maklik - is die ideale gras om met ander grasse, wat stadig vestig, te meng. Ideale dekgewas vir oorlêlande en erosiebekamping. Plant in piek reëntye byvoorbeeld Oktober/ November en Januarie/ Februarie. As Rhodesgras te hard bewei word, is sy leeftyd net 3-7 jaar. Indien slegs vir hooi gesny word, is leeftye van tot 20 jaar al verkry. Doen goed op meeste gronde selfs brak en versuipgrond. Saaidigtheid: onverpil: 4-7 kg/ha; verpil: 6-9 kg/ha. Hooi/hay: 6 12 ton/ha Weikapasiteit: 1 2 GVE/ha Vir die winter doen eenjarige raaigras ook goed in die Wes-Kaap: EENJARIGE RAAIGRAS: (Lolium multiflorum) Raaigras word in 2 groepe verdeel: Italiaanse en Westerworld raaigras. Eersgenoemde kan in die herfs en lente geplant word, terwyl laasgenoemde slegs in die herfs geplant word. Reënval behoefte: 800 mm + (Verkieslik besproeiing) B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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59 Italiaanse Raaigras EENJARIGE RAAIGRAS Herfsaanplanting Feb. Apl. Lente-aanplanting Aug. Sept. Produseer vroeë winter, maar neem af in koue maande en produseer saad. Produseer op sy beste laat winter/lente. Groei stop Nov/Des. Diploїde kultivars: NCD Enhancer, Exalta, Moata Tetraploїde kultivars: Jeanne Blom & saadvorming eers na mnde. Produksie hoog in lente, herfs en die volgende lente. Westerwolds Raaigras Slegs Herfsaanplanting Feb. Apl. Lang daglengtes stimuleer blom & saadvorming, dus in Nov/Des. Dan begin groei afneem en die weiding minder smaaklik raak. Bied weiding van Apl/Mei tot Nov/Des. Beste in mid-winter Diploїde kultivars Agri-Hilton Tetraploїde kultivars: Jivet, Energa, Captain Hoog produserende smaaklike weiding wat hoë veeladings kan dra. Hoofplantseisoen Maart tot Mei, terwyl Italiaanse tipes ook in September/Oktober geplant kan word. Besproeiing en kunsmis is noodsaaklik vir hoë produksies, terwyl rotasiebeweiding (kampe) noodsaaklik is vir oorlewing (21-28 dae rus). Verkies leemgronde (Hutton) tot los, goed gedreineerde kleigronde. Plantdigtheid: 25kg/ha Hooi/hay: 8-16 t/ha Weikapasiteit/Grazing capacity: 5-6 GVE (MLU)/ha (dag/day) B O E R B O K N U U S N O

60 Play your part to curb stock theft Stock theft is a threat to South African livestock producers very existence, impacting on the long-term sustainability and profitability of the industry. It has become a lucrative business and affects the emerging farmer and commercial farmer alike. An average of cases per year have been reported for the past five years, representing a monetary loss of R750 million annually. Mark all livestock Without identification, it is impossible to prove ownership. Many of the respective role players in the livestock production sector contribute directly to the high incidence of stock theft by ignoring the legal requirements as set out in the Animal Identification and Stock Theft Acts, which control the marking and movement of livestock. A legal, permanent mark is our responsibility and the first line of defence. Unmarked livestock also means that feedlots, producers, speculators, auctioneers, buyers and abattoirs cannot tell whether an animal was stolen or not. Should the animals be stolen, these parties are contravening the law and are at risk of prosecution in terms of the Animal Identification Act (Act 6 of 2002). Hot iron brand marks for cattle and tattoo marks for smallstock are the most effective and cost- effective ways of marking. Keep stock thieves away R600 million a year, which is about half the value of the loss to predation. Predators are estimated to account for about animals a day, annually, while stock thieves take up to 1 million cattle, sheep and goats a year. Stock theft and predation is widespread in the livestock industry and losses could be higher than we think. Stock theft is the rural equivalent of vehicle theft and hijacking in cities, with one major difference livestock can t be insured. Officially, stock theft losses amount to about The stock theft problem is under-estimated and many cases of stock theft go unreported, especially in the communal farming areas. This means that figures could be higher than police statistics suggest. Losses caused by stock theft and predation have forced farmers in many areas to abandon small stock farming and switch to cattle or game. Thieves can herd cattle, but they cannot be as easily loaded as sheep. Game, of course, can t be caught or herded, but can be poached. Up to you It is difficult for police to catch and convict a professional stock thief. Stock thieves know the lay of the land and the movements of farmers and their staff. They can operate strategically, minimising the danger of being caught. Police stock theft units are B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

61 hopelessly under-staffed and don t always get the necessary co-operation from local police stations. Despite difficult conditions they put in long hours and work courageously against daunting odds. But it is largely up to stock farmers to do what they can to control losses and outwit and out-manoeuvre thieves. Constructive partnerships with neighbours and police officers can contribute significantly to success in this battle. What to do If large-scale stock theft hasn t yet taken hold in your district, you re lucky. Plan to keep it that way. Show prospective thieves you re vigilant. That means patrolling regularly, employing security guards, developing a reliable informer network and fostering a good relationship with the police. Once sophisticated syndicates have infiltrated a district, emergency measures must be taken and these cost money, effort and time. Aside from the economic cost of stock theft, farmers are forced to move animals away from veld or pasture bordering public roads or towns. If these vulnerable parts of a farm can t be secured by means of electric fencing or guards, the only way to prevent losses is to move the animals every night. Ask your staff to help keep potential thieves off your property. Warn them of the dangers of temptation. Often drugs or alcohol are offered in return for fresh meat. Make sure your staff know that accepting these bribes is short-sighted. Even if they re not caught, severe stock losses could cause them to lose their jobs. That s a heavy price to pay. It is a serious challenge for farmers to farm during the day and to police their flocks at night. If a reservist police force is active in your district, there are definite benefits to roadblocks which effectively control crime. Sometimes this work can be dangerous with farmers intimidated and threatened, preventing them from helping the stock theft unit. It costs the state millions to investigate and follow up stock theft. Money is lost on every stolen animal that s not formally marketed. The farmer suffers production losses and the community suffers job losses. Finally until affordable genetic and electronic identification systems are available tattoo or brand your animals according to the law and count them as regularly as you can. Contact the police s national Stock Theft Unit on or

