Proceedings of the European Veterinary Conference Voorjaarsdagen

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1 Proceedings of the European Veterinary Conference Voorjaarsdagen Amsterdam, the Netherlands Apr , 2011 Next Meeting: Apr. 5 7, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Conference Organizers

2 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers TREATMENT OF A CAT WITH HYPERVITAMINOSIS A BY DIET CHANGES Aldavood S.J., Ghanbari Kalahrudi Kh., Molazem M., and Aliari A., Javalchi R. Clinical Science, Veterinary Faculty, University of Tehran Hypervitaminosis A is a rare disease in cats. Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin which accumulates if overdosed. It has multiple functions within the body including Vitamin A helps in the formation and maintenance of healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. Vitamin A is stored in the liver, and is released in small amounts as it is needed. A 18 month old female domestic shorthair cat that was kept on a diet consisting largely of raw liver was evaluated because of lethargy, partial anorexia, and weight loss of several months duration. The cat s head and neck were rigidly extended. Clinical examination revealed a flaccid paralysis and atrophy in forelimb muscles. Radiology revealed ankylosis at the cervical vertebral and several spondylosis. The diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A was made based on the clinical and radiographic findings, as well as the determination of serum vitamin A concentration, which was three times above the upper normal limit for this case. Despite the unfavorable initial prognosis, the cat progressively regained function of the affected limb approximately 3 months after the diet was changed to a commercial canned. ALTERATIONS IN HIP ANGLES FOLLOWING JUVENILE PUBIC SYMPHYSIODESIS IN 10 DOGS WITH HIP DYSPLASIA Hasan Bilgili, DVM, PhD Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara. Turkey The purpose of this study is to evaluate of pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological outcomes after Juvenile Pubic Symphysiodesis (JPS) on 3-5 month-old, 10 dogs with hip dysplasia (HD). Clinical examinations such as pain scoring of hip extension test, Ortolani Signs and Bardens Palpations were performed pre- and postoperatively, on 1st, 3rd, and 6th month. Radiological examinations such as Norberg-Olsson (NO) Angles on standard ventrodorsal (VD) on extended radiological views and Distraction Index (DI) on distracted hip radiological views were evaluated. JPS was applied every 2.0 to 3.0 mm among to the entire length of the growth plate of the pubis via unipolar needle electrocautery (40 W, for 12 to 30 seconds). Acetabular full coverage on the femoral head was provided as a result of ventrolateral rotation of the acetabulum following JPS procedure. The hip extension test, Ortolani Signs and Bardens Palpations were turned from positive to negative. NO Angles were increased, and DIes were decreased. In conclusion, JPS is a successful and safe procedure which can be easily applied for prophylaxis and/or treatment of CHD in 3-5-month-old, large-breed puppies, which are predisposed to CHD or showing the initial clinical signs of CHD. 254

3 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers PATHOGENESIS OF ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS IN FERRETS Marja K. De Jong, Nico J. Schoemaker DVM, PhD, Jan A. Mol PhD Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht The Netherlands An estimated 75 % of all neutered ferrets develop adrenocortical tumors. It has been hypothesized that after neutering increased concentrations of gonadotrophins, persistently stimulate the adrenal cortex, resulting in adrenocortical tumorigenesis (1). A similar pathogenesis of gonadectomy induced adrenocortical tumors has been found in mice. In this species, the tumor suppressor gene Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 1 (Sfrp1), a dominant inhibitor of the Wnt-pathway, has been proposed as a candidate for initiation of these tumors (2). The Wnt-pathway may therefore play a similar role in the oncogenesis of hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets. To test this hypothesis, the expression of Sfrp1 and various target genes within the Wnt-pathway (cmyc, Axin2 and CyclinD1) were studied in 26 adrenocortical tumors and 14 adrenal glands from healthy ferrets by means of quantative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr). Contrary to our expectations, results demonstrate that Sfrp1 is upregulated and Axin2 is downregulated in the tumor group compared to the control group. This suggests that the Wnt-pathway is suppressed rather than activated. It is therefore unlikely that the role of the tumor suppressor gene Sfrp1 in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors in ferrets is similar to its proposed role in mice. It may, however, try to suppress the unknown activating factor involved in inducing tumor formation in the ferret adrenal gland. 1. Schoemaker NJ, Teerds KJ, Mol JA, et al. The role of luteinizing hormone in the pathogenesis of hyperadrenocorticism in neutered ferrets. Mol Cell Endocrin 2002:197: CONJUNCTIVAL FLORA OF CLINICALLY NORMAL CAPTIVE TURTLES Pier Luigi Dodi, Simone Taddei,Francesco Di Ianni, Emiliana Schiano & Fausto Quintavalla Dept of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Parma Parma, Italy Purpose To identify the normal conjunctival flora in a captive turtles. Materials and Methods Nine captive turtles, belonging to the Cryptodira suborder (1 Testudo graeca and 6 Trachemys scripta) and to the Pleurodira suborder (1 Pelomedusa subrufa and 1 Emydura subglobosa) underwent routine ophthalmic examination as part of a general health check. Sterile swabs were taken from the conjunctival sac of each eye and bacterial investigation was immediatly performed. Blood agar, MacConkey agar, Sabouraud agar, Brain Heart Infusion broth and Mycoplasma agar were inoculated and incubated in aerobic and microaerophilic environments. Identification of bacterial isolates was based on growth and colonial characteristics, Gram staining, cellular morphology, catalase and oxidase reactions. Species identification was carried out using the API STAPH, API 20 E,API 20 NE biochemical test systems, as well as conventional biochemical tests. Results All the cultured samples showed bacterial growth and none fungal growth. Five animals (56%) harboured a single species of bacteria as sole isolate. From the 18 eyes, 22 isolates were obtained. Four (18%) of them were Gram-positive and 18 (82%) were Gram-negative. The most frequently isolated bacterial species were Sphingomonas paucimobilis (8 isolates), followed by Aeromonas hydrophila (4 isolates) and Ochrobactrum anthropi (3 isolates). Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 1 animal (Testudograeca). Only one isolate of Citrobacter freundii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Pasteurella multocida was evidenced. CHAPTER 5 2. Bernichtein S, Petretto E, Jamieson S, Goel A, Aitman TJ, Mangion JM, Huhtaniemi IAdrenal gland tumorigenesis after gonadectomy in mice is a complex genetic trait driven by epistatic loci.endocrinology 2008:149:

