THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF GRASSCUTTERS IN CAPTIVITY IN DAVID MARK FARM AT AKPA-OTOBI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF GRASSCUTTERS IN CAPTIVITY IN DAVID MARK FARM AT AKPA-OTOBI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA."

Transcription

1 THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF GRASSCUTTERS IN CAPTIVITY IN DAVID MARK FARM AT AKPA-OTOBI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. 201 ULOKO I. J Department Of Wildlife And Range Management, College Of Forestry And Fisheries, University Of Agriculture, P. M. B 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. And AUDU, F.O Microbiology And Parasitology Unit, Federal Medical Centre Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT Health problems posed a great danger to management of grass-cutter farms. This has led to mortality of grass-cutters under captive rearing in David Mark grass-cutter farm at Akpa-Otobi. The period of study was between 2003 and Further study and evaluation are still going on between 2007 and Twenty specimens of dead and dying grass-cutters were used for the study. Total post- mortem examination was performed on the carcasses. Postmortem finding was limited to gross pathological lesion and faecal sample analysis using direct smear method under the microscope (x40 objectives x 10 ocular), Onyeanusi et al, (2001). It was discovered that mortality occurred in both sexes of different age groups of the grass-cutters in captivity. Such other factors identified included stress, trauma, dystocia, respiratory distress (pneumonia), intestinal coccidiosis, helminthiasis, toxemia, abscess and injury resulting from fighting and aggression. It is noted that adequate husbandry, proper nutrition and total cleanliness would assist in reducing cases of stock mortality. Keywords: Grass-cutter, husbandry, parasites, mortality, post-mortem. INTRODUCTION Generally, there is relationship and interaction between health status, local environment and husbandry techniques in keeping animals in captivity and productive life, Onyeanusi et al, (2001). This potent a clearer understanding of wild animal diseases which may be studied in captivity with the grass-cutter as typical example. Furthermore, domestication deprives wild animals of their normal unlimited and unrestricted free access to natural food items, minerals and preferred habitats. Actually, in the wild, they know when to move from an unsuitable habitat to a desired one in order to avoid disease and pests infestations. Ajayi, (1986) discovered prevalence of ascardidasis and ancylostomiasis in rainy season among wild animals in Jos Plateau in Nigeria. Fagbemi and Tomori, (2003) reported that rift value fever affect livestock among other domesticated animals in Nigeria. However dermatophyte infections caused by Trichophyton rubrum are usually limited to the superficial keratinized layer of the epidermis. In spite of the fact that they are not deeply rooted into the tissues, they still elicit body immune responses, Grappe and Edward, (2004). Also, Jasper and lewis, (2005) indicated in their report that coccidimycosis is a chronic fatal disease that gains entry deep into the animal tissues and is caused by coccidiodes immitis. It was believed to have enlarged the animal tissues and made mobility difficult. In addition, parasites constitute health and social economic problems in domestic animals undergoing domestication for either homestead or commercial rearing. Odoh, (2002) reported the occurrence of

2 THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF GRASSCUTTERS IN CAPTIVITY IN DAVID MARK FARM AT AKPA-OTOBI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. 202 dermatomycosis (ringworm) in some bush rats in Benue State of Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out on dead and dying grass-cutter from David Mark grass- cutter farm located at Akpa-Otobi, Benue State. Otobi is located on latitude 826N o longitude 0453E and the altitude of 256m above sea-level, Odeh et al (2004). It has a derived Savanna type of vegetation with bush fallows, arable lands, woodlands and perennial streams. Odeh, (2002) indicated the mean annual rainfall to be between 800mm- 1200mm while the mean monthly maximum and minimum temperatures were 34.6 C and C, respectively. Examinations of twenty carcasses of the grass-cutters were carried out; consisting of 15 females and 5 males. Concise clinical history to the point of death of each specimen was obtained from the farm's records. The full information included sex, weight, and age in captivity, breeding and medication records. In addition the dead animals were presented for 0 o post-mortem examination once death of grass-cutter occurred. The post-mortem examinations were performed at Ak-vertinary consult in Otukpo and at clinical Microbiology and parasitology unit, Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi. Gross pathological changes in the organs were observed. Faecal samples were also examined using the direct smear method under the microscope (x40 objectives x10 occular). Content of the stomach, small intestines and the large intestine, especially the caecum were also analyzed using the same direct smear method. Isolated parasites were identified using the method of shah-fischer (1989). The entire body was also inspected for presence of ecto-parasites before the post-mortem examination was carried on each specimen. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The different clinical parameters of the dead grass-cutter specimens used for the post-mortem examinations are shown below in Table I. It is noteworthy that the female body weight at dead varied between 0.52kg and 3.75kg. Table I: Clinical parameters of the carcass specimens used in the study. Year Specimen Date of post- Age (Months) Sex Body Present Mortem exam Weight (kg) clinical signs 2003 A1 12/June 17 F 1.80 Prolong labour A2 8/October 9 F 0.85 Multiple skin wound A3 12/October 11 F 1.20 Multiple skin wound 2004 B4 13/October 30 F B5 14/October 6 F B6 14/October 6 M B7 14/October 18 F 3.10 Breathing difficulty B8 10/December 32 M C9 13/March 28 F 3.50 Prolong labour