62 Tattooing and ear notching Tattooing Tattooing is a marking technique in which a permanent mark is placed in an unobtrusive area such as on the ear of an animal. It consists of a pattern of closelyspaced dark dots depicting numbers, letters or a combination of the two, imbedded in the bare skin using black ink, generally on the inside of the ear. If properly done, a tattoo is as distinctive and permanent as a brand and complies with the requirements of both animal identification legislation and breed regulations. The tattoo will be legible and permanent if the correct equipment, permanent tattoo ink and procedure is used. Inferior quality ink can be absorbed into the bloodstream, causing it fade. Tattoo equipment Tattoo pliers are designed to accommodate a combination of easy-change standard 3/8 character dies that cannot be inserted upside down. The dies contain sharp, nickel-plated steel needles set in a fiberglass reinforced nylon base and are available as numbers and letters. The needles pierce the skin to make clear and readable marks. Black tattoo ink is used for normal use and green tattoo ink for animals with a black or darkly pigmented skin. Tattoo procedure Place the tattoo character dies (letters and/or numbers) in the appropriate sequence and position in the pliers. Check that the tattoo is correct by testing on a piece of cardboard or other similar surface. Clean the fat/wax layer off the ear surface with alcohol and remove any hair. When tattooing piglets, clean the outside of the ear. If you are new to this technique, place a rubber ear-release stripper over the tattoo dies and close the pliers. Place a second stripper over the first. The pins should be visible through the rubber stripper material, which acts as a spacer and prevents the ear from remaining stuck to the tattoo needles. Slip the pliers over the ear in the position where the tattoo is to be placed. Close the pliers with a quick, firm motion so that the tattoo character pins pierce through the ear. Open the pliers immediately and remove. Spread a small amount of tattoo ink on the tattoo area and rub it into the holes made by the pins. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

63 The excess ink will fade in time, while the ink in the holes of the tattoo will leave a permanent mark when the skin recovers. Tattooing ink has antiseptic properties that promote healing. After use, clean and dry the pliers and dies with a soft brush in water containing liquid dishwashing detergent. Do not use harsh solvents. Dry with a hair dryer. Store equipment in a clean, dry place. Advantages of tattooing It is as permanent as a brand. As with a brand, it is only applied once in an animal s lifetime. If the correct tools and material is used, it is simpler and quicker than branding and requires less preparation and infrastructure. It can be used on animals of any age, whether small or large stock. The cost is lower than branding, in terms of equipment, consumables and time. It can be used by itself, or as a backup to other identification systems. The animal s skin is damaged less than with branding. The animal experiences less pain and stress than with branding. The equipment is far more portable and can be carried in a small case or bag. It is legally acceptable. Disadvantages of tattooing It is inconspicuous and requires close examination to read. The animal generally has to be restrained in a crush, passage or neck clamp. It works less well with darkly pigmented animals and animals with woolly ears. The animal has to be restrained when being tattooed, similarly but less so than when branding. The chance of infection or disease transmission from one animal to another exists, but can be reduced with proper hygiene and correct technique. Ear notching Ear notching is a simple and handy method to identify animals individually from a distance. There are variations in systems, but each identifies the animal by an individual number expressed in the relative positions of a combination of notches in the ear rim. It can be used for all livestock species, but is particularly common in the pig industry. It involves removing V-shaped or U-shaped portions of the ear rim in a specific and individual combination of positions, using a special ear notching pair of pliers. A sharp knife gives less predictable and controllable results. Thus no two animals will have the same combination of notches. Not all operations may find it necessary to use individual numbers, but individual numbers are needed when any animal has to be recognised separately from others. Other marking systems may be used in combination with ear notches. A variation of this technique is ear punching, in which holes are punched through the ear shell, using a pair of hole punch pliers. Advantages of ear notching It is permanent. It is relatively quick and simple.notches are highly visible. Holes are only really visible against the light. High numbers are possible. No consumables are needed. Disadvantages of ear notching A large area of the ear shell could be removed. With holes, this is less likely. mismarking and misreading, especially initially with inexperienced staff. Accidental defacing through injury or deliberate action on stolen animals is a risk. With acknowledgement to SAVET and Ketchum Manufacturing Inc. Now that you know about tattooing and ear notching read our next article on ear tags and ear tagging B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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65 Wages for farm workers In accordance with the sectoral determination for farm worker, announced by the Department of Labour last year for the three financial years from 2016/17 to 2018/19 wages for farm workers have been increased from 1 March 2017 to 28 February 2018 as follows: Hourly rate of R15.39 Daily rate of R13.52 for an employee working nine hours per day. Weekly rate of R Monthly rate of R Table 1: Minimum wages for employees in the Farm and Forestry workers Sector Minimum rates for the period Minimum rates for the period Minimum rates for the period 1 March 2016 to 28 February March 2017 to 28 February March 2018 to 29 February 2019 Monthly Weekly Daily Hourly Monthly Weekly Daily Hourly Monthly Weekly Daily Hourly R R R R14.25 R R R138.52* R15.39 Previous year s minimum wage plus CPI** + 1% *For Employees who work 9 hours a day. ** The CPI to be utilized is the available CPI excluding owners equivalent rent as released by Statistic South Africa six weeks prior to the increment date. CPI = 7% + 1% =8% increase. For more comprehensive information visit: sectoral-determinations/sectoral-determination-13-farm-worker-sector B O E R B O K N U U S N O