4 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers Conclusions The animals involved in this survey are all captive turtles. With the exception of the Testudo graeca all of them are aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles. These preliminary results evidenced the presence exclusively of Gram-positive isolates in the normal conjunctival bacterial flora of the terrestrial species Testudo graeca, harbouring Staphylococcus and Bacillus spp. isolates. On the other hand, all the other turtles harboured only Gram-negative bacteria, and this could be linked to the different habitat of the aquatic species. None of the isolated bacteria caused ocular disease. T HERAPEUTIC GASTRECTOMY AND PYLOROMYOTOMY IN A CASE OF RECURRENT STOMACH DISTENSION Boukje L. Erdtsieck, DVM Royal Canin Student Award finalist 2011 Dierenkliniek Enkhuizen, De Gouw 33, The Netherlands Supervisor from Utrecht University Companian Animal Hospital: Prof Freek J. van Sluijs, DVM, PhD, DECVS Finalist Royal Canin Student Award 2010 Bram, a 4 year old castrated Cane Corso was referred to Utrecht University Companion Animal Hospital (UKG) with recurrent distension of the stomach, which was relieved after vomiting. Between the episodes of distension he was a healthy, but skinny dog. Physical examination revealed no other abnormalities than a poor body condition and an enlarged abdomen. Results of blood examination were all within normal limits. Radiography showed an enlarged stomach, that extended up to the urinary bladder, and an intussusception of the duodenum. Ultrasonography confirmed the presence of an intussusception at the duodenum or pylorus. After ruling out other causes of delayed gastric emptying, a diagnosis of dysautonomy or gastric arrhythmia was made. An operation was scheduled to remove a significant part of the distended stomach. An intussusception was not present, but pyloric hypertrophy was found. Surgery consisted of gastrectomy (removing 70% of the stomach), splenectomy, Fredet-Ramstedt pyloromyotomy, and gastropexy. A decompression tube was surgically placed into the stomach and a feeding tube was inserted and secured into the duodenum. The surgical procedure lasted 7 hours. Two units of blood were given to compensate for peroperative blood loss. Bram was taken to the ICU, where he made a slow but steady recovery. He was discharged after 10 days. Today, one year after the operation, Bram has no vomiting or episodes of gastric distension. He has regained his full strength and his body weight has increased from 39 to 57 kg. Discussion The operation was effective because the dilatation of the stomach was secondary to another condition (pyloric stenosis) that could be treated successfully. A pyloromyotomy alone may have been not as effective, because of LaPlace s Law. The intussusception seen on radiography and ultrasonography may have been a misinterpretation of the pyloric hypertrophy caused by the abnormal anatomy of the distended stomach. P ENIL U RETHRAL O BSTRUCTION I N A C ALIFORNIAN R ABBIT Irem Ergin, DVM, PhD; Cagri Gultekin, DVM; Melike Zaloglu, DVM Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University Turkey A ten-month-old male Californian rabbit was referred to the university clinic with stranguria, lethargy and since one day anuria. Radiographic examination of the abdomen revealed that a hyperechoic mass with 6x7 mm size in the pelvic region. Ultrasonographic examination of the region revealed a calculus in the penil urethra. On palpation, a circular solid calculus was detected in the penis, one centimeter from the tip. The calculus could not be dislodged by urethral catheterization, so, urethrotomy was performed. Uroliths are caused by calcium carbonate and triple phosphate crystals percipitating out of the normal urine when the ph increases. Several factors have been incriminated in urolithiasis, including nutritional 256

5 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers imbalance (especially the calcium to phosphorus ratio), genetic predisposition, infection, inadequate water intake, and metabolic disorders. In this case anamnases, rabbit was fed a calcium rich diet, and supplemented with greens (lettuce, spinach), carrot and apple every day. After the operation, rabbits diet was arranged. The prognosis is good. References 1. Aiello, S.E., Mays, A. Exotic and laboratory animals. In: The Merck Veterinary Manual. Pennsylvania: Merck&Co., Inc. 1998; Harcourt-Brown, F. Radiographic signs of renal disease in rabbits. Vet Rec, 2007; 160 (23): CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HONEY S EFFECT IN TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL WOUNDS IN DOG Babak Esmaeelian 1, Omid Najafi 1, Seyed Javid Aldavood, Farnoud Shokouhi Sabet Jalali 1, Amir Abas Farshid, Sanaz Rahmani 1, Khadigeh Ghanbari Kalahrudi 1 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uremia university, Uremia, Iran Honey have been generally used as traditional medicine for the treatment and healing of wounds. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and histopathological effects of Azarbayjan non-boiled honey in management of experimental wounds in dog. The experiment was performed on 20 mix breeding dogs. Weights of dogs were almost 25kg. surgical preparation and anesthesia carried out and then surgical wounds were produced by a similar pattern (rectangle shape mm 2 ) in the thoracolumbar region. Wounds were divided in two groups: treatment group on the left side and control group on the right side. Postoperative treatment in the honey group was included daily wound irrigation with normal saline and then topical application of honey. In the control group only irrigation with normal saline was performed. Clinical and histopathological evaluations were performed in each group at 7, 14, 21 and 28days after operation. According to results of this study, wound closure was accelerated in the experiment group in compare to control at days 14, 21 and 28 after honey application. Color and consistency of granulation tissue and epithelization were also more improved in experiment group from day 14. From histopathological aspect, in treatment group especially from the second week on, the compact connective tissues were developing from the base of the wound and a little sepsis was observed in some superficial points. In addition, less neutrophilic chemotaxis was found in treatment group than in the control group. Honey can be used as a natural substance to accelerate the healing process of the skin wounds. R ADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN k ITTENS INOCULATED BY TOXOPLASMA GONDII (NED STRAIN) Hosseininejad M.*, Hosseini F. Faculty of veterinary medicine,university of shahre-kord, Shahre-kord Iran. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that infects virtually all species of warmblooded animals, including people, domestic cats, and other felidaes are the definitive hosts that excrete oocysts. Oocysts are excreted in feces, whereas tachyzoites and bradyzoites are found in tissues. Most isolate of T. gondii can be grouped into 3 genetic lineages that can be used in epidemiologic monitoring.this study was aimed to assess the radiological changes due to T. gondii (NED strain) in respiratory system of kittens, Five 2-3 months old kittens were subjected to indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of anti-t. gondii antibodies. Confirmed seronegative kittens were dewormed and maintained with the same diet regime.10 4 T. gondii tachyzoites of NED strain were inoculated intraperitoneally into the 3 of these 5 seronegative kittens. Survey radiographs were taken every week to evaluate possible respiratory involvements in VD and Lateral positions. The results of this study shows that survey radiographs are able to detect respiratory changes due to T.gondii NED strain 20days after inoculation. In all cases,20days after administration of antigens increase of radiopacity and diffuse interestitial pattern and initiate of mild alveolar pattern in dorsal part of caudal lobes of the 257 CHAPTER 5