3 ULOKO and AUDU 203 C10 19/April 2 M C11 26/April 26 F C12 20/November 2 F C13 20/November 4 F C14 21/November 12 M D15 4/January 12 M D16 9/January 10 M 0.60 Cachexia D17 9/January 15 F D18 26/Januray 28 F 2.70 Multiple skin abscess D19 11/September 9 F D20 5/November 6 F NOTE: M = Male F = Female A1-A3---B4-B8---C9-C14---D15---D20 = Twenty carcass specimens used in the study against the year of evaluations. It indicted that mortality occurred among the baby, weaner and adult grass-cutter. However, mortality was high among the weaners while some gestating females died in parturition-related complications. This occurred across sexes. TABLE 2: Major Diseases/ Disease conditions identified through post-mortem examination on specimens of grass-cutter carcasses ( ). Case Sex Gross pathological lesions/clinical signs Diagnosis (Tentative) A1 F Enlarge genital, distended abdomen Dystocia presence of foetus in the uterus A2 F Multiple skin wounds Trauma and secondary infections A3 F Multiple skin wounds -do- B4 F Respiratory Distress - B5 F Hepatized lung tissue Pneumonia/ snuffles B6 M Respiratory Distress Pneumonia/ snuffles B7 F Respiratory Distress Pneumonia/ snuffles B8 M Varying grayish nodules in the lung Aspergillosis C9 F Prolong labour, swollen genital, foetus in uterus, vaginal bleeding Dystocia C10 M Cachexia Malnutrition under-nutrition C11 F Presence of Adult tapeworm Helminthiasis C12 F Cachexia Malnutrition under-nutrition C13 F Cachexia -do- C14 F Rough, shrunken abnormal kidney Chronic Nephritis D15 M Food particles seen in trachea Aspiration Pneumonia

4 THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF GRASSCUTTERS IN CAPTIVITY IN DAVID MARK FARM AT AKPA-OTOBI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. 204 D16 M Respiratory distress, nasal discharge D17 F -do- D18 F Soft and watery faeces, multiple intestinal Hemorrhage; also swollen eyes Respiratory distress -do- Intestinal coccidiosis conjunctivitis D19 F D20 F Respiratory distress -do- Pneumonia/ snuffles -do- Clinical signs as coughing, sneezing and mucous nasal discharge were some of the respiratory distresses noticed and also predominantly the cause of death among the grass-cutters throughout the duration of the study period. Okorie, (2004) reported that snuffles (Pneumonia postenrellisis) is respiratory disease of rodents particularly during the cold season. It was also observed that dystocia problem (birth problem) was associated with oversized foetus, prolonged labour and general weakness. Helminthiasis is also a major post-mortem finding. Close observations revealed isolation of three types of worms from the gut content of the dead grass-cutter specimens. The preliminary investigations indicated tapeworm (Taenia Sp); roundworm (Ascaris Sp) and whip worm (Trichuris Sp). Poor nutrition has been identified as the cause of most of these diseases, Reveron and Topps, (1970). Below is a table showing the frequencies of occurrence of the diseases/ disease conditions among the reared captive grass-cutter between 2003 and TABLE 3: Frequency of occurrence of diseases/disease conditions between 2003 and Diseases/Disease Condition Frequency % Intestinal coccidiosis 4.80 Respiratory distress/pneumonia Traumatic injury 9.50 Helminthiasis (worms) Poisoning (toxemia) 5.00 Septicaeia 5.20 Nephitis 5.10 Aspiration Pneumonia 4.80 Dystocia 19.10

5 ULOKO and AUDU 205 From the table 3 above, dystocia was next to respiratory distress and helminthes in relative frequency of occurrence during the study, these caused heavy losses to the stock. Other diseases observed whose frequency were not accurately measured were conjunctivitis (swollen eyelids, discharge from eyes); cannibalism (Adult grass-cutter eating the younger ones); paralysis of hind firms (inability to move the limbs); loss of Appetite; vaginal bleeding (through still birth) among others. These findings are not at variance with those of Onyeanusi and Famoyin, (2004) CONCLUSION These results indicates that good hygiene, routine inspection of the cages/hutches and the animals are necessary preventive approach to disease outbreak. Balanced nutrition is necessary requirement to grass- cutters. Continuous research into nutrition and proper care are also important if advancement or improvement in grass-cutter farming is to be sustained. REFERENCES Abrams J.T (1968).Comparative nutrition of wild animals, London Academic Press PP Adebayo, O; Akinyemi, O. Anoojo, M.o. (2004). Cultivation, marketing and utilization of Vernonia amydolina Del. In Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of forestry Research and management Vol.1 (142); Ajayi. A: Parasites of some wild animals in plateau. Nigeria. (Unpublished).WHO rural research programme in Nigeria, (1986). Bonsma, F. N (1951). Livestock production. In. welsch. A. (Ed) 1954 Africa South of the Sahara, London, Oxford University Press PP Chiejina, S. N (1986). The epixocotiology and control of gastro entrities of domesticated ruminants in Nigeria, Helminthological Abstracts (series A) Fagbemi, A.N (1985): Helminth egg count of some wild mammals in the kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. International Journal of Zoon 12: Grappe, A.S and Edward, T.S (1972). Nutritriion and gastrointestioal parasitisms in ruminants outlook on Agriculture 6: Gbile, N.O, Okorie, P.E and soladoye, M.O (1984). An appraisal of Urban vegetation of Ibadan city. Proceedings th of the 14 Annual conference of Forestry Association of Nigeria (Eds, okoro, O.O and Fuwape, J.A ) rd December th, Port Harcourt, PP Halpin, E. (1978). Patterns of animal disease. The Macmillan Publishing company Inc. New York. 184 PP. Jasper, S.A and Edward, T.N (1972).

