2014 Science Review Reporting period: October 2013 to December 2014

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1 2014 Science Review Reporting period: October 2013 to December 2014

2 Welcome Chester Zoo uses science to ensure the greatest impact within our conservation initiatives. Our scientific activities provide evidence that aid decision making when faced with the challenges of conserving biodiversity worldwide. Our strength is that we are uniquely placed to work directly in the field while also reaching out to our 1.4 million visitors each year and engage them with their potential role in saving plants and animals on a global scale. In 2013 we moved from using the zoo site as a training opportunity to practice scientific methodology, to focusing on directly answering questions important to our conservation initiatives. As a result, Chester Zoo is becoming recognised for its scientific specialisms and the input our staff can provide on collaborative research projects. Additionally in 2014, in alignment with the One Plan Approach established by IUCN s Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Chester Zoo appointed a Head of Applied Science and Head of Conservation Science integrating our field and zoo-based scientific expertise. Together, using our national and international networks, we aligned with our new focus on commissioned work and we are now better positioned to address questions that have previously been beyond our reach. Chester Zoo is committed to conserving biodiversity. Our research has enabled us to build strategies to deal with crop-raiding elephants in India, maintain reproductively sustainable European Black Rhino populations and provide evidence that zoos increase biodiversity understanding and pro-biodiversity action. Such initiatives are a major step towards a more sustainable world. Ultimately the goal of our scientific activities is to progress our understanding and addresses issues in key research themes essential to our conservation initiatives while also increasing capacity by supporting the next generation of applied conservation scientists. Sue Walker Alexandra Zimmermann BSc, MSc, PhD BSc, MSc, DPhil Head of Applied Science Head of Conservation Science Unless stated otherwise all photographs remain the property of Chester Zoo

3 Contents Executive Summary 4 Science at Chester Zoo 5 Research Projects: Animal Welfare and Wellbeing 7 Emerging Disease and Biosecurity 11 Human - Wildlife Conflict 13 Population Management 16 Visitor Studies & Behaviour Change 19 Disseminating Scientific Activities 22 Sharing Scientific Knowledge 23 Encouraging & Supporting Scientific Research 25 Who s who? 27 Collaborations 34 Our Research Projects 35 Publications 40 3

4 Executive Summary Scientific Activity at Chester Zoo Knowledge and understanding underpins the Zoo s mission, in both our field and zoological activities. Scientific method provides the evidence base for decision making, evaluation and refinement, whether directly related to species conservation, or indirectly through delivery and support of organisational needs and the building of scientific credibility and capacity. A summary of scientific achievements between October 2013 and December 2014 follows: Building Scientific Credibility We worked with 78 organisations to conduct, support or collaborate on scientific activities (see p. 35) 35 presentations were delivered at scientific conferences Staff published over 80 peer reviewed journal articles and scientific reports Research resulted in the completion of 16 PhD and MSc theses We peer reviewed 52 manuscripts and conference abstracts 2 members of staff hold editorial or associate editorial roles in journals (Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research and Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine) Delivering Organisational Need Regular audits of the animal collection has resulted in the identification of 59 potential projects within the reporting period (45 high, 13 medium, 1 low priority) Over 60% of zoo commissioned projects were implemented this year, conducted by zoo staff and/or visiting students and professional researchers. Capacity Building Chester Zoo staff encouraged and supported scientific research for 22 UK, 21 European and 15 international committees and specialist groups 32 talks were delivered to Chester Zoo staff, interns and members and 27 talks were delivered to university students 207 project proposals and biological sample requests were approved, the majority of which were associated with collaborating academic institutions 30 technical and specialist training sessions were delivered to Chester Zoo staff and external candidates 4

5 Science at Chester Zoo Scientific activity occurs right across the zoo, led by highly skilled and experienced staff in many divisions. Research projects conducted over the past year fit into six key scientific themes: Animal Welfare and Wellbeing Emerging Disease and Biosecurity Population Management Visitor Studies Behaviour Change Human-Wildlife Conflict Zoo Commissioned Research At Chester Zoo many of our staff are involved in scientific projects either in a supervisory capacity or personally conducting the research. We work on a number of zoo commissioned projects every year which are primarily identified by our curators and animal/plant teams, prioritising research that can address issues relating to captive animal management. We conduct an audit three times a year to identify potential issues within our living collection and design research projects with the ultimate aim of providing evidence-based support for management decisions. If relevant resources are available we allocate an in-zoo supervisor with relevant expertise and offer the project to a researcher. Once a project is complete we present the findings and any resulting recommendations to the relevant curators and animal teams so that changes can be made where appropriate. What opportunities do we offer? Due to the length of time required to conduct a zoo commissioned project we predominantly offer opportunities to masters or PhD level students, although we do occasionally support Nuffield placement and undergraduate students. We welcome collaborations with professional researchers and have conducted many successful projects through postgraduate training programmes. Our twelve month sandwich placement interns also conduct zoo commissioned projects with us as part of their undergraduate degree requirements. As well as zoo commissioned projects we also offer opportunities for undergraduate students to conduct behavioural research projects at the zoo. Due to the large number of proposals we receive we do have a formal application and review process. For more information about current opportunities and to find relevant application forms please visit our website: 5