6 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers lung were observed.27days after administration of antigens, alveolar patterns were observed in dorsal and lateral parts of caudal lobes of the lung near the caudal border of the heart. The radiographs taken after 34th days of antigen administration showed that diffuse interestitial pattern with some bronchial rings in VD radiograph in right and left sides of cranial lobe of the lung. there was a diffuse alveolar pattern in caudal part of the lung with severe radiograph signs. after wards, weekly radiographs were taken for 3times there were mild increase of severity and then the current study process showed no more changes. Thoracic radiographic findings, especially in cats with acute diseases consist of a diffuse interstitial to alveolar pattern with a mottled lobar distribution. Diffuse systematic homogenous increased density caused by alveolar coalescence has been noted in severely affected animals. Radiographs showed mixed pattern of patchy alveolar and interstitial pulmonary infiltrate. cle fascia and closed with sutures, a polypropylene mesh and dermabond tissue glue. Lateral radiographs were taken in 1) native state, 2) after nucleotomy and 3) after implantation and swelling (incubation overnight at 37oC) of the NPP.. Afterwards the NPP was macroscopically evaluated in situ by dissection of the IVDs. The IVD height of the segments with intact and in situ NPPs was measured twice on radiographic examination by two independent observers using three different methods. Differences between inter-and intraobserver reliability of the three methods was statistically determined (mixed model) (Table 2) Ten out of 12 NPPs were intact and in situ after swelling (Table 1). Restoration of IVD height was confirmed using all methods. The interobserver reliability of method 1 and intra-observer reliability of observer 2 using method 2 were poor. Method 3 was most timeconsuming and IVD height with a swollen NPP was significantly larger compared with the native state. Ex vivo EVALUATION OF A SECOND GENERATION NUCLEUS PULPOSUS PROSTHESIS (NPP) AND ITS ABILITY TO RESTORE AXIAL DISC HEIGHT IN CANINE CADAVERIC SPECIMENS Julie Huizinga*, Hendrik-jan Kranenburg*, Leo Koole, David Onis*, Luc Smolders*, Ketie Saralidze, Wouter Dhert*, George Voorhout*, Herman Hazewinkel*, Bjorn Meij* *Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University. Yalelaan CM Utrecht Netherlands Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the most important cause for spinal disease in dogs. One of the features of IVD degeneration is loss of IVD height. Recently, a novel hydrogel nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) was developed to restore natural disc height and function of degenerated IVD discs. The aim of this study was to measure on radiographs the effect of a novel hydrogel NPP on IVD height in canine cadavers. Four spines from mature, healthy 3-year-old Beagles were used. After nucleotomy, 12 NPPs were inserted in lumbar IVDs. The annular opening was filled with mus- It is concluded that the nucleus pulposus prosthesis, when intact and in situ, restores the intervertebral disc height to the native state. Table 1: Evaluation of the integrity and localization of NPPs after overnight incubation. Segment Spine 1 Spine 2 Spine 3 Spine 4 L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L4 L4-L5 L5-L6 intact and in situ intact but extruded from IVD not intact and not in situ not intact but in situ not used Table 2: P values of inter- and intraobserver reliability of the three used methods for measurement of disc height. Method Interobserver (observer 1-2) <0.001* Intraobserver (measurement 1-2) Observer Observer <0.000* * P<0.05 = statistically significant (mixed model) 258

7 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers EXTERNAL Sk ELETAL FIXATION OF TIBIOTARSUS FRACTURE IN PIGEON: CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FRACTURE HEALING. Seyed Sadra Izadi* 1, Maryam Zabihi 1, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan 1, Javad Ashrafi Helan, Sarang Soroori. 1 Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran Introduction: There have been few studies on the process of fracture repair in avian species. The return to function of extremities, particularly the legs and wings, is an important consideration when internal fixation methods are used.(1),(2) Aim of Study: Clinical and histopathological evaluation of fracture healing in birds. Materials and Methods: External skeletal fixation, type І, was applied in 24, twelve month-old male pigeons (Columba livia). Eight birds each were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperation. The sections of each bone segments were stained with H&E and Masson s trichrome methods for histopathological study. For clinical evaluation, clinical signs including lameness, weight bearing, pain and etc were noticed and documented in several times.(3),(4) Results and Discussion: Histopathologic examinations at 2 weeks revealed that the defects were completely filled with mature connective tissue. At 4 weeks, connective tissue containing newly formed trabeculae covered by active osteoblasts and undergoing maturation. Union of bones relatively occurred and remodeling of the callus was started. At 8 weeks, the major part of the callus was remodeled. Cortical union was complete. Clinical evaluation revealed that all pigeons had no weight bearing during three days after operation, whereas ketoprofen was administered as analgesic 5 days post operatively(5). Most of pigeons had partially weight bearing till 6 days post operation. At 12 days, most of pigeons had weight bearing on their pelvic limbs with rare lameness. At 30 days post-operation the birds had no signs of lameness or any abnormalities clinically, whereas bone healing process has not been complete yet. Some researchers have reported under optimum conditions the defect is filled with fibrous tissue within 5 days and cancellous bone within 9 days, true bony union takes 22 days and complete remodeling takes 6 weeks.(3),(6). References: 1. Bush, M. External fixation of avian fractures. J Am Vet Med Assoc,1977; 171: Thomas,N., Tully, JR. Basic avian bone growth and healing. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice,2002; 5: Coles,B.H. Essentials of AvianMedicine and Surgery, 3rdedition, Blackwell PublishingLtd.,2007; pp: Meij, B. P., Westerhof, I. Avian fracture repair., proceeding of 13th ESVOT Congress, Munich, 7th - 10th September 2006; pp: West, G., Heard, D., Caulkett, N. Zoo animal and wildlife immobilization and anesthesia,1stedition, Blackwell. Pub,2007; pp: Bush,M.,MontaliI,R.J.,Novak, G. R., and James, A.E. The healing of avian fractures : A histological xeroradiographic study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc,1976; 12, : D IFFUSE I DIOPATHIC SkELETAL H YPEROSTOSIS IN DOGS DIFFERS FROM SPONDYLOSIS DEFORMANS BY ITS APPEARANCE ON IMAGING AND HISTOPATHOLOGY Hendrik-Jan C. Kranenburg, DVM*, Guy C.M. Grinwis, DVM, PhD, DECVP, George Voorhout, DVM, PhD, DECVDI, Herman A.W. Hazewinkel, DVM, PhD, DECVN, DECVS, Björn P. Meij, DVM, PhD, DECVS *Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University. Yalelaan CM Utrecht The Netherlands Introduction Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by exuberant new bone formation throughout the body. It is mostly characterized by ossification of the spinal ventral longitudinal ligament, sparing the intervertebral disc (IVD). 259 CHAPTER 5