6 THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF GRASSCUTTERS IN CAPTIVITY IN DAVID MARK FARM AT AKPA-OTOBI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. 206 Reproductive failure in females. In: Reproduction in farm animals (ed.jasper, S.A) Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, United States PP Kasali, O.B Majaro, O.M and Dipeolu, O.O (1982): An Outbreak of intestinal coccidiosis in a colony of cane rats in Nigeria. Nigeria Jour. Vet. Med. 9 (2): 3-5 Odeh, J.A (1998): Effects of climate on animal habitats in Benue State, Nigeria. Proceedings on climatology and Nigeria pp Odoh, S.O (2002): Dermatomycosis of some bush rats in Benue State of Nigeria, In Forestry and challenges of sustainable livelihood (eds Abu J.E; Oni, P.I and Popoola,L), Proceedings of the 28 Annual conference of forestry th Association of Nigeria, Akure Ondo State, pp Onyeanusi, A.E and famoyi, J.B (2005): Health care management in captivity: Assessment of causes of mortalities among rearing stock in Ibadan. PP Okorie, P.U (2004): Biological characteristic of grass - cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus): A culturable indigenous rodent: In issues in sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria (eds. Afamdi, A and Nwaigbo L. C.) PP Shad- fischer, M and Say, R.R (1989): Manual of Tropical Vertinary parasitology, CAB International Walling- ford Oxon, U.K, 1989 English Edition, Cambrian printer Aberystroyh, 473 PP JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT. VOLUME 2 NO.2 SEPTEMBER, 2010

Diseases of Small Ruminants and OIE Standards, Emphasis on PPR. Dr Ahmed M. Hassan Veterinary Expert 7 9 April, 2009 Beirut (Lebanon)

Diseases of Small Ruminants and OIE Standards, Emphasis on PPR. Dr Ahmed M. Hassan Veterinary Expert 7 9 April, 2009 Beirut (Lebanon) Diseases of Small Ruminants and OIE Standards, Emphasis on PPR Dr Ahmed M. Hassan Veterinary Expert 7 9 April, 2009 Beirut (Lebanon) 1 Small ruminants are very important for: both the subsistence and economic

More information

INTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP AND GOATS

INTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP AND GOATS 7 INTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP AND GOATS These diseases are known to occur in Afghanistan. 1. Definition Parasitism and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in particular, is arguably the most serious constraint

More information

Fungal Disease. What is a fungus?

Fungal Disease. What is a fungus? Fungal Disease What is a fungus? A fungus is a living organism. It goes through a complicated life cycle and is able to spread in the environment by producing large numbers of spores that are easily dispersed

More information

Detection of Gastrointestinal Helminthic and Protozoan Infections in Diarrhoeic Goats

Detection of Gastrointestinal Helminthic and Protozoan Infections in Diarrhoeic Goats International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 4 (2017) pp. 801-805 Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.604.100

More information

Washington State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

Washington State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee 1 Standard Operating Procedure #9 Title: Minor Medical Treatment of Rodents Washington State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Purpose: Currently, the Office of the Campus Veterinarian

More information

Bacterial Diseases of Wildlife

Bacterial Diseases of Wildlife 1 Module # 8 Component # 2 Bacterial Diseases of Wildlife Objectives To be able to identify the symptoms of important bacterial diseases of wildlife and to understand the control of these diseases. Expected

More information

Economic Significance of Fasciola Hepatica Infestation of Beef Cattle a Definition Study based on Field Trial and Grazier Questionnaire

Economic Significance of Fasciola Hepatica Infestation of Beef Cattle a Definition Study based on Field Trial and Grazier Questionnaire Economic Significance of Fasciola Hepatica Infestation of Beef Cattle a Definition Study based on Field Trial and Grazier Questionnaire B. F. Chick Colin Blumer District Veterinary Laboratory, Private

More information

Goat Health 3 - Endoparasites

Goat Health 3 - Endoparasites Goat Health 3 - Endoparasites David Harwood BVetMed, MRCVS INTRODUCTION: Goats can potentially suffer from a number of parasites that are broadly characterised as "Ectoparasites" such as mange and lice

More information

Prevalence of Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Zaria, Nigeria

Prevalence of Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Zaria, Nigeria RESEARCH ARTICLE Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (P-ISSN 1595-093X/ E-ISSN 2315-6201) Okubanjo et al./sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2013) 11(2): 15-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v11i2.3

More information

A Survey of Disease Conditions in Sheep and Goats Slaughtered at Coimbatore District Slaughter House, Tamil Nadu, India

A Survey of Disease Conditions in Sheep and Goats Slaughtered at Coimbatore District Slaughter House, Tamil Nadu, India International Journal Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 10 (2017) pp. 3692-3699 Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.610.433

More information

ZOONOTIC ALERT What is zoonosis and why should you care? FECAL TESTING = INTESTINAL PARASITE SCREEN

ZOONOTIC ALERT What is zoonosis and why should you care? FECAL TESTING = INTESTINAL PARASITE SCREEN ZOONOTIC ALERT What is zoonosis and why should you care? Zoonosis refers to a parasite, bacteria, or virus (such as rabies), that can be passed directly from animals to humans. Members of your family can

More information

All about snakes. What are snakes? Are snakes just lizards without legs? If you want to know more

All about snakes. What are snakes? Are snakes just lizards without legs? If you want to know more Novak.lisa@gmail.com Day 83 12/29/2017 All about snakes What are snakes? Are snakes just lizards without legs? If you want to know more keep reading to find out the answers to the question. The purpose

More information

Veterinary Public Health (VPH)

Veterinary Public Health (VPH) Veterinary Public Health (VPH) Veterinary Public Health is the application of professional veterinary knowledge, skills and resources to the protection and improvement of human health. VPH plays a fundamental

More information

College of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry Fiji National University

College of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry Fiji National University Programme Title Award Duration 5 years, 6 months Campus Koronivia Programme Coordinators/Counselors 1 st year Prof. A. P. Singh/Dr. Tej Ram 2 nd year Prof. A. P. Singh/Dr. Tej Ram 3 rd year Prof. A. P.