66 My lesse uit my Boerbok era - Herman Groenewald Aangesien die Boerbok, Boerbok bedryf en sy mense so na aan my hart lê wil ek graag n paar van my lesse wat ek geleer het met julle deel. Ek het in 1970 begin met 10 2 Tand ooitjies wat ek by wyle oom Willem van Zyl vir R15 stuk gekoop het, wat hoofsaaklik uit wyle oom Zeiss Jordaan geteel, en daarna al sy ou ooie vir n paar jaar by hom gekoop en soveel lammers moontlik uit hulle getap het. Dieselfde tyd het ek n half aandeel in an ram vir R80 by Theuns Botha gekoop genaamd Laksman, wat deur wyle Oom Theunis Jordaan geteel is. Ek, Oom Willem en Theuns het ramme in vennootskap gekoop en gebruik uit bogenoemde twee stoeterye tot ek vir Pik (heet na Pik Botha) in 1977 vir R2 500 by Oom Zeiss Jordaan op sy plaas gaan uitsoek het wat soos n bom by my geteel het. Dit was die laaste ram wat ek gekoop het en verder net van lynteling gebruik gemaak. Persone wat groot indruk op my pad gemaak het met hulle indrukke was: 1) Wyle Oom Theuns Jordaan. Ek was bevoorreg om voor shy dood een dag met hom in gesprek te kon wees oor teling. Hy het my gesê: ou Seun, as jy nie kan gene opbou nie kan jy maar vergeet om n stoetteler te word. Tog so waar! 2) Wyle Oom Hennie de Smit (Dorper Teler). Hy het vir my gesê teling is soos diamante delf. Jy kry hulle nie in kruiwaens vol nie, maas as jy n diamant kry gebruik hom ten volle. Tog sowaar! 3) Wyle Oom (Dr.) Quintin Campbell. Hy het altyd gesê, daar is net 3 maniere om n kudde of n ras te verbeter en dit is (1) seleksie, (2)seleksie en (3)seleksie. Tog so waar! Met hierdie 3 hoekstene en n duidelike ideale prentjie voor my waarnatoe ek wil gaan, het ek my stoet bestuur. Eerste 2 Tand ooitjies waarmee stoet begin is in 1970 B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

67 Pik, S.A. Groot Kampioen 1978 Toolbox, S. A. Groot Kampioen 1980 Nog so n paar dinge wat ek glo baie belangrik is, is die volgende: 1) Om te veel of te min van jou eie diere te dink is ewe gevaarlik. Onthou jou eie top dier (diamant) is vir jou meer werd as vir enige ander teler omrede dit jou stoet se gene dra (gene opbou). 2) Dit is maklik om iemand anders te bluff, maar onthou, moet jouself nooit met teling bluff nie. Moenie te veel aandag gee aan klein onbenullighede wat net fenotipies en nie geneties is nie en onthou n TE WEES n prul gout in enige eienskap en daarom hou balans tussen verskillende eienskappe want baie eienskappe is direk gekorreleer met mekaar, en hou altyd funksionele doeltreffendheid in jou agterkop. So is byvoorbeeld te veel lengte direk gekorreleer met silindries of plat sydigheid en weer direk gekorreleer met swak konstitusie en so kan ons aangaan met sekere eienskappe. 3) Lynteling en inteling is uiters belangrik in stoet teling om gene op te bou en eenvormigheid te kry. Onthou om nooit n fout op n fout te sit nie. Daarom kan n mens nie net 1 stoetram gebruik nie, want jy moet n resep vir elke ooi in jou kudde hê, m.a.w. jy elke ooi fyn bestudeer om haar met die regte ram te paar en nie sommer die eerste 50 ooie aftel en by n ram sit nie. Dit is toevallige teling hoop dit troffe. Wat baie goeie resultate gee is as jy n uitstaande ram of ooi het en jy paar hom of haar met hulle heel beste dogter of seuns en dan weer half broer, halfsusters met mekaar om sodoende n familie te bou wat 75% gene van so n top ram of ooi te dra. Om vitaliteit te behou kruis jy weer hierdie nageslag met n soortgelyke familie uit in jou stoet. Daarom my raad aan beginners is, al is dit almal goeie bokke, moet nie by elke twee teler koop nie, maar hou in n bloedlyn anders gaan jy jou gene so deurmekaar skommel dat jy nooit daar gaan uitkom nie. Verder- moet jou nie ryk koop nie, maar teel jou ryk! 4) Onthou as jy n teler is en wil bly...dit is nie n kuns om die eerste keer aan n persoon n bok te verkoop nie, maar wel die tweede en die derde keer! So n laaste woordjie aan Beoordelaars, Keurders en Raadslede: 1 Integriteit is heel boaan die lys. Probeer altyd die Veredelde Boerbok ras bevorder want ons is baie trots op hom omdat dit ons eie ras is wat ons voorgangers ontwikkel het, net uit seleksie van bestaande bokke in Sa en nie deur kruisteling van suiwer rasse nie. 2 Beoordelaars probeer altyd 110% seker maak van jou eerste 2 plasings in n klas want dit kan dalk n teler ontneem van n S. A. Kampioen of Kampioen wat ons elkeen graag wil wen. Onthou die definisie van beoordeling: Die bok wat die meeste korrek is aan die rasstandaard moet die klas wen, nie sommer net die en wat jy like nie. Dankie, en ek wens julle net voorspoed toe op die pad vorentoe B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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69 How to successfully farm goats in botswana - FAHEEM KALA BUSHRA KALAHARI REDS & BOER GOATS Gakuto, Botswana Many a farmer will tell you upon enquiry that there is no strict formula to successfully farming goats in Botswana. Or, indeed, anywhere in the world. Best practices, yes. Top tips, certainly. These are things that can be learned, and nuances that can be shared. What remains difficult to instil in someone that isn t naturally drawn to the practice, however, is passion. A genuine, fervent passion for what you are doing and the proverbial as well as returns that this brings. Fortunately, farming in Botswana is not simply a matter of livelihood - with agriculture (livestock and crop farming) accounting for over 3% of the nation s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This figure does not, of course, account for the number of weekend farmers and families who do not farm for commercial purpose, and rather enjoying time at the moraka as their own. So, what is it that we can learn from farming goats successfully in Botswana, aside from the need to truly put your heart and soul into it? Here, we delve a little into the local small stock farming community s view. Grazing and Vegetation Remember, goats are ruminant animals, meaning that they have a multi-chambered stomach. They are born browsers and actually prefer feeding on leaves, weeds, briars, and other plants to grazing only on grasses. Typically, goats that browse have less problems with internal parasites. However, most goats will need nutritional supplements in addition to forage, including lucern, pasture, hay and concentrates. This becomes even more important for young kids, who do not get enough sustenance on their own. Ensuring your goats are well fed is paramount nobody wants a B O E R B O K N U U S N O