8 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers The disorder is well known in humans, although its etiology is still not completely understood, but little is known about DISH in dogs. On radiographic examination DISH can be diagnosed using criteria proposed by Resnick and Niwayama (1976). 1 Although radiographic differentiation between DISH and severe spondylosis deformans is challenging, the two disorders do differ in radiographic appearance. 2,3 In spondylosis osteophytes originate from the region near the vertebral endplate and grow out to form spurs or sometimes bony bridges ventral to the intervertebral disc fusing two adjacent vertebral bodies. In contrast, in (spinal) DISH the ossification of the ventral longitudinal ligament affects the whole ventral plane of at least four continuous vertebrae. The prevalence of DISH in retrospective evaluation of 2041 mature pure bred dogs was reported to be 3.8% and specifically the Boxer breed is affected: 40.6%. 3 Aim Further the knowledge and comparative aspects on the imaging, macroscopic and microscopic appearances of canine DISH and spondylosis. Materials and Methods Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on five case of canine DISH. DISH was confirmed in two of these cases using post mortal histopathology. Results We report the appearance of canine DISH on CT, MRI macroscopic appearance and/or histopathology. Conclusions Radiography, CT and MRI can be used to visualize new bone formation in the ventral plane of the vertebral column. The clinical diagnosis of canine DISH based on imaging findings can be confirmed on postmortem examination. The characteristic gross and histological features of DISH, i.e. continuous solid bone bridge formation ventral to the vertebral body and bridging at least three continuous healthy intervertebral discs, are distinct from the histopathological findings of spondylosis. 1. Resnick D, Niwayama G. Radiographic and pathologic features of spinal involvement in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Radiology. 1976;119: Morgan JP, Stavenborn M. Disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1991;32: Kranenburg HC, Westerveld LA, Verlaan JJ, et al. The dog as an animal model for DISH? Eur Spine J. 2010;19: S EROPREVALENCE OF E HRLICHIA CANIS IN DOG POPULATION OF T EHRAN PROVINCE, IRAN Nadi Maazi, Abdolali Malmasi, Mahdi Nassiri, Mohammad Taheri Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran Introduction: Ehrlichia canis is an obligatory intracellular gram negative bacterium which is transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineous and causes canine monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME), an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Although R. sanguineous is present in Iran, the prevalence of E. canis in different areas in Iran is unknown. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of E. canis in dogs living in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty dogs were collected randomly from suburban areas of Tehran Province in Iran. The population was comprised of 154 males and 86 females with an age ranging between six months to eleven years. The information about breed, sex, age, observed clinical signs and tick presence were recorded in questionnaire. Obtained blood samples from either the cephalic or the jugular veins were collected in the EDTA-containing tubes. The Buffy coat films were stained with Wright-Giemsa for cytologic examination. Serum samples using immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test were screened for antibodies against E. canis. 260