More information

MAINTAINING HEALTH AND PROCEDURE RECORDS FOR RESEARCH AND TEACHING ANIMALS

MAINTAINING HEALTH AND PROCEDURE RECORDS FOR RESEARCH AND TEACHING ANIMALS Document: ACUP542.04 Issue Date: 02 MAR 17; Effective Date 02 MAR 17 Authorization: Dr. N. Place, IACUC Chair Author: Dr. B. Blank (Revision) MAINTAINING HEALTH AND PROCEDURE RECORDS FOR RESEARCH AND TEACHING

More information

(From the Division of Laboratories of Montefiore Hospital, New York.)

(From the Division of Laboratories of Montefiore Hospital, New York.) CALCIFICATION OF THE SUPRARENAL GLANDS OF CATS. BY DAVID MARINE, M.D. (From the Division of Laboratories of Montefiore Hospital, New York.) PLATE 11. (Received for publication, January 18, 1925.) It is

More information

Diseases Affecting 4H Sheep and Goats

Diseases Affecting 4H Sheep and Goats Diseases Affecting 4H Sheep and Goats Dr. Chad Frank DVM, MS, DACVP CSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory 1 Clostridial Diseases C. perfringens type D (Enterotoxemia) Usually sudden changes in diet Sheep-

More information

GLOBAL WARMING AND ANIMAL DISEASE

GLOBAL WARMING AND ANIMAL DISEASE GLOBAL WARMING AND ANIMAL DISEASE A.J. Wilsmore Eight of the warmest years on record have occurred during the last decade, thereby, superficially at least, seeming to support the concept of imminent climate

More information

NEONATAL Point Prevalence Survey. Ward Form

NEONATAL Point Prevalence Survey. Ward Form Appendix 2 NEONATAL Point Prevalence Survey Ward Form Please fill in one form for each ward included in PPS Date of survey Person completing form (Auditor code) Hospital Name Department/Ward Neonatal departments

More information

Raising Orphaned Puppies and Kittens

Raising Orphaned Puppies and Kittens 280-L Middle Country Road 6230-C Jericho Tpke Selden, NY 11784 Commack, NY 11725 (631) 698-2225 (631) 462-6044 Raising Orphaned Puppies and Kittens Raising orphaned puppies and kittens can be a rewarding

More information

Gastrointestinal Nematode Infestations in Sheep

Gastrointestinal Nematode Infestations in Sheep Gastrointestinal Nematode Infestations in Sheep Phil Scott DVM&S, DipECBHM, CertCHP, DSHP, FRCVS Gastrointestinal nematode infestations are perhaps the most important group of conditions limiting intensive

More information

Dairy Focus at Illinois Newsletter. A simple technique to detect metritis. Volume 3, Number 1

Dairy Focus at Illinois Newsletter. A simple technique to detect metritis. Volume 3, Number 1 Volume 3, Number 1 A simple technique to detect metritis Dairy Focus at Illinois Newsletter It is no secret that giving birth is a stressful situation for both the cow and her reproductive tract. As a

More information

U.S. ORIGIN HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR EXPORT OF RESEARCH RODENTS TO JAPAN

U.S. ORIGIN HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR EXPORT OF RESEARCH RODENTS TO JAPAN Health Certificate No. U.S. ORIGIN HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR EXPORT OF RESEARCH RODENTS TO JAPAN I. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ANIMALS [August 2005] SPECIES STRAIN AGE SEX COLOR DISTINCTIVE MARKS NUMBER Total

More information

Pet Name: Color Breed Female Male Est. DOB Age: Date Next Annual Vaccine Due: MicroFinder Chip No.

Pet Name: Color Breed Female Male Est. DOB Age: Date Next Annual Vaccine Due: MicroFinder Chip No. Friends of Pets of Klamath Basin A no-kill, free-roaming Adoption Center for Abandoned Cats 4809 Altamont Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97603 541-850-0750 www.klamathpets.com Adoption Contract Pet Name: Color

More information

Contains most of the medically important tapeworms Scolex has 4 suckers and compact vitelline gland are characteristic Range from mm to >10m

Contains most of the medically important tapeworms Scolex has 4 suckers and compact vitelline gland are characteristic Range from mm to >10m Cyclophyllidae Contains most of the medically important tapeworms Scolex has 4 suckers and compact vitelline gland are characteristic Range from mm to >10m Family Taeniidae Taenia saginata: beef tapeworm

More information

FRENZ. World Leading Poultry Layer Standard

FRENZ. World Leading Poultry Layer Standard Celebrating New Zealand F years ree Ranging pasture far med As Nature Intended FRENZ World Leading Poultry Layer Standard Celebrating New Zealand F years ree Ranging pasture far med As Nature Intended

More information

World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences WJPLS

World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences WJPLS wjpls, 2015, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 149-159 Review Article ISSN 2454-2229 Tewodros. WJPLS www.wjpls.org A REVIEW ON: LUNGWORM INFECTION IN SMALL RUMINANTS Dr. Tewodros Alemneh Engdaw* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,