70 limited period as rain in the country is very unpredictable. Green grass and shrubs offer energy, proteins, vitamin A and phosphate to the animal. Taking these factors into consideration, supplementing your goats with additional phosphate, along with additional vitamins and minerals is good idea. scrawny looking animal, and poor nutrition can affect everything from growth to how shiny their coat is. Goats may also be fed grain (to be introduced slowly), and many breeders often use lick blocks (phosphate blocks & mineral blocks) to supplement goats as well. This practice is encouraged. Nutritional requirements of goats can vary depending on life stage, activity level, pregnancy, lactation and breed. Increased production demands will also cause an increase in nutritional demands. Generally, your goats will eat 3-4% of their body weight in feed. Of this, at least 1% should be good quality roughage. I ve said it many times before that you have to supplement your pregnant goats in Botswana during winter. They conceive during autumn when there is a lot of food and normally have more than 1 baby inside as a result of that. As the babies grow inside, the food also gets less nutritious and scarce due to winter, advises local farmer, Theunis van Rensburg. Also consider that meat production goats have different nutritional needs than milk production goats. Lastly, care should be taken to avoid feeding goats too much. Obese animals have lower reproduction rates and are more subject to arthritis. Breeders in country need to understand that Botswana is a semi-desert, with large parts of the country having very sandy soils. The soils are very low in minerals and, as a result, the grass has reduced levels of phosphate. In the desert (primarily the Kweneng, Kalahari and Ghanzi districts), the grass also has a very short growing season. Green grass is only available for a Phosphate is important for the animal for healthy and strong bones. It is also important for energy, general health and the nervous system. Phosphate supplements are, in fact, especially important for your pregnant does towards the latter part of their pregnancy. A shortage of phosphate can have a disastrous effect on the fertility and growth of an animal. This can be disastrous to your goat breeding operation. Breeding and Doe Maternity Care Knowing when is the best time to ensure your goats breed is a careful art. To ensure that your doe becomes pregnant, let the buck mate her two or three times per session. If she doesn t come back into heat, you can presume the mating was successful. The heat cycle lasts from a few hours to a few days, and the doe normally goes onto heat every days. One way to tell if a doe is in heat is vigorous tail-wagging, and the fact that she may make more noise than usual from short bleats to longer calls. If a doe in heat can see the bucks, she will parade back B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

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73 and forth in his view and rub on the fence more than usual. These are just some of the observable signs a doe is in heat. Make sure to capitalize on this time. Correspondingly, during rut when the buck is ready to mate - he will think of nothing else but this. A buck in rut urinates into his mouth, as well as onto his chest, face, and beard. The resultant smell attracts does and brings them into heat. In addition, bucks blubber, grunt, and snort, and have the ability to mate up to 20 times per day. Though they can mate all year round, it is best to work with specific breeding seasons, with a clear management cycle to plan for weaning, vaccinating, de-worming, feed management and availability of goats to market and sell in larger lots. If does get enough food, they can breed as early as six months of age. However, you should not let them mate this young, as it can slow their growth and they might have trouble breeding again. Mate them only when they have reached two-thirds of the average body weight of the adult doe (ewe) in the herd. This is normally around 45kg. It is advisable to put the ram to the does (ewes) for 42+ days. The doe (ewe) comes into heat every days, so 42+ days will give each doe (ewe) two chances to conceive. Ensure that you do not leave the ram with the ewes for longer than this as he will become exhausted and unproductive. Also, try to plan for your kids not to be born in the middle of winter. Take extremely good care of your pregnant does. I cannot emphasise this point enough! Good care of the kids actually starts before they are born! In other words, you need to look after their mother (the doe is the factory that produces for you - and you need to look after her very well). So, let s start with her. Take note that correct feeding and nutritional regimens for your females during late pregnancy are vitally important as your doe must gain 7-9kg during the last six weeks of pregnancy. If they don t eat properly at this stage, the kids will be born small and weak, and the does will not have enough milk for them. This in turns negatively impacts on mortality. Giepie Calldo, the technical Manager of CMW in South Africa says The success of any reproduction and production system starts six weeks prior to lambing (kidding), during which 72% of foetus growth, udder tissue development and primary wool follicle (for sheep) takes place until birth. Plan your production breeding season well and take advantage of the market demands and increases in the price of slaughter animals due to seasonal fluctuations such as religious festivals, holiday periods and seasons of the year. For example, Christmas and the Islamic Qurbani. Demand for goat meat is higher at such times, so ensure that you plan to have stock to sell for these periods and market your animals. Vaccination Knowing when it is best to vaccinate goats is key and how effective or non-effective can be. As Specialist Veterinarian, Dr. Grant van Lelyveldt in South Africa shares, It is important to be aware that no vaccine is 100% effective. It is realistically 70-80% effective and the shortfall can be reduced through proper supportive management. It is important to immunize the animals that are healthy and in the correct body condition, as well as at times that the animal is at low risk from illness or stress. How you vaccinate, and when, also depends on what you are vaccinating for. Ensure that you adhere to the recommended dosages as per the products instructions and also ensure proper hygiene and storage precautions are taken with regards to the vaccines. Says Dr. Michael Sento of Vet & Agric Clinic in Gaborone, Remember that the best result in treating a condition (on your animals) depends on getting the right medicine, using the right dose, giving it at the right interval and using the right method of administering it. In addition, keeping the drug at the right temperature, and using clean & sterile instruments are essential. If you satisfy all these, then you will have a stronger medicine at your disposal The primary vaccinations for goats in Botswana are those for Pulpy Kidney (perhaps the single most important cause of deaths in small stock in Southern Africa) and Pasteurella. These are administered biannually, typically at season change i.e. April and September. Immunization (vaccination) is like insurance you take precautions and prevent the most severe diseases, or you save money initially by not immunizing and take the knock later when diseases such as blue tongue, pulpy kidney, rift valley fever and many more strike, shared Danie van Niekerk of Virbac SA. Farmers in Botswana should know that Prussic Acid poisoning is one of the most common causes of death of smallstock in the country and is often mistaken to be Pasteurella. There is no vaccination against this ailment, but Prussic acid poisoning in very preventable by giving your livestock additional sulphur containing formulated supplements. Also worth being wary of in Botswana, is heartwater, an ailment that animals are prone to throughout the eastern side of the country. Lastly, remember that it is important to have a hands-on approach and actively manage administering vaccinations yourself or have these done in your presence to ensure they are done correctly. Regular Health Checks It is advisable to use a preventative health programme planned in consultation with a veterinarian for the B O E R B O K N U U S N O

