2009 MN Cattle Feeder Days Jolene Kelzer University of Minnesota Beef Team

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1 2009 MN Cattle Feeder Days Jolene Kelzer University of Minnesota Beef Team

2 101.8 M total US cattle and calves (July 1) Down 1% from 2008 (103.3 M) 11.6 M total US cattle on feed (July 1) Down 5% from 2008 (12.2 M) NASS, USDA 2009

3 2.4 M total cattle and calves (Jan. 1) 840,000 calves (2008) 280,000 cattle on feed (Jan. 1) Down 16% from 2008 (325,000 hd) NASS, USDA 2009

4 165,000 heifers 500+ lb (Jan. 1) Not beef or dairy replacements NASS, USDA 2009 Assume 50% enter the feedlot 82,500 heifers Heifers represent ~30% total cattle on feed

5 Puberty reached between 9 16 mo. Breed, weight, nutritional status Estrus Increased activity Reduced intake Reduced gain Risk of injury Decreased efficiency DIMINISHING PROFIT!

6 Only takes one heifer Undetected pregnancies in feedlot Economic DISASTER!

7 Melengesterol acetate (MGA) Progestin Interacts with LH and FSH to alter ovarian function Maintains estrogen Inhibits estrus

8 0.5 mg per head per day Supplemented heifers gained 6% faster and required 9% less feed per unit gain MGA allows similar BW gain and feed conversion as steers Continuous influence of endogenous estrogens Natural anabolic agent

9 Heifer spaying Surgical removal of ovaries Western ranching states

10 Compared to flank spaying: Faster = more heifers per day Lower overall labor costs Less stressful Reduced risk for infection Fewer complications - scarring Performance advantages

11 Assume $15.00 total per heifer $5.00 $6.00 per head Depending on number spayed Labor, veterinary, associated expenses Eliminates MGA costs Assume 2 per day (200 d x $0.02 = $4.00) MINIMAL risk of death Surgeon expertise

12 Maintain feeder heifers in open or neutered status Early detection of pregnant heifers in the feedlot Eliminate feeding estrus suppressing additives Improved ADG and feed conversion (when implanted) Ability to graze or feed heifers and steers together or within fence-line contact of herd sires

13 Removal of ovaries = absence of endogenous gonadal steroids (estrogen and progesterone) Reduces intake, daily gain, and feed efficiency Implants containing progesterone induce more rapid gains and improve feed conversion compared to implants containing testosterone (Garber et al., 1990) No negative impact on carcass characteristics and suggested to improve some

14 Split-state bovine tuberculosis (TB) status Modified Accredited Advanced Modified Accredited Restrictions on interstate livestock travel Added value for spayed heifers from MN???

15 - Minnesota Board of Animal Health

16 Evaluate differences in backgrounding performance due to reproductive status (spayed vs. intact) Evaluate differences in finishing performance and carcass characteristics due to reproductive status (spayed vs. intact) and terminal implant strategy (moderate vs. aggressive)

17 Performance of spayed, implanted heifers would be similar to intact, implanted heifers supplemented with MGA Aggressive terminal implant strategy should enhance performance of heifers

18 Processed similarly and stratified by weight On d 28, one-half of heifers within weight class spayed On d 42, all heifers implanted with Synovex C Initiation of backgrounding Intact heifers supplemented with MGA Intake, ADG, and F:G measured

19 Ingredient composition (DM-Basis) of backgrounding diet. Ground Corn, % 37.0 Wet Beet Pulp, % 30.0 Corn Silage, % 20.0 Haylage, % 7.0 Pelleted Supplement 1, % Two supplements formulated to differ only in melengesterol acetate inclusion (0.5 mg/hd/d) fed only to intact heifers. Supplements contained 9.8% Ca, 1.1% P, 0.9% Mg, 1.1% K, 1.8% Na, 1.1% S, 754 ppm Zn, 207 ppm Cu, 803 ppm Fe, and 12 ppm Co. Nutrient and energy composition (DM-Basis) of backgrounding diet. DM, % 34.1 CP, % 14.2 NDF, % 29.1 ADF, % 18.1 Crude Fat, % 2.98 Ca, % P, % TDN, % 72.5 NE m, Mcal/lb NE g, Mcal/lb 0.500

20 Terminal implant date initiated finishing period Heavy heifers (66 DOF) Light heifers (86 DOF) Implanted with Synovex H (Moderate) or Synovex Plus (Aggressive) Intact heifers supplemented with MGA All heifers received monensin sodium and tylosin phosphate

21 Ingredient composition (DM-Basis) of finishing diet. High Moisture Corn, % 83.5 Corn Silage, % 11.0 Pelleted Supplement 1, % Two supplements formulated to differ only in melengesterol acetate inclusion (0.5 mg/hd/d) fed only to intact heifers. Supplements contained 9.8% Ca, 1.1% P, 0.9% Mg, 1.1% K, 1.8% Na, 1.1% S, 754 ppm Zn, 207 ppm Cu, 803 ppm Fe, and 12 ppm Co. Supplements were formulated to contain monensin sodium (360 mg/hd/d) and tylosin phosphate (90 mg/hd/d). Nutrient and energy composition (DM-Basis) of finishing diet. DM, % 65.0 CP, % 11.4 NDF, % 12.4 ADF, % 5.46 Crude Fat, % 4.43 Ca, % P, % TDN, % 80.0 NE m, Mcal/lb NE g, Mcal/lb 0.601