More information

FAMACHA for Parasite Control

FAMACHA for Parasite Control FAMACHA for Parasite Control Dr. Steve Hart Langston University There are several sources for information on parasite control and FAMACHA. The best single source is http://www.scsrpc.org. You can also

More information

State of resources reporting

State of resources reporting Ministry of Natural Resources State of resources reporting Rabies in Ontario What is Rabies? Rabies is a disease that affects the nervous system of mammals. The virus that causes rabies is usually passed

More information

For the control of FERAL PIGEONS IN, ON OR IN THE AREA OF STRUCTURES, NESTING AND ROOSTING SITES REGISTRATION NO PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS ACT

For the control of FERAL PIGEONS IN, ON OR IN THE AREA OF STRUCTURES, NESTING AND ROOSTING SITES REGISTRATION NO PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS ACT 10-MAR-2011 2010-4342 Avitrol Whole Corn (R) WHOLE CORN For the control of FERAL PIGEONS IN, ON OR IN THE AREA OF STRUCTURES, NESTING AND ROOSTING SITES PARTICULATES RESTRICTED GUARANTEE: 4-Aminopyridine

More information

Oil Spill Impacts on Sea Turtles

Oil Spill Impacts on Sea Turtles Oil Spill Impacts on Sea Turtles which were the Kemp s ridleys. The five species of sea turtles that exist in the Gulf were put greatly at risk by the Gulf oil disaster, which threatened every stage of

More information

UNDERSTANDING HEARTWORMS 4-Pets

UNDERSTANDING HEARTWORMS 4-Pets Oklahoma 4-H 4H SMAN 503 UNDERSTANDING HEARTWORMS 4-Pets WHAT IS A HEARTWORM Heartworms are internal parasites that can infect your dog or cat. Parasites live on the inside (internal) or on the outside

More information

Controlling "Worms" In Poultry

Controlling Worms In Poultry Controlling "Worms" In Poultry or E. M. Dickinson W. E. Babcock Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State College Corvallis Circular of Information 522 February 1953 Controlling "Worms" in Poultry E.

More information

Veterinary Science Preparatory Training for the Veterinary Assistant. Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS

Veterinary Science Preparatory Training for the Veterinary Assistant. Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Veterinary Science Preparatory Training for the Veterinary Assistant Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Brucellosis & Tuberculosis Eradication Programs Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Objectives Discuss the

More information

Canine Core Vaccines

Canine Core Vaccines Canine Core Vaccines Distemper (DA2PP) and Rabies The distemper vaccine is a multi-component vaccine. It is given to puppies starting at 8-9 weeks of age; an exam and booster vaccine is done every 3-4

More information

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE ESSENTIAL COMPETENCES REQUIRED OF THE NEW VETERINARY GRADUATE

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE ESSENTIAL COMPETENCES REQUIRED OF THE NEW VETERINARY GRADUATE UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE ESSENTIAL COMPETENCES REQUIRED OF THE NEW VETERINARY GRADUATE The proposed Day One Competences contained in this document were adapted from the latest

More information

Incidence of foetal wastages of cows slaughtered in Minna abattoir, Niger state, Nigeria

Incidence of foetal wastages of cows slaughtered in Minna abattoir, Niger state, Nigeria Journal of Applied Biosciences 42: 2876 2881 ISSN 1997 5902 Incidence of foetal wastages of cows slaughtered in Minna abattoir, Niger state, Nigeria Adama J.Y, Shiawoya E.L and Michael N. Department of

More information

Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi 2

Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi 2 Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 413-419 413 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODE INFECTIONS OF CATTLE IN NAKURU AND MUKURWEINI DISTRICTS OF KENYA 1 *, Gitau G K 2, Kitala P M 1,

More information

Opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use pursuant to Article 30(3) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004

Opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use pursuant to Article 30(3) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 11 December 2014 EMA/CVMP/761582/2014 Veterinary Medicines Division EMEA/V/A/107 Opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use pursuant to Article 30(3) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004

More information

Best Management Practices: Internal Parasite control in Louisiana Beef Cattle

Best Management Practices: Internal Parasite control in Louisiana Beef Cattle Christine B. Navarre, DVM Best Management Practices: Internal Parasite control in Louisiana Beef Cattle Introduction Controlling internal parasites in grazing cattle has a signiicant positive return on

More information

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Pinkeye. Lew Strickland DVM MS DACT Extension Veterinarian University of Tennessee

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Pinkeye. Lew Strickland DVM MS DACT Extension Veterinarian University of Tennessee Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Pinkeye Lew Strickland DVM MS DACT Extension Veterinarian University of Tennessee Pink eye Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Moraxella bovis possible Moraxella

More information

Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 12 (Number 3). December, 2014

Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 12 (Number 3). December, 2014 RESEARCH ARTICLE Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (P-ISSN 1595-093X/ E-ISSN 2315-6201) Glaji et al/sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2014) 12(3): 9-14 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v12i3.2

More information

The Worms / Chapter 34 and Partial 35 (pgs )

The Worms / Chapter 34 and Partial 35 (pgs ) Name: The Worms / Chapter 34 and Partial 35 (pgs.712-716) 1-6. Worms are not the simple organisms most people think of at first sight. List three specific features that support the idea that worms are

More information

General Practice Service Willows Information Sheets. Looking after your pregnant cat

General Practice Service Willows Information Sheets. Looking after your pregnant cat General Practice Service Willows Information Sheets Looking after your pregnant cat Looking after your pregnant cat The following information is aimed at ordinary cat owners rather than cat breeders. It