74 animals on your farm. This includes but is not limited to: the immunisations to be administered and at what times these should be done, control of internal and external parasites, vitamin, and mineral supplements. Vets typically are always willing to help and advice, welcoming contact for even simple enquiries. They are experts in the field - make use of them to the fullest. In fact, you should have your vet s number on speed dial! Botswana has over 145 veterinary surgeons registered to practice and there is a vet in every single district in country we should make the most of their expert services! We can learn a lot by working with and chatting to our vets. Drought Botswana suffers from cyclical drought something farmers in the country need to be very clued up on. This means understanding our climate and how agriculture works within it, as well as what means exist to ensure we work within this climate rather than allowing it to defeat us. Farming smartly is therefore vital. As the Vice President of the Republic of Botswana, and a passionate farmer, His Honour Mokgweetsi E. K. Masisi, once said, The biggest challenge to agriculture in Botswana is drought, which we have to learn to plan around, instead of using it as an excuse to explain the decline in the productivity of the sector. We need to embrace smart agriculture... There is a great deal of support to be found from Government and non-governmental associations and even individual farmers to advice on how to manage drought and stull thrive with your livestock. The Business of Farming Some forget the administrative aspect of farming, whether commercial or not, and this is a big mistake. In this vein, keeping records is important. For example, record the mothers, the sires, dates of vaccinations, weaning, illnesses, treatments used, etc. According to Hugh Nivison, a Breeding Specialist (South Africa), The future of breeding must involve measuring and recording animals and collecting their breeding values on a large scale. It is, and has been for a while, no longer good enough to try and win prizes in the showring. You have to measure your animals and see what their performance is. The future of animal breeding depends on it. Nivison speaks further to the business managerial aspect of farming, nothing that, Farming is a business, and farmers should use lambing (kidding) pens (or maternity kraals) for economic considerations. Lambing pens offer numerous advantages, allowing the farmer to farm with precision. Lambing pens simplify record keeping, which accelerates breeding progress. You can easily supervise and identify problem ewes during lambing. Good Infrastructure It is important to invest in good infrastructure, so make sure do it right the first time. This does not mean just cost, for cheap material can still be put to use correctly and well. On any livestock farm the most important chores are performed in the kraal. Well-equipped kraals and pens are therefore worth your while. Building proper handling facilities can be costly, but several farmers who have done so, will tell you how much easier this has made their work. Invest wisely! When it comes to kraals, ensure you have a good roofing structure. Goats hate to get wet and need protection from the cold. Also ensure that you keep your kraals clean, dry and draft-free at all times! Regularly cleaning aids in disease and parasite reduction. Plan and Plan Well It is well worth remembering that farm management plans have to be in specific accordance with your farm set up and needs. It is not given that what works at my farm will work at your farm, for instance. There are a number of factors to consider. My advice is to get a professional who can come in and assess one s farm and draw a customised plan for you. You can benchmark from other farms, but in the end, your farm needs must be specifically incorporated. Most important is that you ensure the set-up is sustainable. You need to be able to maintain it, both in terms of finances and in terms of the human resources at your disposal. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