9 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers Results and Conclusions: IgG antibodies reactive with E. canis were detected in 40/240 of dogs (16.6%), of which twenty eight were male and twelve were female. Tick infestation was observed in sixteen dogs at the time of sampling. E. canis inclusion bodies were identified in five dogs. The results of this study confirm the presence of E. canis in dogs living in Tehran province, Iran. Due to cross reactivities among different Ehrlichia species, molecular study is needed to confirm and identify the related strains of E. canis. Furthermore, Additional investigations are required to evaluate the epidemiologic status of canine monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Iran. PREVALENCE OF FELINE CALICIVIRUS IN CATS WITH CHRONIC GINGIVITIS STOMATITIS AND POTENTIAL RISk FACTORS Paulien C.M. Martijn Royal Canin Student Award finalist 2011 Supervisors: H.E. Booij-Vrieling, DDS, DVM, PhD and H.F. Egberink, DVM, PhD Department of Clinical Science of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University The Netherlands Feline chronic gingivitis stomatitis (FCGS) is an inflammatory disease of the gingiva, oral mucosa and the pharynx in cats. There have been many speculations about the cause of this disease, including bacterial, viral and immunological causes, but most likely the aetiology is multifactorial. Since Feline Calicivirus (FCV) probably plays a causative role, this study investigated the prevalence of FCV in cats with FCGS. Three groups were formed, namely a group of 44 cats with FCGS, a control group of 49 cats and a group of 16 cats with other dental problems. From each cat the presence of FCV and Feline Herpesvirus-1 (FHV) was established by viral isolation from oropharyngeal swabs and information about living conditions and clinical history were obtained. The prevalence of FCV in the FCGS group and in the group of cats with other dental problems was 95.5% and 37.5% respectively, against 4.1% in the control group. The prevalence of FHV was however very low in all three groups (0-6.3%). In total 14 potential risk factors were analysed in an uni- and multivariable analysis. Positive statistical significant (P 0.05) associations with FCGS, were the male sex (OR=4.1), purebreds (OR=25.2), and visitation at the pet shelter (OR=9.4). In addition, cats in the age category of <1 year were less likely to have FCGS (OR=0.031) compared to cats older than 12 years. All cats with a history of acute oral respiratory disease (AORD) had FCGS (100%). Purebreds are also predisposed for other dental problems. Risk factors for carrying FCV were; other cats in the household (OR=6.9), visitation at the pet shelter (OR=4.2) and a history of AORD (OR=126.1). In addition, cats in the age categories of 1-3 years (OR=14.4) and 3-6 years were more likely to shed FCV (OR=19.2) compared to cats over 12 years of age. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS AND IMMEDIATE OUTCOME OF TREATMENT OF PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN 100 DOGS Marina Meijer, Niek J Beijerink, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ECVIM-CA (Cardiology) University of Utrecht, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Yalelaan 108, 3584 CM, Utrecht The Netherlands Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the three most common canine congenital heart defects and is most commonly hereditary in dogs1. From September 2003 until December dogs that visited the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Utrecht were diagnosed with PDA; these dogs were retrospectively studied. Of the 91 purebred dogs, PDA was diagnosed most frequently in German shepherds (9), Stabyhouns (8), Labrador retrievers (7), Shetland sheep dogs (6), Chihuahuas (6), Schapendoes (5), German bracks (4), Cavalier king charles spaniels (3) and Newfoundlanders (3). The female dogs outnumbered the male dogs 2:1. Ages of the dogs at time of consultation ranged from 2 months to 7 years (median 5 months). Twenty-seven dogs showed clinical problems, most frequently coughing and tachypnea. Two dogs were diagnosed with a rightleft shunting PDA. The other dogs had a continuous heart murmur only. The definitive diagnosis of PDA was provided by radiography and echocardiography. 261 CHAPTER 5

10 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers A total of 85 patients were treated, either by surgical ligation (SL) (42) or minimal invasive procedures (MIP) using coil (29) or Amplatz duct occluder (14). Of the latter 2 groups, appropriate device release was achieved in 37 dogs (86%). In 6 dogs appropriate device release was not possible; therefore subsequent SL was necessary. Major complications were defined as lifethreatening (including death) complications and minor as not life-threatening2. Major complications were significantly more common with SL (19.0% versus 2,3%; p < 0.05). Minor complications were more common with MIP, but this difference was not significant; (30,2% versus 16,7%; p = 0,20). In conclusion, PDA in The Netherlands is seen in some specific breeds. In addition, both SL and MIP are acceptable PDA treatments. However SL was associated with a higher risk of major complications. References: 1. Kittleson MD, Kienle RD. Patent ductus arteriosus. In: Kittleson MD, Kienle RD. eds. Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1998: Goodrich KR, Kyles AE, Kass PH, Campbell F. Retrospective comparison of surgical ligation and transarterial catheter occlusion for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in two hundred and four dogs ( ). Vet Surg 2007;36:43-9. findings, a spinal lesion between the sixth lumbar (L6) and second sacral (S2) vertebrae was most likely. However, because of the exaggerated patellar reflexes, another lesion between the second thoracic vertebra (T2) and L3 was not excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord demonstrated disc herniation between L7-S1, and abnormal signals in the spinal cord between L3-L6, supporting a differential diagnosis of myelomalacia, spinal cord hemorrhage and / or fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE). The owner has decided to euthanize the dog. Necropsy revealed a herniated disc between L7-S1 and ascending and descending myelomalacia and hemorrhage of the spinal cord from the location of the disc herniation. No indications for FCE were found on histology. The treatment of spinal cord hemorrhage is supportive and recovery of the spinal cord could take several weeks. However, myelomalacia, a softening of the spinal cord, is incurable. The location of a spinal cord lesion could be accurately determined on neurologic examination, emphasizing the importance of a good clinical examination. In this case, MRI was very informative to formulate a differential diagnosis and to make an assessment of the prognosis. However, the true diagnosis could only be made with histology. A NNA CANNOT WALk ANYMORE Drs. Henriëtte W. Menkveld, Giora van Straten, DVM Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Royal Canin Clinical Case Award Finalist Anna, a two and a half year old female Briard, was referred to the Utrecht University Clinic for companion Animals (UKG) for evaluation of acute, progressive paralysis posterior. There was no history of trauma. Physical examination revealed paralysis posterior, absent anal sphincter-, tail- and rectal tonus. In the hind limbs depressed flexor and exaggerated patellar reflexes were present. The urine bladder was full and was easily expressed. For the rest the neurological examination was normal. Based on these LONG- TERM EFFECTS OF LONG- TERM TREATMENT WITH P HENOBARBITAL AND NSAIDS : A CASE REPORT Rute M Noiva, Msc, DVM, Ana M Santos, DVM, Maria C Peleteiro, PhD Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, Lisboa Portugal Anticonvulsant drugs, such as phenobarbital, are a known cause of hepatic cirrhosis and have been studied throughout the years regarding their possible association with organ degeneration and tumor development (1, 2). It is essential that clinicians inform the owners that long term side effects are to be 262

