1 1 OIE Standards for Animal Welfare 23 November 2010 Beyrouth, Lebanon Dr Mariela Varas International Trade Department OIE
2 Outline 2 Standard setting work of the OIE Evolution of the OIE AW agenda A look at the AW standards Current issues
3 Standard setting work of the OIE 3
4 The 3 Sisters & the SPS Agreement CODEX food safety OIE animal health including zoonoses IPPC plant health Standards, guidelines and recommendations specifically recognised in the SPS Agreement as the references for international trade
5 5 OIE Specialist Commissions and Standards Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission "Code Commission" Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission "Aquatic Animals Commission" Biological Standards Commission "Laboratories Commission"
6 Setting and updating international standards Committee, Commissions, Delegates Problem Ad hoc group of experts Comments Updated text Codes / Manuals Adopted General Session May (meets in May each OIE year) Members text for adoption Draft text Specialist Commission (meets twice a year) Report text for comments OIE Members
7 Members are responsible for standard setting 7 OIE Members are responsible for setting and adoption of international standards and participate actively in the standard setting process Requests for standards, review of standards and other advice also come to the OIE from the SPS Committee.
8 SPS/OIE measures 8 are a global public good Safe and Abundant Animal Production Food Safety Alleviation of Poverty Public Health (zoonoses) Market Access
9 Evolution of the OIE animal welfare agenda 9
10 Evolution of the OIE animal welfare agenda 2000: AW recognised as a strategic priority in the 3rd OIE Strategic Plan ; 2002: Adoption by the General Assembly of National Delegates of a Resolution leading to the creation of a permanent working group (AWWG); 2003: Adoption of the general principles; 2004: First Global Conference on Animal Welfare, Paris 2004;
11 Evolution of the OIE animal welfare agenda 2005: Adoption of the first Animal Welfare Standards: The transport of animals by land The transport of animals by sea The transport of animals by air The slaughter of animals for human consumption The killing of animals for disease control purposes 2008: 2 nd OIE Global Conference on AW (Cairo, Egypt);
12 Evolution of the OIE animal welfare agenda 2009: Adoption of new standards: The control of stray dog populations The welfare of farmed fish during transport 2009: First meetings of the ad hoc Groups on AW & livestock production systems (beef cattle and broiler chickens); 2010: Adoption of new standards: Welfare aspects of stunning and killing of farmed fish for human consumption Use of animals for research and education:
13 A look at the AW Standards 13
14 14 Terrestrial Animal Health Code Introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare The transport of animals by land The transport of animals by sea The transport of animals by air The slaughter of animals for human consumption The killing of animals for disease control purposes The control of stray dog populations. The use of animals in research and education
15 15 Introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare
16 16 Introduction to the recommendations Animal Welfare definition for animal welfare Chapter 7.1 Animal welfare means how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment.
17 17 Introduction to the recommendations Guiding principles for animal welfare for animal welfare Chapter 7.1 That there is a critical relationship between animal health and AW. Five freedoms : freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition; freedom from fear and distress; freedom from physical and thermal discomfort; freedom from pain, injury and disease; and freedom to express normal patterns of behaviour; Three Rs : reduction in numbers of, refinement of experimental methods and replacement of animal with non-animal techniques Scientific assessment of animal welfare;
18 18 Introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare Chapter 7.1 Guiding principles for animal welfare (cont.) The use of animals makes a major contribution to the wellbeing of people brings an ethical responsibility. Improvements in farm animal welfare can often improve productivity and food safety, and hence lead to economic benefits. Equivalent outcomes based on performance criteria, rather than identical systems based on design criteria, be the basis for comparison of animal welfare standards and recommendations.
19 19 Introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare Chapter 7.1 Scientific basis for recommendations Welfare is a broad term; The scientific assessment of animal welfare has progressed rapidly; Development of measures of animal welfare; These measures can lead to the definition of criteria and indicators
20 The transport of animals 20
21 21 The transport of animals Chapter 7.2 and Chapter 7.3 Transport by sea and land These recommendations apply to the following live domesticated animals: cattle, buffaloes, deer, camelids, sheep, goats, equines, and other domesticated animals. The amount of time animals spend on a journey should be kept to the minimum.
22 22 The transport of animals Chapter 7.2 and Chapter 7.3 Transport by sea and land Considered Aspects Animal behaviour Animal handlers (experience and competency) minimise the potential for distractions Responsibilities Exporters, importers (7.2), owners, masters of vessels, business agent, managers of facilities, animal handlers, Competent Authority, veterinarians.
23 23 The transport of animals Chapter 7.2 and Chapter 7.3 Transport by sea and land Considered Aspects Competence To carry out the relevant responsibilities Planning the journey: General considerations, Preparation of animals for the journey, Control of disease, Vessel and container design and maintenance, Special provisions for transport in road vehicles on roll-on/roll-off vessels or for containers, Nature and duration of the journey, Space allowance, Ability to observe animals during the journey, Emergency response procedures.