75 Staffing Sufficiently skilled farm workers are always a challenge in Botswana, as we tend to see high turnover of staff. For this reason, careful hiring and focused training is vital. Impart relevant and valueadding knowledge so your staff understand what they are doing and why they are doing it. Be patient, and consider an incentive scheme to keep them motivated to work well. After all, they are the ones caring for your precious livestock when you are not on the farm. It is important to encourage staff on the farm and to ensure that they also have an interest in the farm s success. In this way, they enjoy their work and we are assured of their loyalty. Indeed, even if you have the best staff on your farm, try not to stay away for long periods at a time. Regular visits are key, especially for part time or remote control farmers. One needs to always know and see what is going on at the farm and with the goats. Education and Support Botswana remains a special case in the extent to which Government and neighboring countries farming associations provide support to local farmers. Beyond Government feed programs and subsidizing platforms. Neighboring South Africa offers a number of junior goat courses as well as senior goat courses that can help farmers. A growing network of local, established farmers also cannot go without mention, providing insight and experience for others to learn from. This is especially so with the growing number of Kalahari Red goat breeders in Botswana. In addition, local veterinary offices are always willing to help, and local agriculture days and shows continue to be held in high regard. This is on top of the renowned National Agriculture Show held in August every year, which brings together key farmers, suppliers and other stakeholders in the industry. Platforms such as the Mookane Farmer s Day and talks and short courses at BUAN are all very good for both young as well as seasoned farmers. Do it with passion, or not at all As we shared at the start of this article, passion is paramount, and a goat breeder or farmer needs to be wholly invested in making sure their animals thrive from birth to show day. The first six months of the kid s life is the most important stage, because it determines how the animal will perform. At that stage, a producer should do his utmost to do everything right, shares farmer Jordi van Hasselt. The greatest thing about farming in Botswana? Beyond the sheer amount of opportunity to do it and do it well, whether recreationally or commercially, there s a wealth of learning, sharing and support. And, of course, it is only with time and engaging fellow farmers and those in the know that you really, truly get into it B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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77 Botswana National Agriculture Show Hailed Best Ever - FAHEEM KALA BUSHRA KALAHARI REDS & BOER GOATS Gakuto, Botswana Gaborone played host to an even more impressive National Agriculture Show (NAS) this year from August 2017, as Batswana from as far afield as New Xanagas, Ghanzi and Kolongkwaneng turned out for what is the cream of the proverbial crops in the farming world. The show was more popular than ever, with an admirable 300 entries and over 350 exhibits of smallstock. Now, more than ever before, is clearly the time for the small stock breeders to make their mark. The small stock breeders exhibitions were also stronger than in previous years, with 36 small stock exhibitors in total this year. Out of 156 goats competing, 40 were Kalahari Reds. Adding to the family fun and ambiance was an increased number of stalls, ensuring there truly was something for everyone. The calendar event is fast become one not to be missed, whether you are in the farming or breeding community, or simply looking for a good day out. the fruits of Government s efforts towards promoting increased agriculture participation and diversification from mineral dependence. Young farmers such as Keletso Pule, Thebeyame Molefhe, and Toy Kajiova all showed at the NAS this year. Representation of Kalahari Reds, Boer goats and Dorpers was particularly strong, with quality animals on display from all. Adding to the mix, Bushra Kalahari Reds also brought a slaughter goat, entering the animal ton show that the breed makes for good meat as well as breeding and showmanship. The 11 month old, 70kg Kalahari Red cull took home the title of Champion Slaughter Goat in a wonderful twist of events. A first in this category for the Kalahari Red breed in Botswana. In his opening address at the official launch of the NAS, His Excellency the President of the Republic of Botswana, Lieutenant General Dr. Seretse Khama Ian Khama spoke to the marked improvement in the quality of the show in recent years. President Khama commented on the fact that agriculture was one of the sectors identified as a driver of economic diversification He pointed out that, currently, 70% of the population earn their livelihood from agriculture as farmers, labourers or both, whether in crop production or livestock rearing. Under the ISPAAD and LIMID programs introduced by Government, 370,682 sheep and goats, have been disbursed to beneficiaries to date. In this vein, it is notable that, this year, an impressive number of young farmers participated, a testament to B O E R B O K N U U S N O

78 What made this year different from prior years was the fact that it was the ladies that took home the crown. That s right, the females won the Grand and Reserve Grand Champion. Bushra Kalahari Reds from Gakuto defended their 2016 title of Grand Champion of the Yard, with a stunning Kalahari Reds doe with Albra Boer Goats of Ghanzi obtaining the Reserve Grand Champion with a Boer Goat doe. The quality on show is improving drastically, said renowned SA judge, Theuns Botha from the Eastern Cape, who was one of four SA judges for the show. The female that won is the perfect exhibit of what a Kalahari Red should look like and in SA she would be classed a 9-point show quality doe; even more impressive that she is locally bred well done to the breeder. The Senior Champion Buck and Senior Champion Doe on the Show were Kalahari Reds both belonging to Bushra. The youngest class winner of the 156 goats competing was a 4 month old Kalahari Red buck bred by Bushra. This is a young ram (buck) with great potential to become a top herd sire commented experienced judge, Koenie Kotze. The young buck is the son of the 2016 National Grand Champion. Thank you to the judges for the NAS 2017 this year, namely Theuns Botha, Koenie Kotze, Pieter B. Botha and Bertie Aucamp (all from South Africa). The judging was of the highest order and was greatly appreciated by both, spectators and farmers alike. The Kalahari Reds keep making their mark, and our fellow small stock farmers keep making waves. Congratulations to all who participated in this year s NAS, and thanks go out to all who attended the show to lend their support. After all, farming is no longer just a community, but a veritable means towards moving Botswana s economy forward. Boer Goat keeping in thenetherlands - Engel and Nineke Kupers Goat keeping has been part of our lives for more than 30 years. We started with Dutch white goats and bread them for over 15 years as a family hobby. In 2000 we added another breed to our small herd the Anglo Nubian. The first ones we imported ourselves from Scotland. It was the beginning of countless visits to the UK visiting shows and breeders. In 2002 our eldest son Rutger Jan decided he also wanted to breed goats but without the milking. The breed he laid eyes on was the Boer goat in those days quite popular in Germany and a rising interest in the Netherlands. After visiting several breeders in Germany Rutger Jan bought his first Boer goats in Germany, not pure bread goats but upgraded to 95% Boer goat. Lovely animals but not what we had in mind about Boer goats. Then we stumbled over an article in one of the BGS yearbooks mentioning Mrs. Nicola Knott who had imported Boer embryos into the UK from New Zealand and now had a small herd of pure bread Boer goats. Within a few days we had found out where she lived and arranged a visit. This resulted in the purchase of 4 female and 1 male kid in It was the same year our ministry of agriculture made a small mistake allowing to import Boer goat semen from the USA. Basically this is the foundation of our herd. The AI did wonders on our New Zealand goats and the herd expanded. This is where Nineke and I also became Boer goat breeders. The herd of our son had expanded and a group of Boer goats found a new home at our newly bought house in Nieuwe Pekela in the north of the Netherlands. Also in 2004 we had a phone call from a man living in Switzerland who had imported Boer goats direct from South Africa. After several phone calls we agreed to exchange the genetics of our herds to widen the gene pool for the benefit of both herds. Unfortunate we never heard from this man again until 2010 when we had a phone call from Mr. Hoffman from Germany who claimed he had rounded up most of the South B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