More information

Why Do Animals Need Foster Care? There are several reasons an animal might become part of our foster program. Some of them are:

Why Do Animals Need Foster Care? There are several reasons an animal might become part of our foster program. Some of them are: Fostering with P.A.W.S. Fostering is essential to our success here at P.A.W.S. Foster parents provide temporary care for kittens, puppies, cats and dogs in an environment that is less stressful for the

More information

THE EFFECT OF IBR/PI3 AND PASTEURELLA VACCINATION ON THE MORTALITY RATE OF HIGH PERCENTAGE EAST FRIESIAN LAMBS

THE EFFECT OF IBR/PI3 AND PASTEURELLA VACCINATION ON THE MORTALITY RATE OF HIGH PERCENTAGE EAST FRIESIAN LAMBS THE EFFECT OF IBR/PI3 AND PASTEURELLA VACCINATION ON THE MORTALITY RATE OF HIGH PERCENTAGE EAST FRIESIAN LAMBS David L. Thomas 1, Yves M. Berger 2, Brett M. McKusick 1, and Ralph H. Stauffacher 3 1 Department

More information

Bright Eyes & Bushy Tails

Bright Eyes & Bushy Tails Bright Eyes & Bushy Tails Housecall and Full-Service Veterinary Clinic 3005 Highway 1 NE Iowa City, IA 52240 (319) 351-4256 December 1, 2000 Quarterly Newsletter Jennifer Berger, DVM Allan Berger DVM,

More information

On-Farm Salmonella Control Measures For. Pest Control

On-Farm Salmonella Control Measures For. Pest Control On-Farm Salmonella Control Measures For Layers Pest Control Rodents And Other Animals All animals, including birds and reptiles, can carry Salmonella spp. Control of Salmonella spp. from mammals such as

More information

EMBRYO DIAGNOSIS AN IMPORTANT TOOL TO HELP THE HATCHERY MANAGER

EMBRYO DIAGNOSIS AN IMPORTANT TOOL TO HELP THE HATCHERY MANAGER Issue No.14 / September 2007 EMBRYO DIAGNOSIS AN IMPORTANT TOOL TO HELP THE HATCHERY MANAGER By Avian Business Unit CEVA Santé Animale Libourne, France INTRODUCTION Chick quality is the first criterion

More information

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths and Protozoa Parasites of Ruminants in Minna, North Central, Nigeria

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths and Protozoa Parasites of Ruminants in Minna, North Central, Nigeria IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) e-issn: 2319-2380, p-issn: 2319-2372. Volume 8, Issue 11 Ver. I (Nov. 2015), PP 62-67 www.iosrjournals.org Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths

More information

Fish Farms. DATCP Fish Health 4/21/2009. Myron Kebus, MS, DVM. State Aquaculture Veterinary Epidemiologist

Fish Farms. DATCP Fish Health 4/21/2009. Myron Kebus, MS, DVM. State Aquaculture Veterinary Epidemiologist Fish Farms Myron Kebus, MS, DVM State Aquaculture Veterinary Epidemiologist DATCP Fish Health National model for fish health programs Requirements: Import permits Health certificates Record-keeping Reportable

More information

MODEL STANDARDS FOR PET SHOP LICENCE CONDITIONS

MODEL STANDARDS FOR PET SHOP LICENCE CONDITIONS ANIMAL WELFARE ACT 2006 PET ANIMALS ACT 1951 MODEL STANDARDS FOR PET SHOP LICENCE CONDITIONS Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish and other Aquatic Invertebrates h&e314v2 The Standard Licence Conditions N.B. Reptiles,

More information

Application of genotype sensitivity to selection between two exotic strains of chickens in humid tropical environment

Application of genotype sensitivity to selection between two exotic strains of chickens in humid tropical environment AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGY JOURNAL OF NORTH AMERICA ISSN Print: 2151-7517, ISSN Online: 2151-7525, doi:10.5251/abjna.2013.4.2.116.121 2013, ScienceHuβ, http://www.scihub.org/abjna Application of genotype

More information

with a new course of injections. Most kennels and catteries will insist on seeing proof of regular vaccinations.

with a new course of injections. Most kennels and catteries will insist on seeing proof of regular vaccinations. There are a number of highly infectious and potentially fatal diseases which can affect your dog and cat. There is no treatment for many of these diseases and young puppies and kittens who catch them often

More information

Post Mortem Verification

Post Mortem Verification Biosecurity Services Group On-Plant Management System Work Instruction 3.03.02 Page 1 Export Meat Program Page 1 of 9 1. Purpose 1.1 The purpose of this Work Instruction (WI) is to provide AQIS staff with

More information

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists Membership Examinationn. Medicine of Goats Paper 1

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists Membership Examinationn. Medicine of Goats Paper 1 Australian College of Veterinary Scientists Membership Examinationn June 2011 Medicine of Goats Paper 1 Perusal time: Fifteen (15) minutes Time allowed: Two (2) hours after perusal Answer ALL twenty (20)

More information

Veterinary Medicine Master s Degree Day-One Skills

Veterinary Medicine Master s Degree Day-One Skills Veterinary Medicine Master s Degree Day-One Skills Professional general attributes and capacities The newly-graduated veterinarian must: 1- Know the national and European ethic and professional regulations

More information

No dog is perfect, though, and you may have noticed these characteristics, too:

No dog is perfect, though, and you may have noticed these characteristics, too: Boston Terriers: What a Unique Breed! Your dog is special! She s your best friend and companion and a source of unconditional love. Chances are that you chose her because you like Boston terriers, and

More information

Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 32(1): 2011; 16-20

Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 32(1): 2011; 16-20 Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 32(1): 2011; 16-20 ARTICLE Participatory Epizootiology Research of Settled Pastoralists in Igangan Grazing Reserve, Southern Guinea Agro-Pastoral Zone, Oyo State, Nigeria:

More information

Guideline # SOP 502 IACUC Approval: February 17, 2016

Guideline # SOP 502 IACUC Approval: February 17, 2016 IACUC GUIDELINE: Rodent Husbandry and Breeding Guideline # SOP 502 IACUC Approval: February 17, 2016 1. Introduction This SOP describes the basic procedures required for routine rodent care and breeding.