11 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers expected with anticonvulsant therapy. Educating the owners is an important step in ensuring a prompt and effective response to all situations, and in improving the patient s quality of life and life expectancy. The case presented pertains to the necropsy of a 14-year-old dog with a history of epilepsy and carcinoma of the bladder. The cadaver exhibited enlarged variegated liver, with superficial irregularity. Discrete bilateral hydronephrosis and a bladder nodule were observed, as well as prostatic hypertrophy and irregularity. Histological lesions were early stage cirrhosis and chronic nephritis; a prostatic transitional cell carcinoma with vesical metastization was diagnosed, as well as an early stage ependymoma in the lateral ventricles. Continuous exposure to phenobarbital has been proven to cause cirrhosis in dogs and humans (1, 3). Additional side effects of long term treatment with phenobarbital may include decreased muscle tonus in the ureters and bladder, disruption of testicular function, changes in thyroid function and anemia (3-7). The drug has also been associated with impaired brain development in infants treated for early onset epilepsy and febrile seizures (8, 9). A connection between long term barbiturate intake and bladder tumors was once suspected in humans and the possibility has not yet been refuted (10-12). The idea that these drugs may play a role on bladder tumor promotion in dogs is plausible, although unproven. This case rekindles the debate around long term effects of treatment with anticonvulsants and the need to acquire information that can serve both clinician and owner and, ultimately, benefit the patient. 5. Gaskill CL, Burton SA, Gelens HC, Ihle SL, Miller JB, Shaw DH, et al. Changes in serum thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in epileptic dogs receiving phenobarbital for one year. J Vet Pharmacol Ther Aug;23(4): Muller PB, Wolfsheimer KJ, Taboada J, Hosgood G, Partington BP, Gaschen FP. Effects of long-term phenobarbital treatment on the thyroid and adrenal axis and adrenal function tests in dogs. J Vet Intern Med Mar-Apr;14(2): Chauvet AE, Feldman EC, Kass PH. Effects of phenobarbital administration on results of serum biochemical analyses and adrenocortical function tests in epileptic dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc Nov 15;207(10): Bittigau P, Sifringer M, Genz K, Reith E, Pospischil D, Govindarajalu S, et al. Antiepileptic drugs and apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Nov 12;99(23): Calandre EP, Dominguez-Granados R, Gomez-Rubio M, Molina-Font JA. Cognitive effects of long-term treatment with phenobarbital and valproic acid in school children. Acta Neurol Scand Jun;81(6): Morimoto S. Alteration of intercellular communication in a human urothelial carcinoma cell-line by tumor-promoting agents. Int J Urol May;3(3): Wihlborg A, Johansen C. Incidences of kidney, pelvis, ureter, and bladder cancer in a nationwide, population-based cancer registry, Denmark, Urology May;75(5): Diwan BA, Ohshima M, Rice JM. Promotion by sodium barbital of renal cortical and transitional cell tumors, but not intestinal tumors, in F344 rats given methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine, and lack of effect of phenobarbital, amobarbital, or barbituric acid on development of either renal or intestinal tumors. Carcinogenesis Jan;10(1): CHAPTER 5 1. Bunch SE, Castleman WL, Hornbuckle WE, Tennant BC. Hepatic cirrhosis associated with long-term anticonvulsant drug therapy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc Aug 15;181(4): Foster JR. Spontaneous and drug-induced hepatic pathology of the laboratory beagle dog, the cynomolgus macaque and the marmoset. Toxicol Pathol. 2005;33(1): Phenobarbital Tablets, USP CIV [database on the Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine [cited 2010 January 10]. Available from: fdadrugxsl.cfm?id=19791&type=display. 4. Chen SS, Shen MR, Chen TJ, Lai SL. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on sperm motility of normal controls and epileptic patients with long-term therapy. Epilepsia Jan- Feb;33(1):

12 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers P RELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF A SECOND GENERATION NUCLEUS PULPOSUS PROSTHESIS (NPP) IN CANINE CADAVERIC SPINAL SPECIMENS David Onis*, Hendrik-jan Kranenburg*, Leo Koole, Marcel van Buren*, Luc Smolders*, Albert van der Veen, Ketie Saralidze, Wouter Dhert*, Herman Hazewinkel*, Björn Meij* *Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University. Yalelaan CM Utrecht Netherlands their native values, except NZS for AR. No extrusion or fragmentation of the prosthesis was seen and on radiographs disc height was restored in all segments. It is concluded that 1) nuclectomy causes spinal instability, and 2) insertion of a nucleus pulposus prosthesis, when intact and in situ, restores disc height and biomechanical function. References: 1. Smolders LA, Bergknut N, Kingma I, van der Veen AJ, Smit ThH, Koole LH, Hazewinkel HAW, Meij BP. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel nucleus pulposus prosthesis in canine cadaveric spines. Veterinary Journal: submitted (2010) Humans and dogs suffer from intervertebral disc disease. Surgical interventions aim at pain relief. New innovative treatments are being developed to restore the natural function of the intervertebral disc. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the biomechanical function of a nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) ex vivo in canine cadavers. In a pilot study, prostheses were inserted after nuclectomy in 12 segments of 4 lumbar spines from mature, healthy Beagles. After overnight swelling of the hydrogel NPP at 370C, the integrity and localization of the prostheses was examined radiographically and macroscopically by dissection of the segments. The prosthesis remained intact and in situ in 10/12 lumbar segments and restored disc height. No in situ fragmentation was seen and extrusion may have been caused by improper annular closing. Based on the pilot study, the prosthesis was tested biomechanically as described by Smolders et al. (2010). 1 Lumbar spines of 6 mature, healthy beagles were used. Range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ) and neutral zone stiffness (NZS) were measured in the motion directions flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR) in 1) the native spine, 2) after nuclectomy of L2-L3, and 3) after insertion and swelling of the NPP. After nuclectomy, the ROM and NZ significantly increased and the NZS decreased for all motion directions, except the ROM for LB. After insertion of the prosthesis all parameters were restored to ACTINIC L ESIONS IN A F EMALE D OGO A RGENTINO P OSSIBLY BY E XCESSIVE S UN E XPOSURE Joana RG. Pereira, Ricardo O. Felisberto. Veterinary Students - Master Degree, CICV - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias), Campo Grande 376, , Lisboa. Portugal Chronic sun exposure, in animals with white coat and / or with discolored skin is associated with high risk of developing skin neoplasia, as in Humans. This is due to several genetic changes attributed to ultraviolet radiation. Actinic keratosis, elastosis and follicular dysplasia are all precancerous malignant lesions, that if not treated ended as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The authors report a success case of a dog with multiple sun induced skin lesions, starting from follicular dysplasia, ending in a large SCC. Treatment with topical Imiquimodcream 5% as previously reported in Humans showed clinical efficacy and complete resolution of the lesions after 3 months of treatments.1 In the authors knowledge this is the first case reported of the application of topical Imiquimod cream in generalized actinic lesion in a dog. Due to the success and favorable resolution of the disease, topical Imiquimod should be considered when addressing actinic lesions in dogs. keywords: Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Actinic Keratosis; Elastosis; Imiquimod; UV Radiation. 264