24 24 The transport of animals Chapter 7.2 and Chapter 7.3 Transport by sea and land Considered Aspects Documentation Pre-journey period Loading Travel Unloading and post-journey handling Actions in the event of a refusal to allow the importation of a shipment Species-specific issues
25 25 The transport of animals Considered aspects Livestock containers Chapter 7.4 Transport by Air Based on IATA s Live Animals Regulations Manual Recommendations for Destruction of carcasses pregnant animals Emergency slaughter Stocking density Handling of food and waste Preparation for air transport of material livestock Disposal of food and waste Disinfection and disinfestation material Radiation Tranquilization
26 Slaughter of animals 26
27 27 Slaughter of animals Chapter 7.5 General principles Object Personnel Animal behaviour Distractions and their removal Moving and handling animals General and specific recommendations per species Provisions relevant to animals delivered in containers Provisions relevant to restraining and containing animals Lairage design and construction Design of lairage Construction of lairage
28 28 Slaughter of animals Chapter 7.5 Care of animals in lairages Management of foetuses during slaughter of pregnant animals Handling and restraining methods Stunning methods : Mechanical stunning Electrical stunning Gas stunning (under study) Bleeding Methods, procedures or practices unacceptable on animal welfare grounds
29 29 Killing of animals for disease control purposes
30 Killing of animals for 30 disease control purposes General principles Chapter 7.6 These guidelines are based on the principle that the decision to kill the animals has been made. The chapter addresses the need to ensure the welfare of the animal until his death. Organisational structure Disease control contingency plans Responsibilities and competencies of the specialist team Team leader Veterinarian Animal handlers Animal killing personnel Carcass disposal personnel Farmer/owner/manager
31 Killing of animals for 31 disease control purposes Chapter 7.6 Considerations in planning the humane killing of animals Summary of killing methods free bullet penetrating or non-penetrating captive bolt electrical, two-stage application Maceration Electrical Gas, 3 Methods: CO2 / air mixture Nitrogen and/or inert gas mixed with CO2 Nitrogen and/or inert gases Lethal injection Addition of anaesthetics to feed or water Cervical dislocation and decapitation Pithing and bleeding
32 Stray dog population control 32
33 33 Stray dog population control Chapter 7.7 Guiding principles The promotion of responsible dog ownership can significantly reduce the numbers of stray dogs and the incidence of zoonotic diseases. Because dog ecology is linked with human activities, control of dog populations has to be accompanied by changes in human behaviour to be effective.
34 34 Stray dog population control Chapter 7.7 Definitions Euthanasia Stray dog Dog population control programme objectives improve health and welfare reduce numbers promote responsible ownership creation and maintenance of a rabies free dog population reduce the risk of other zoonotic diseases manage other risk prevent harm to the environment prevent illegal trade
35 35 Stray dog population control Chapter 7.7 Responsibilities and competencies Veterinary Authority Other government agencies Private sector veterinarians Non governmental organisations Local government authorities Dog owners It is recommended that the authorities establish an advisory group, to analyse and quantify the problem, identify the causes, obtain public opinion on dogs and propose the most effective approaches to use in the short and long term.
36 36 Stray dog population control Chapter 7.7 Control measures Education and legislation Registration and identification Reproductive control Removal and handling Capture (Management,return, rehoming or release) Environmental controls Control of dog movement (National and International) Regulation of commercial dog dealers Reduction in dog bite incidence Estimating the size of dog populations Euthanasia
37 37 Stray dog population control Chapter 7.7 Euthanasia Restraint Special equipment Unacceptable practices (examples of Chemical methods and Mechanical methods) Confirmation of death Carcass disposal Accepted methods
38 Use of animals for research and education 38
39 39 Use of animals for research and education Chapter 7.8 Adopted at the 78th General Session in May 2010 Preamble To provide advice and assistance To recognise the vital role played by the use of live animals The need for humane treatment The significant role of veterinarians
40 40 Use of animals for research and education Chapter 7.8 Important Definitions Euthanasia Distress Pain Suffering Humane endpoint Scope Animals (excluding bees) Use in research (including testing) and higher education Production of biologicals
41 41 Use of animals for research and education Chapter 7.8 Challenges: Increase awareness. Problems with the transport of laboratory animals: International campaigns by animal rights activists
42 42 Aquatic Animal Health Code Chapter 7.1 Introduction to recommendations for the welfare of farmed fish Chapter 7.2 Welfare of farmed fish during transport Chapter 7.3 Welfare aspects of stunning and killing of farmed fish for human consumption
43 The Way forward 43
44 The Way forward Maintain and strengthen existing procedures for updating and creating international standards; Increase involvement of scientific community and understanding of regional issues through OIE Collaborating Centres on AW (Italy, New Zealand/Australia and Chile/Uruguay); OIE support in principle for the Universal Declaration on AW (Resolution XIV, 75th General Session).
45 The Way forward 3 rd OIE Global Conference to be held in Asia in 2012 Chapter on Broiler chicken production systems Chapter on Beef Cattle production systems Future work on Dairy Cattle Production Systems
46 Thank you for your attention Organisation mondiale de la santé animale World Organisation for Animal Health Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal 12 rue de Prony, Paris, France -
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