Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi 2

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1 Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODE INFECTIONS OF CATTLE IN NAKURU AND MUKURWEINI DISTRICTS OF KENYA 1 *, Gitau G K 2, Kitala P M 1, Maingi N Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi 2 Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi cdepartment of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi 3 Centre for Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, Department of Health Management, Atlantic Abstract and delivered to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty Key words: FACTEURS DE RISQUE ASSOCIES AUX INFECTIONS AUX NEMATODES GASTRO-INTESTINAUX DES BOVINS DANS LES DISTRICTS DE NAKURU ET DE MUKURWEINI AU KENYA Résumé de trois mois sur les fermes sélectionnées, réfrigérés et remis au Département de Pathologie Vétérinaire, Microbiologie et Parasitologie de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l Université chaque animal et sur la gestion de la ferme. Une analyse de régression logistique a été réalisée d élimination régressive.

2 414 Kabaka W M, Gitau G K, Kitala P M, Maingi N and Vanleeuwen J A Mots-clés facteurs de risque, analyse transversale, bovins, nématodes gastro-intestinaux. Introduction infections in ruminants are an important and Bain, 1994; Gatongi The problem The epidemiology of GIN infections by parasite-host-environment interactions 1996; Ng ang a paper describes a cross-sectional study that of Kenya. Study area Material and Methods Central Province and forms part of Kenya s pastures are cut and carried to the cattle. Counties of the Rift Valley Province and lies locations, depending on the prevailing climatic release of hypobiotic larvae from the dormant state, leading to clinical GIN helminthosis. There Study design that goats are more susceptible than sheep to a similar challenge, others have reported that level using a sampling frame of the dairy farms In order to control gastrointestinal nematodes, it is important to identify the In Kenya, farmer s education, animal age project comparing smallholder dairy farms et al., 2012a; Dohoo

3 Risk Factors Associated With Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections Of Cattle In Nakuru And Mukurweini Districts Of Kenya 415 of smallholder dairy farmers considered representative of the various sub-districts and demographics of smallholder dairy farmers in the area, and the referent group of farmers generated, and the percentage of the infected of farming practices across smallholder dairy controlling for the effects of other factors and entered into the model. The logistic regression Faecal samples from each animal on and the district as random effects, controlled A questionnaire on farm management model. Results government or private veterinary service Univariable analysis of factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections Breed, age, gender, district, source practiced at the farm. Statistical analysis to predict GIN infections. infection among animals on the farms that got counting method gave an output in multiples of and carrying to the animals, or by communal a false positive due to the passing through of ingested eggs, or a very light level of parasitism.

4 416 Kabaka W M, Gitau G K, Kitala P M, Maingi N and Vanleeuwen J A Table 1: Explanatory variables Levels Totals Proportions infected (%) 2 p value Animal breed Friesian Ayshire Guernsey Animal age 3-12 months Animal gender Female Male Body condition1 Poor Good District Time of last months Frequency of months Source of forage Cut from farm Cut from other farms Cut on roadside Product used at last Ivermectin Levamisole Multivariable analysis of factor for gastrointestinal nematode infection regression model indicated that animal age, of an animal having a GIN infection increased 5 months ago, and the odds of an animal having confounding effects of other variables. A mixed and the district as random effects, controlling of forage, body condition, breed and gender

5 Risk Factors Associated With Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections Of Cattle In Nakuru And Mukurweini Districts Of Kenya 417 data. Discussion animals have more developed innate and adaptive immune systems to counter GIN a previous study carried out on smallholder mixed farming systems in Central Kenya In the univariable analysis, cattle Table 2: 30th Factor Odds Ratio P value Age Aged above 12 months District Time to last deworming Frequency of deworming Ivermectin Levamisole

6 418 Kabaka W M, Gitau G K, Kitala P M, Maingi N and Vanleeuwen J A in animals on farms that sourced forages from of study, because the duration of the infection is explained by the contamination of roadside and faecal contamination on forage sources can be an effective measure for the control of GIN infections. Conclusion the infection prevalence being highest among to four months should be encouraged among even up to 6 months, because the nematode lifecycle involves environmental contamination, The overall GIN infection prevalence that shed eggs, thereby reducing egg counts in manure, and pasture contamination of infective larvae. frequency interval greater than six months Most farmers in this study practiced a advocated as a long-term control strategy for nematodes. Acknowledgements Farmers Helping Farmers, a Canadian Foundation. Mr. R. Otieno and Miss. R. contribution in processing the samples, and assisting in sample and data collection. systems there is continuous infection and reinfection from heavily contaminated pastures, rendering anthelmintic treatment of shortprobably because this group of farmers used the veterinary service providers and that is used on their animals. The veterinary service References Barger I A, Genetic resistance of hosts and Veterinary. Parasitology. Collet D, Modelling binary data, Chapman and Hall. London.

7 Risk Factors Associated With Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections Of Cattle In Nakuru And Mukurweini Districts Of Kenya 419 Kenyan smallholder dairy farms. Global Public Health. In Press. K, Development, survival and availability of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep on pastures in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Veterinary Research Communication, Odoi A, Gathuma J M, Gachuiri C K, Omore A, smallholder dairy farms. Journal of Environmental Public Health. In Press. Prince Edward Island, Canada. pp Effects of gastrointestinal helminth infections and plane of nutrition on the health and productivity in The Gambia. Small Ruminants. Research 161. mixed farms in Kenya. BMC Vetetrinary Research 3:6 Health: Food Animal Production Medicine Saunders Company pp Veterinary Parasitology Herd Epidemiology and Control Strategies. Global mandate, IRLI, Gatongi P M, Scott M E, Ranjan S, Gathuma J M, Effects of three nematode anthelmintic treatment under extensive management in semi-arid Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology Georgi J R, Georgi M E, Parasitology for on gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep Veterinary Parasitology, The Constitution of Kenya, Republic of Kenya, Government Printers, Nairobi. First schedule: article pp Hansen J, Perry B, The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of helminth parasite of ruminants ILRAD, Nairobi pp79. nematode parasites of small ruminants in the face of total anthelmintic failure. Tropical Biomedical gastrointestinal nematode infection and their impact in small ruminant production in tropical Africa. The Kenyan Veterinarian Kenya. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal Male D, Brostoff J, Roth D B, Roitt I, Immunology 7th edition. Elsevier: pp The epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in Central Kenya, Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 33:

Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi 2

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