More information

No dog is perfect, though, and you may have noticed these characteristics, too:

No dog is perfect, though, and you may have noticed these characteristics, too: Maltese: What a Unique Breed! Your dog is special! She s your best friend and companion and a source of unconditional love. Chances are that you chose her because you like Maltese, and you expected her

More information

Urbani School Health Kit. A Dengue-Free Me. Urbani School Health Kit TEACHER'S RESOURCE BOOK

Urbani School Health Kit. A Dengue-Free Me. Urbani School Health Kit TEACHER'S RESOURCE BOOK Urbani School Health Kit TEACHER'S RESOURCE BOOK A Dengue-Free Me A Campaign on the Prevention and Control of Dengue for Health Promoting Schools Urbani School Health Kit World Health Organization Western

More information

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND VETERINARY SCIENCES FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE PROJECT REPORT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARD OF BACHELOR S DEGREE IN VETERINARY

More information

OIE international standards on Rabies:

OIE international standards on Rabies: Regional cooperation towards eradicating the oldest known zoonotic disease in Europe Antalya, Turkey 4-5 December 2008 OIE international standards on Rabies: Dr. Lea Knopf Scientific and Technical Department

More information

Genetic parameters and breeding value stability estimated from a joint evaluation of purebred and crossbred sows for litter weight at weaning

Genetic parameters and breeding value stability estimated from a joint evaluation of purebred and crossbred sows for litter weight at weaning Acta Agraria Kaposváriensis (2015) Vol 19 No 1, 1-7. Kaposvári Egyetem, Agrár- és Környezettudományi Kar, Kaposvár Genetic parameters and breeding value stability estimated from a joint evaluation of purebred

More information

Content Area: Agriscience and Technology DRAFT. Grade Level: 11/12. 1 to 2 weeks. Introduction to Veterinary Medicine.

Content Area: Agriscience and Technology DRAFT. Grade Level: 11/12. 1 to 2 weeks. Introduction to Veterinary Medicine. Content Area: Agriscience and Technology DRAFT Course: Veterinary Assistant Certification Management Year A Grade Level: 11/12 R14 The Seven Cs of Learning Collaboration Character Citizenship Creativity

More information

Lecture # 22: Superfamily Strongyloidea: The Strongyles of equids.

Lecture # 22: Superfamily Strongyloidea: The Strongyles of equids. Lecture # 22: Superfamily Strongyloidea: The Strongyles of equids. Objective: 1. List the morphological features shared by genera of the superfamily Strongyloidea. 2. Describe the larval migrations of

More information

University Diploma Veterinary Pharmacy Course Information

University Diploma Veterinary Pharmacy Course Information University Diploma Veterinary Pharmacy Course Information The Veterinary Pharmacy courses at Harper Adams University are run in conjunction with the Veterinary Pharmacy Education Programme (VPEP) which

More information

CLINICAL PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA. SCOPE: Western Australia. CORB score equal or above 1. All criteria must be met:

CLINICAL PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA. SCOPE: Western Australia. CORB score equal or above 1. All criteria must be met: CLINICAL PROTOCOL F COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA SCOPE: Western Australia All criteria must be met: Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria CB score equal or above 1. Mild/moderate pneumonia confirmed by

More information

IACUC POLICIES, PROCEDURES, and GUIDELINES. HUMANE USE PAIN CLASSIFICATIONS (Pain Categories)

IACUC POLICIES, PROCEDURES, and GUIDELINES. HUMANE USE PAIN CLASSIFICATIONS (Pain Categories) Page 1 of 6 IACUC POLICIES, PROCEDURES, and GUIDELINES HUMANE USE PAIN CLASSIFICATIONS (Pain Categories) Purpose: This document provides guidelines for the classification of animal use into the Humane

More information

Drug therapy of Filariasis. Dr. Shareef sm Asst. professor pharmacology

Drug therapy of Filariasis. Dr. Shareef sm Asst. professor pharmacology Drug therapy of Filariasis Dr. Shareef sm Asst. professor pharmacology Signs and symptoms Lymphatic filariasis Fever Inguinal or axillary lymphadenopathy Testicular and/or inguinal pain Skin exfoliation

More information

Veterinary Education in Europe 2009 and beyond

Veterinary Education in Europe 2009 and beyond Bulletin UASVM, Veterinary Medicine 66(2)/2009 ISSN 1843-5270; Electronic ISSN 1843-5378 Veterinary Education in Europe 2009 and beyond Marcel WANNER, Robin OAKLEY Veterinarians have a special responsibility

More information

Some aspects of wildlife and wildlife parasitology in New Zealand

Some aspects of wildlife and wildlife parasitology in New Zealand Some aspects of wildlife and wildlife parasitology in New Zealand Part 3/3 Part three: Kiwis and aspects of their parasitology Kiwis are unique and unusual in many ways. For a comprehensive and detailed

