Parasites and their vectors

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1 Parasites and their vectors

2 ThiS is a FM Blank Page

3 Yvonne Ai Lian Lim Indra Vythilingam Editors Parasites and their vectors A special focus on Southeast Asia

4 Editors Yvonne Ai Lian Lim Indra Vythilingam Department of Parasitology Faculty of Medicine University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur Malaysia ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / Springer Wien Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: Springer-Verlag Wien 2013 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

5 Contents 1 Southeast Asia: Hotspot for Parasitic Infections... 1 Yvonne A.L. Lim and Indra Vythilingam 2 Plasmodium knowlesi: Emergent Human Malaria in Southeast Asia... 5 Kim-Sung Lee and Indra Vythilingam 3 Filarial Worms in Southeast Asia Rahmah Noordin, R.K. Shenoy, Boon-Huat Lim, and C.P. Ramachandran 4 Vectors of Malaria and Filariasis in Southeast Asia: A Changing Scenario Indra Vythilingam, Wan Y. Wan-Sulaiman, and John Jeffery 5 Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Southeast Asia Yvonne A.L. Lim, Mohammed A.K. Mahdy, and Johari Surin 6 Entamoeba histolytica in Southeast Asia Rohela Mahmud, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Norhayati Moktar, and Tengku-Shahrul Anuar 7 Romancing Blastocystis: A 20-Year Affair Suresh Kumar and Tian-Chye Tan 8 Toxoplasma gondii: The Parasite in Trend Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Yee-Ling Lau, and Mun-Yik Fong 9 Sarcocystis spp. and Pentastomes in Southeast Asia John Jeffery, Arine F. Ahmad, and Noraishah M. Abdul-Aziz 10 Free-Living Amoebae in Southeast Asia Init Ithoi and Arine F. Ahmad v

6 vi Contents 11 Soil-Transmitted Helminths: The Neglected Parasites Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Yvonne A.L. Lim, Norhayati Moktar, and Romano Ngui 12 Epidemiology of Cestode and Trematode in Southeast Asian Countries Zurainee Mohamed-Nor Index

7 List of Contributors Arine F. Ahmad Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tengku-Shahrul Anuar Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Noraishah M. Abdul-Aziz Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Boon-Huat Lim Biomedical Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Jamaiah Ibrahim Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Init Ithoi Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia John Jeffery Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kim-Sung Lee Environmental Health Institute, National Environment Agency, Singapore, Singapore Yvonne A.L. Lim Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yee-Ling Lau Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mohammed A.K. Mahdy Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of vii

8 viii List of Contributors Rohela Mahmud Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Norhayati Moktar Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Romano Ngui Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Veeranoot Nissapatorn Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rahmah Noordin Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Zurainee Mohamed-Nor Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of C.P. Ramachandran World Health Organisation, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, United Nations Avenue, Manila, Philippines R.K. Shenoy Department of Internal Medicine, T.D. Medical College Hospital, Alappuzha, Kerala, India Filariasis Chemotherapy Unit, T.D. Medical College Hospital, Alappuzha, Kerala, India Wan Y. Wan-Sulaiman Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Suresh Kumar Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Johari Surin Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tian-Chye Tan Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indra Vythilingam Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mun-Yik Fong Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of

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