13 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers 1. Alessi SS, Sanches JÁ, Oliveira WR, Messina MC, Pimentel ERA, Neto CF. Treatment of Cutaneous Tumors with Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream. Clinics. 2009;64(10):961-6 C YTOLOGICAL AND SIALOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF AN ACUTE SIALADENITIS SECONDARY TO W HARTON DUCT BLOCk AGE IN A YOUNG DOG Rafael A. Perez-Ecija DVM, PhD, MSc; Jose C. Estepa DVM, PhD, Dipl. ECEIM; Francisco J. Mendoza DVM, PhD, MSc.. Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Cordoba, Ctra. Madrid-Cadiz km 396, 14071, Cordoba. Spain. Introduction A 5 months-old Bernese Mountain dog was presented due to progressive swelling of the left angle of the jaw with concurrent sialorrhea and dysphagia. The mass spreads rostrally to the ipsilateral lip and caudally to the cranial cervical portion, being non-painful and firm at palpation. Neither superficial skin nor intraoral lesions were found. Aim of the study The aim of this work is to describe the particular cytological and sialographic findings of an acute sialadenitis and glandular infarction secondary to the blockage of the submandibular salivar duct. Material and methods Fine-needle aspiration samples were taken from the mass and stained using Romanowsky, Periodic acid- Schiff, Gram and Toluidine blue techniques. In order to determine the integrity of submandibular and parotid structures, sialography of both glands and a microbiological culture from the sample were also carried out. Results and Conclusions The fine-needle aspiration, staining techniques and sialography identifies the lesion as an acute sialadenitis with submandibular infarction secondary to a Wharton duct blockage. Sialadenitis is a rare condition, seldom diagnosed ante mortem (1,2) and commonly associated to infectious agents (1,3) and/or the presence of sialocele (1,3). In addition, syaloliths or traumatic lesions on this area can also obstruct the duct leading to the infarction and inflammation of the salivary gland (2). In this summary we describe the case of a non-infectious acute sialadenitis non accompanied by sialocele, that was diagnosed ante mortem. This differentiation is crucial for the treatment, since this animal recovered satisfactorily after aggressive antiinflammatory treatment, avoiding further complications. References 1. Baker R, Lumsden JH. In: Color atlas of cytology of the dog and cat. 1st ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2000; Brown CC, Baker DC, Barker IK. In: Jubb KVF, Kennedy PC, Palmer N, eds. Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol. 2. 5th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2007; Shull RM, Maddux JM. In: Cowell RL, Tyler RD, Meinkoth JH. eds. Diagnostic cytology and hematology of the dog and cat. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1999; R OTARY FILES Paul theuns, DVM Papendrecht, The Netherlands Introduction Several types are commercially available nowadays. I will give a short overview of rotary files that are used in veterinary dentistry. Nickel titanium has made the development of new instruments possible. These files follow the rootcanal and prevent ledging. We need to take under consideration that we copied the endodontic procedures from human dentistry books. The anatomy of the root differs from the human teeth. The animal tooth root is difficult to properly get cleaned with the traditional files. Rotary files will help to overcome part of these difficulties, they will improve the cleaning and shaping of the canal and will also decrease the timeneeded to complete the root canal treatment. Instrumentation Acces Preparation and pulp contents removal can be done in the traditional way. The canal is instrumented until the minimal file size is reached for the specific rotary file to be used. 265 CHAPTER 5

14 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers When using the Light Speed system, the files are introduced manually in the canal to working length in order to find the file that binds. After finding the file that binds the files are introduced in the canal continually rotating. Before each file is introduced in the canal, the canal is irrigated with EDTA. Between each 3th file size the canal is flushed with NaOCl. An up and down motion is used to clean the canal. The number of up and down motions are counted and the masterapical rotary instrument is determined when up and down motions are necessary to take the instrument to working length. Then the coronal part of the canal is enlarged using the step back method. Using the next size rotary file a 4 mm step back from the working length is taken. Continue with stepping back until the files easily step back into the coronal third of the canal. Obturation Obturation can be done with traditional gutta percha or with a simply fill plug. Sealer Different sealers can be used. For the Simply fill plug AH plus is recommended. Conclusion Rotary files make easier faster and safer access of the canal possible. H EAVY METAL MAk ES S JAAk SING A DIFFERENT TUNE Maarten van de Wal DVM, I. Westerhof DVM, PhD, Dip ECZM (Avian) 1, J.T. Lumeij DVM, PhD, Dip ECZM (Avian) 1 1 University of Utrecht, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Division of Zoological Medicine. The Netherlands. A1½-year-old Galah Cockatoo (Eolophusroseicapillus) was presented with a paresis posterior, mental retardation and a severe bradycardia of 112 bpm (reference bpm). With the history, clinical signs and a suggestive blood lead elevation this animal was diagnosed as lead poisoned. All symptoms could be explained through veterinary literal references, except for the bradycardia. Analysis of an ECG showed next to the severe bradycardia (described as sinus arrest due to the fact that the pauses were twice the normal PR intervals) a low voltage and extended time in the QR portion of the QRS complex (later defined as a left bundle branch block). At this point treatment was started with Calcium EDTA 35mg/kg IM q12h. After 36 h some improvement was seen clinically as well as on the ECG. Changes in therapy were made towards an oral dosage of penicillamin q12h 55mg/kg PO to enable to continue the therapy at home. Supportive care was given for one week with subcutaneous fluids(sterofundin ISO 2 30ml/kg q12h) and force-feedinga liquid formula (44 ml/kg q12h Harrison s juvenile formula 3 ). After three months of therapy the patient showed no clinical signs, blood lead concentrations were within reference and the ECG normalized. In human related research and case reports changes on the cardiovascular system due to lead poisoning or plumbism is recorded. There is no mentioning of these changes in veterinary literature.the changes on the cardiovascular system caused by lead intoxication may as well affect other species than this specific galah and humans. 2 Sterofundin ISO 500ml (B. Braun Melsungen, Melsungen, Germany) 3 Harrison s juvenile formula (HBH INTERNATIONAL, Brentwood, USA) 266