79 African Boer goats. I heard then that the person in Switzerland had died and his goats had been sold to several breeders. Shortly after the phone call we visited Mr. Hoffman and agreed to exchange some animals for the benefit of both. We selected a number of goats of which we took the kids home directly after birth. This way we could quarantine them easily and after a thorough veterinarian inspection they were introduced to the herd. One kid came from a directly imported doe of the breeding of Mr. Nico Botha, the father was a KZ son. This buck proved to be the most important buck so far. We used him a lot and especially his daughters are the best breeding does in our herd. One of the latest genetic impulse in our Boer goat herd came from the initiative of Mrs. Celia Burnett-Smith who brought Australian Boer goat embryos into the UK. Their influence is really starting to show off, the goats are becoming longer and also there is a big improvement in the head, neck and total confirmation of the offspring. An opportunity jet to come comes from Mr. Ian Johnson also out of embryo imports from Australia. The show at Bloemfontein was an eye opener for us and an absolute highlight. We enjoyed every moment and learned a lot about Boer goats! Another big thank you to all the people we met and their hospitality and especially to Lukas Burger and Abraham Burger for having us at their ranch and sharing information about breeding Boer goats. About us: We are Engel and Nineke Kupers we both have a full time job and we live in a small village in the North of the Netherlands. We are blessed with 4 children 2 sons and 2 daughters and 9 grandchildren. Our eldest son is also a Boer goat breeder and the rest of the family is still very much involved (they have no choice I guess). We keep our goats as a hobby which means the goats do not contribute to our income, actually we would be quite happy if they would generate enough money to pay for the costs. We own a house with sheds and some 2,5 hectare of grass land surrounded by pine trees. We have a rainfall of 820 mm per year nicely spread over the year but most in the autumn and spring. Temperatures in the summer reach a max of 30 degrees Celsius in the winter we often have a few days with frost but nothing too bad. We keep our goats in sheds with a free passage into the field where they can graze all year through. Our herd holds 40 Boer goat breeding does and 3 Bucks. We also have a few Anglo Nubian, British Alpine and Dutch white goats B O E R B O K N U U S N O

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81 Successful meat production on Réunion Island - Lloyd Phillips Space is limited on the island of Réunion. Farms are small, and farming is intensive and diversified. Yet, assisted by subsidies from France, farmers supply nearly half the island s meat needs, and Boer Goats are included in the offering. Lloyd Phillips was there. The Indian Ocean island of Réunion has a land area of 2 511km². This is taken up by a mix of coastal tourism attractions, towns, harbours, factories, farming operations and an active volcano. Unsurprisingly, competition for agricultural land in this far-flung part of France with its permanent residents is intense. Most individual farming operations are conducted on plots smaller than 20ha, and many of these have been subdivided into even smaller parcels. As a result, farming enterprises are typically highly intensive and diversified. The island s climate is largely tropical, with a winter minimum of 20 C, a summer maximum of well over 30 C and an average annual rainfall of up to mm. High-potential volcanic soil helps to create the optimal conditions for a variety of field, fruit and vegetable crops. However, Réunion s population also requires animal protein, which is where livestock farmers such as Roberto Begue enter the picture. A qualified land surveyor all of Réunion s farmers are required to have a tertiary qualification Roberto has been farming for nearly 20 years. He currently operates on three separate parcels of land, totalling 11ha, in partnership with his wife Laurence and father-in-law Ary Mondon. Like all islanders who farm, Roberto receives substantial government subsidies from France. Without these, it is likely that most of Réunion s farmers would fail financially. Roberto puts the money to good use. To spread production and financial risk, he and his partners run four separate livestock enterprises on their 11ha: a pork production unit, a beef stud, a broiler production unit and, remarkably, a Boer Goat stud. Because of Réunion s links with France, the island s farmers must adhere to the EU s strict rules on the use of agricultural chemicals and other substances. We also have to comply with increasingly stringent rules about animal welfare, says Roberto. Local farmers meet half the demand At an average price of about 6/kg (R85/kg), pork is the most popular meat on Réunion, says Eric B O E R B O K N U U S N O