22 Heifers harvested at JBS Swift, Grand Island, NE Heavy heifers (80 DOF) Light heifers (88 DOF) Final BW calculated from individual HCW and common DP Carcass characteristics collected following 24-h chill

23 Effect of reproductive status on heifer performance during backgrounding. Status Intact Spayed SE P-Value 1 In. BW, lb End BW, lb DMI, lb/d ADG, lb/d F:G Significance declared with P < 0.05, and trends discussed with 0.05 P 0.10.

24 Effect of reproductive status and re-implant strategy on heifer performance during finishing. Status Implant 1 P-Value 2 Intact Spayed Mod. Aggr. SEM S I S*I Final BW, lb DMI, lb/d ADG, lb/d F:G Moderate implant contained 200 mg testosterone propionate and 20 mg estradiol benzoate per dose (Synovex H). Aggressive implant contained 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 28 mg estradiol benzoate per dose (Synovex Plus). 2 Significance declared with P < 0.05, and trends discussed with 0.05 P Main effects of status (S) and implant (I) are reported with non-significant status by implant (S*I) interaction.

25 Effect of reproductive status and re-implant strategy on heifer carcass characteristics. Status Implant 1 P-Value 2 Intact Spayed Mod. Aggr. SEM S I S*I HCW, lb BF, in LMA 3, in Marb YG Moderate implant contained 200 mg testosterone propionate and 20 mg estradiol benzoate per dose (Synovex H). Aggressive implant contained 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 28 mg estradiol benzoate per dose (Synovex Plus). 2 Significance declared with P < 0.05, and trends discussed with 0.05 P Main effects of status (S) and implant (I) are reported with non-significant status by implant (S*I) interaction. 3 Cold camera estimate of LM area. 4 Marbling score based on 500 = Small 00 ; 600 = Modest Cold camera estimate of USDA yield grade.

26 Backgrounding Performance: Spaying - Lighter end BW Reduced DMI and ADG Tendency for poorer feed conversion Finishing Performance: Spaying - No effect on DMI, ADG, F:G, or final live BW Heifers receiving moderate implants consumed more DMI but gained similarly Poorer feed conversion than heifers receiving aggressive implants Carcass Characteristics: Not affected by reproductive status or terminal implant

27 Spaying appears to be a viable tool for managing heifers in the feedlot provided implant strategy is carefully considered to compensate for lost endogenous sources of estrogen and progesterone without negatively impacting carcass quality.

28 Backgrounding Phase: Spayed heifers consumed less feed vs lb/d Spayed heifers had lower ADG 3.22 vs lb Assume 300 lb gain (500 lb initial BW and 800 lb end WT) Spayed require additional 8 days on feed 93 vs. 85 d

29 Additional 113 lbs feed per heifer Assume $70 per ton feed cost Extra feed = $3.96 (113 lb x $0.035/lb) Additional yardage (assume $0.36 per day) $2.88

30 Cost of spaying = $15.00 MGA (assume $0.02 per day) 85 days = $1.70 Willing to pay $20.14 per spayed hfr

31 Common practice to use growth-promoting agents Anabolic implants primarily increase muscle and BW by increasing rate of protein accretion with little or no impact on fat deposition Long-term or aggressive implant programs may reduce tenderness and consumer acceptability of retail products (Hutcheson et al., 1997; Guiroy et al., 2002) (Platter et al., 2003)

32 Discriminations against heifers: Sex effects Act on nutrient partitioning and behavior Lower feed conversions (increased activity and decreased intake) Pregnancies Fatter carcasses Appropriate Mgmt!

33 U of MN Carcass Merit Program Heifers vs. Steers ( )

34 Heifers Steers Initial BW, lb Final BW, lb Final Adj. Gain, lb DOF, d DMI, lb/d Adj. ADG, lb F:G

35 Heifers Steers HCW, lb Dress, % Yield Grade Marbling Score REA, in th Rib BF, in Marbling Score: 400 = Small.

36 Heifers Steers PRIME CHOICE SELECT STANDARD

37 5.88 Heifers Steers

38 Heifers Steers Feeder Price, $/lb Adj. Feeder Value, $ Live Price, $/lb Carcass Price, $/lb COG, $

39 30% feedlot cattle are heifers Criticisms of feeding heifers exist Don t let them deter you! Must suppress/eliminate estrus activity MGA Spaying Probable advantages for spaying

40 Use of implants or other growth-promoting agents during finishing pays Carefully monitor degree of finish Market at appropriate finish Avoid discounts Background lighter, smaller-framed heifers Appropriate management maximizes genetic potential Watch your bottom line!

41 Visit the Beef Team website for more information:

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