15 Companion Animal Posters Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers L ACk OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE LOCALIz ATION OF EXTRAHEPATIC PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNT AND DOG BREED Lindsay Van den Bossche, Frank G. van Steenbeek, BSc, Peter Leegwater, PhD, Prof Jan Rothuizen,DVM, PhD, DECVIM-CA Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan CM Utrecht The Netherlands Introduction Based on location congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) are subdivided into portocaval and portoazygous shunts. An inherited basis is assumed for several dog breeds (1,2) but it s unknown whether the localization also has a genetic background. We performed a survey to determine if there is a difference in EHPSS localization between dog breeds that would indicate involvement of a genetic factor. Material and methods Data of 135 dogs with EHPSS were available. Information of these dogs included breed, gender, date of birth, localization of the extrahepatic shunt, method of diagnosis and date of diagnosis. The group consisted of 54 males and 81 females covering a total of 24 pure breeds. Diagnoses were based on ultrasonography, computed tomography and/or by surgery at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Utrecht and were categorized as portocaval or portoazygous shunts. Results The amount of portoazygous and portocaval shunts in the study group represent respectively 25.2% and 74.8%. Of the male dogs 16.7% had a portoazygous shunt, while in females this percentage was 30.9% (p=0.063). The breeds with the greatest proportion of diagnoses were the Cairn terrier, the Jack Russell terrier, the Maltese, the Yorkshire terrier and the Dachshund. Within these breeds both portocaval and portoazygous shunts were present. Within the Cairn terriers a significant low number of portoazygous shunts were found (8.33% p=0.039) compared to the total group. A difference in age of diagnosis was found between both phenotypes. Portocaval shunts on average were diagnosed at 17.4 months (range ) whereas portoazygous shunts were first diagnosed at 37.4 months (range ) (p=5.5*10-4 ). Conclusion A clear but non-significant trend is found between sex and localization. Age of diagnosis for portoazygous shunts was significantly higher, probably due to milder clinical symptoms. Both types of shunts occur within all breeds thus localization of EHPSS is hypothesized as a random variation of the same genotype. 1. van Straten G, Leegwater PA, de Vries M, van den Brom WE, Rothuizen J. Inherited congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in Cairn terriers. J Vet Intern Med 2005 May- Jun;19(3): van den Ingh TS, Rothuizen J, Meyer HP. Circulatory disorders of the liver in dogs and cats. Vet Q 1995 Jun;17(2): I NVOLVEMENT OF THE GH-IGF PATHWAY IN CORTISOL- SECRETING ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS IN DOGS Noortje van der Helm, Sara Galac, DVM, PhD, Miriam MJ Kool, DVM, Jan A Mol, PhD, Hans S Kooistra, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ECVIM-CA Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University The Netherlands Introduction Hypercortisolism is a very common endocrinological disorder in dogs, with an estimated incidence of around 1-2 cases/1000 dogs/year. About 80-85% of cases are ACTHdependent, largely caused by a pituitary tumor. The remaining 15% of cases are due to ACTH-independent hypersecretion of cortisol by a benign or malignant adrenocortical tumor (AT). (1) Differentiation between benign and malignant ATs is important to determine the best treatment option and prognosis(1), but at present it is very difficult to distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas. Traditional histopathological techniques are not sufficient to reliably 267 CHAPTER 5

16 Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Organizers differentiate adenomas and carcinomas. Biomolecular techniques may provide tools that will allow differentiation between benign and malignant ATs. The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been shown to be important in adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis. Moreover, in about 90% of human carcinomas overexpression of IGF-II is seen. (2) In case of overexpression of IGF, IGF-receptor (IGFR) blockers may be used to treat this disorder Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether altered expression of the GH-IGF pathway plays a role in tumorigenesis of ATs in dogs. Materials and methods Gene expression analysis of the GH-IGF pathway was performed by quantitative PCR on 15 healthy adrenals, 13 adenomas and 30 carcinomas. The ATs were obtained from dogs with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism that underwent unilateral adrenalectomy at the Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals. Results Compared to healthy adrenals we found downregulation of the IGFR1 in carcinomas end IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 in adenomas and carcinomas. Upregulation of IGFBP2 was seen in both tumor types. Surprisingly, IGF-II was not upregulated in the canine adrenocortical carcinomas. Conclusion These findings show that there are indeed changes in the gene expression pattern of the GH-IGF pathway in canine adrenocortical tumors, but the results will need to be confirmed by immunohistochemistry. R ENAL SCINTIGRAPHY IN NORMAL CAT AFTER SAFFRON ADMINISTRATION Vosough D. 1 *; Akbarpour P.; Nadimi N. 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman * Corresponding Saffron is an infrequent and valuable plant. Due to its terrific therapeutic attributes it has focused by pharmacology researchers in these days. Low toxicity and high anti-oxidant ability are some of its benefits. Saffron has efficiency on cardio vascular system therefore it can use in ischemic conditions. In this study we tried to use saffron as a diuretic substance. 6 normal cats were used after examination and assurance that kidneys were healthy. Saffron was injected to 3 cats with the dose of 90 mg/kg 20 minutes before injection of 99m Tc-DTPA. 3 cats were used as control group and normal saline was injected to them instead of saffron. Then condition of kidneys was scintigraphyically surveyed by gamma camera in both groups. GFR (individual filtration rate), TOP (time of peak), TAC (shape of time activity) & T 1/2 individual kidney excretion half-time values were compared in both groups. The result of this study showed that the value of T 1/2 was significantly shorter than saffron-injected group than the control group and the shape of most TAC of saffron renogeram was not similar to those of control renogeram. It seems that saffron can be used as a useful substance in renography in cats and in future it can use in determination of urolithasis and obstruction. 1. Galac S, Reusch CE, Kooistra HS, Rijnberk, A. Adrenals. In: Rijnberk A, Kooistra HS. eds. Clinical Endocrinology of Dogs and Cats. 2nd ed. Hannover: Schlütersche, 2010: Tissier F. Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: What limits for the pathological approach? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 24:

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