82 Soundrom, an agricultural support manager with the island s Chamber of Agriculture. Total annual pork consumption is about t. Half of this is produced on the island and the rest imported frozen from Europe. To accommodate changing EU animal welfare requirements, Roberto had to recently reduce his breeding sow herd from 120 to 80. Pregnant sows now have to be in open pens until 10 days before farrowing, he says. Only then can I put them into farrowing pens to protect the piglets, he says. Roberto has found, however, that keeping pregnant sows in the open pens increases fighting and injuries. He also criticises EU regulations that stipulate that 20 of his sows have to be randomly selected every three months for blood tests for contagious or other important diseases. The tests are expensive, costing the equivalent of about R8 500 per group of sows. The Boer Goat Roberto s favourite enterprise is his Boer Goat stud and commercial flock, which he has had for 10 years. This hardy and meaty breed is surprisingly popular on Réunion. Apparently, there are around 220 commercial Boer Goat farmers on the island, each with about 30 breeding ewes, with many more farmers owning two or three goats each. With 65 breeding ewes, Roberto has one of the larger Boer Goat flocks on Réunion. Goat meat is popular on the island, particularly among the Tamil community, which makes up about 20% of the population, he explains. Boer Goats have been on Réunion since 1976, when a local agricultural college imported 80 animals from Somerset East in South Africa. The breed s popularity grew quickly after that, adds Roberto. Banned genetics Unfortunately, EU regulations present a problem for the island s Boer Goat farmers. Since the 1990s, the EU has banned the import of any animal genetics from South Africa due to the fear that serious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and Rift Valley fever could reach the EU and its territories. Thus, while Roberto and many other Réunion goat farmers regard SA Boer Goat genetics as the best in the world, they are forced to import Boer Goat genetics from Germany, Switzerland and Australia. The German and Swiss Boer Goat genetics are not particularly popular here due to our tropical conditions. The goats also tend to have thinner hindquarters, says Roberto. Bringing in semen and embryos from Australia is very expensive. In addition, transplanting Australian Boer Goat embryos into the island s ewes is often unsuccessful. Due to limited land, Roberto tends to feed his goats indoors on concentrate and fresh or stored roughage. While this is more expensive than the extensive grazing available in other parts of the world, he benefits from easier flock management, better reproduction and growth, and protection from the feral dog packs roaming the island. Roberto uses natural mating in his goat flock, with stud rams covering the ewes in heat. He usually replaces a ram every two years to avoid inbreeding. Above-average weaning The Boer Goat ewes typically average 1,8 lambs per breeding cycle, way above the island s average of 1,5, he says proudly. Lambs are weaned at four months, with ewes weaning an average of 1,6 lambs per season, compared with the island s average of 1,3. Roberto sells between 50 and 55 weaned rams per year to the island s slaughter market, retaining about 20% of his maiden ewes as replacement breeding stock. The remaining maiden ewes, together with some better quality young weaned rams, are sold to other Boer Goat farmers on the island. A fellow Boer Goat enthusiast with his own small flock, Eric says goat meat retails for around 25/kg (R350) in Réunion s shops, while a 20kg to 25kg weaner slaughter ram sells for about 250 (R3 500). Some 60% of the island s goat meat is imported frozen from Australia and New Zealand. About 90% of the Boer Goat weaner rams are sold to the Tamil community for slaughter during religious ceremonies, continues Eric. Buyers grow them out to about one year old before slaughtering them. Slaughter goats must be in perfect condition with no visible physical defects that would disqualify them from being used in the Tamil ceremonies. Help from SA Health challenges in Roberto s Boer Goat flock include coccidiosis and internal parasites. There is no vet on the island who specialises in treating goats, so farmers learn all they can from Internet searches and study groups. Roberto and Eric praise the SA Boer Goat Breeders Association for the assistance and production knowledge it shares with the island s Boer Goat farmers. They single out SA Boer Goat judges Kobus Lötter, Sakkie Nell and Vaatjie Nell for their help. Boer Goat farmers and experts from Réunion and South Africa often visit one another to share ideas. On our limited land, a diversified livestock farming operation spreads the material and financial risk for my family, says Roberto. It also allows us to take full advantage of Réunion s strong demand for different types of meat. Eric Soundrom at chambagri.fr or Roberto Begue at fr. Please note: due to currency fluctuations, the rand equivalents of the prices cited are intended merely as guidelines. Lloyd Phillips s flights were sponsored by SA Canegrowers. He was hosted on the island courtesy of the EU and LEGTA St Paul. B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

83 1 6 8 B O E R B O K N U U S N O

84 New Zealand Wanaka Show Judged by Theuns Botha Received from Warwick Ferguson This year we were very honoured to have the judging services of South African Theuns Botha. Theuns has long been recognised as an excellent judge looking for masculinity, femininity and balance. Although he is nearly 82 Theuns has the mind and attitude of someone much younger and he used his vast knowledge to help breeders understand what they should be breeding for. Everyone wanted a first placing from Theuns, better still a broad ribbon so there was a lot at stake on the day and Theuns certainly rose to the occasion and still found time to do what he is extremely good at educate, educate, educate. Theuns also managed to do some farm / Boer goat assessments in Central Otago and Canterbury before heading to Australia. His overall opinion of the New Zealand Boer Goat is that we need to feed them more energy, he saw many quality does but not many quality bucks. In his words We need to breed some top quality bucks before we start the downhill slide with our does but do not try and change everything in one season of breeding. The NZBGBA would like to thank Owen Booth who helped facilitate Theuns visit and also Jenny Bassett and family who travelled Theuns from Christchurch to Wanaka. Jenny in her capacity as Ring Steward had Theuns advice and knowledge freely given and we cannot forget the help that the Bassett siblings give every year. Theuns was in New Zealand for 2 weeks then over to Australia for 3 weeks; home for 5 days then off to America for a month, all spent judging and assessing Boer Goats and Dorper Sheep not bad for an 82 year old! There were 52 entries by 6 stud breeders Junior Champion Ewe - Alpha Boers Res Junior Champion Ewe - Alpha Boers Senior Champion Ewe - Whitestone Boers Res Senior Champion Ewe - Avonlea Boers Grand Champion Ewe - Whitestone Boers Junior Champion Ram - Rosehip Boers Res Junior Champion Ram - Rosehip Boers Senior Champion Ram - Avonlea Boers Res Senior Champion Ram - Whitestone Boers Grand Champion Ram - Avonlea Boers Supreme Champion Boer Goat - Whitestone Boers (Grand Champion Ewe) B O E R G O A T N E W S N R

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