More information

The world s first and only pour-on anti-inflammatory for cattle FAST PAIN RELIEF

The world s first and only pour-on anti-inflammatory for cattle FAST PAIN RELIEF The world s first and only pour-on anti-inflammatory for cattle FAST PAIN RELIEF NOTHING IS SIMPLER THAN POUR-ON RELIEF FOR PAIN, FEVER AND ACUTE INFLAMMATION easy to dose easy to apply easy on animals

More information

Date in effect: 3/7/2016. Page: 1 of 7

Date in effect: 3/7/2016. Page: 1 of 7 Author: Paul Stonum 1 of 7 Responsible faculty: (Signature/Date) PURPOSE The objective of this Rodent Surveillance Health Program is to provide the highest quality of care for rodents housed in TTU Animal

More information

Herd Health Plan. Contact Information. Date Created: Date(s) Reviewed/Updated: Initials: Date: Initials: Date: Farm Manager: Veterinarian of Record:

Herd Health Plan. Contact Information. Date Created: Date(s) Reviewed/Updated: Initials: Date: Initials: Date: Farm Manager: Veterinarian of Record: Contact Information Farm Name: Veterinarian of Record: Farm Owner: Farm Manager: Date Created: Date(s) Reviewed/Updated: Farm Owner: Date: Initials: Date: Initials: Date: Farm Manager: Date: Initials:

More information

Lactation. Macroscopic Anatomy of the Mammary Gland. Anatomy AS 1124

Lactation. Macroscopic Anatomy of the Mammary Gland. Anatomy AS 1124 Lactation AS 1124 Macroscopic Anatomy of the Mammary Gland Species differences in numbers and locations of glands inguinal - caudal to the abdomen, between the hind legs (cow, mare, ewe) abdominal - along

More information

EFFICACY OF ANTHELMINTICS: SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CANINES

EFFICACY OF ANTHELMINTICS: SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CANINES VICH GL19 (ANTHELMINTICS: CANINE) June 2001 For implementation at Step 7 - Draft 1 EFFICACY OF ANTHELMINTICS: SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CANINES Recommended for Implementation on June 2001 by the VICH

More information

OHAC background Dian Fossey legacy Since 2004, wildlife veterinarian in charge of the mountain gorilla and golden monkey heath care with others wildli

OHAC background Dian Fossey legacy Since 2004, wildlife veterinarian in charge of the mountain gorilla and golden monkey heath care with others wildli One Health Approach for Conservation (OHAC), Gorilla Health Dr. Jean Felix Kinani, OHAC Founder and Executive Director OIE National Focal point for Wildlife for Rwanda 2016 OHAC background Dian Fossey

More information

Cobras By Guy Belleranti

Cobras By Guy Belleranti Name: The cobras of Africa and Asia are among the most famous, and most intimidating, snakes in the world. have thin bodies and short, wide heads. When a cobra hunts or senses danger, it raises its head

More information

Guideline for Prevention of Brucellosis in Meat Packing Plant Workers

Guideline for Prevention of Brucellosis in Meat Packing Plant Workers Guideline for Prevention of Brucellosis in Meat Packing Plant Workers Introduction Brucellosis is a disease which may spread from animals to man. There is no evidence for person to person transmission.

More information

PARASITE TREATMENTS PROVEN PROTECTION FOR DOGS AND CATS

PARASITE TREATMENTS PROVEN PROTECTION FOR DOGS AND CATS PARASITE TREATMENTS PROVEN PROTECTION FOR DOGS AND CATS THIS IS WHY For pets and the families who love them Now, more than ever, pets are considered part of the family. But when parasites are involved,

More information

Antibiotic stewardship in long term care

Antibiotic stewardship in long term care Antibiotic stewardship in long term care Shira Doron, MD Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA Consultant to Massachusetts

More information

Vaccines for Cats. 2. Feline viral rhinotracheitis, FVR caused by FVR virus, also known as herpes virus type 1, FHV-1

Vaccines for Cats. 2. Feline viral rhinotracheitis, FVR caused by FVR virus, also known as herpes virus type 1, FHV-1 Vaccines for Cats Recent advances in veterinary medical science have resulted in an increase in the number and type of vaccines that are available for use in cats, and improvements are continuously being

More information

Crossbred lamb production in the hills

Crossbred lamb production in the hills Crossbred lamb production in the hills ADAS Pwllpeiran Cwmystwyth Aberystwyth Ceredigion SY23 4AB Institute of Rural Sciences University of Wales, Aberystwyth Llanbadarn Campus Aberystwyth Ceredigion SY23

More information

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research. Biomedical and veterinary research to safeguard animal and public health

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research. Biomedical and veterinary research to safeguard animal and public health Wageningen Bioveterinary Research Biomedical and veterinary research to safeguard animal and public health Veterinary research to safeguard animal and public health Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR)

More information

New Zealand Consumer Medicine Information

New Zealand Consumer Medicine Information New Zealand Consumer Medicine Information FLUCLOXACILLIN Flucloxacillin (as the sodium salt) 250 mg and 500 mg capsules Flucloxacillin (as the sodium salt) 125 mg/5 ml and 250 mg/5 ml powder for oral solution

More information

Health and Safety Top Tips for Volunteers

Health and Safety Top Tips for Volunteers Health and Safety Top Tips for Volunteers Keeping yourself safe whilst out and about When you are out and about volunteering for Guide Dogs it is important that you consider your safety at all times. To

More information