6 Approved research/ sample requests Science at Chester Zoo Funding Funding is essential for us to conduct scientific research. During the reporting period Chester Zoo allocated 3,000 to commissioned zoological research and an additional 4,650 was generated through the provision of research passes to visiting students and researchers. We collaborate on PhD projects funded by scholarships from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Darwin Initiative. Chester Zoo also provides financial support to numerous projects conducted in the field, which are selected using a systematic review process. Annual studentship grants are offered on a competitive basis towards undergraduate or master s level research projects that promote the conservation of biodiversity and provide a capacity building opportunity for training scientists. The Richard Hughes scholarship is available for students conducting projects specifically related to elephant management, welfare and conservation. To ensure that investments in field conservation research are making a significant impact, Chester Zoo and WAZA developed a dedicated assessment tool, based on methodology outlines by the Zoo Measures Group in The tool is designed to provide an easy format for project coordinators to summarise and evaluate project achievements. The tool has been published on the WAZA website and is freely available to download ( conservation/conservation-impact). What did we achieve in 2014? During the reporting period Chester Zoo received a record number of requests from students and other researchers. We supported over 200 scientific projects in 2014, double the number supported in the previous year (see figure 1): We also identified over 100 zoo commissioned projects and implemented approximately half of those. Findings from some of these projects are reported later in this review Approved BSc Approved PhD Approved Masters Approved staff/professional Figure 1. Total number of approved research requests between 2011 and 2014 Facilities Chester Zoo has a range of facilities for scientific research and specialist talks to take place Animal Health Centre Office space for eight staff, laboratory, fully equipped surgery and post mortem room Cedar House Administration building for many divisions with a number of offices and meeting rooms for staff, students and visitors Endocrinology Laboratory Located in the Science Centre the lab provides a diagnostic service not just for Chester Zoo s living collection but other collections across Europe Lecture Theatre Conference and lecturing facility for up to 170 people Oakfield Manor Conference facilities and meeting rooms Science Centre Office space for twelve staff and visiting researchers and a large meeting room for academic supervision meetings, training sessions and weekly science meetings. The Endocrinology lab is also located here 6

7 Animal Welfare and Wellbeing 7

8 Quantifying the social relationships of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) Why is the research important? In the wild Asian elephants have strong social relationships with a related matriarch leading the herd, however groups in captivity are often smaller and not always related. The strength of social bonds between individual elephants influences group cohesion and consequently health and well being. It is therefore important to measure which relationships have the strongest bonds to maintain stable social herds. Using the above aim, this study also tested the effectiveness of quantifying complex social interactions of Asian elephants, which could be implemented by animal staff in the future. How was the data collected? Observations of the Chester Zoo herd, (5 related individuals and 2 unrelated) were recorded periodically during zoo opening hours (between 9am and 5pm) and using video footage between 7pm and 7am. Interactions were defined as affiliative or agonistic and the proximity of individual elephants was also collected as a measure of social bonds. What did we find out? The strongest relationship observed was between Sithami and her calf Bala; this was not unexpected due.to the close bond between mother and offspring. However the second strongest bond was between Maya and Thi, our two oldest females who are unrelated to one another. The weakest bonds were found between Aung Bo (the bull) and the rest of the herd. This matches relationships between bulls and females in the wild, particularly outside of reproductive periods. Weak associations were also shown between Thi and Sundara which was unexpected as they are mother and daughter. This study demonstrated that simple observations of short duration can be an effective measure of social dynamics in Asian elephants and the findings can be used by animal managers. Further studies will refine techniques developed here. The use of Oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel ) for the treatment of a Spectacled bear with Alopecia syndrome Why is this important? Our 17 year old female Spectacled near Franka was first diagnosed with alopecia in 2011 at Chester Zoo. This condition generally deteriorated until September How was the data collected? In we conducted various diagnostic tests such as skin biopsies, parasite presence, allergen specific serology as well as thyroid and cortisol tests. Around 9 different treatments were trialled in an attempt to alleviate the condition. The responses to these treatments varied from no response, partial or good responses, however some of the treatments showed undesirable side effects. Franka was closely monitored by our staff, through alopecia scoring, faecal corticosterone monitoring, regular veterinary checks and intermittent behavioural observations. What have we found out so far? The best response shown was due to oclacitinib therapy, which widely seems to be the most effective treatment for Spectacled bear alopecia syndrome. This therapy appears to have no negative effects, even when being used long term, and has made a great improvement in Franka s condition The initial triggers for the alopecia remain uncertain but we will continue to monitor Franka and support related research wherever possible. 8

9 Evaluation of heat provision for effective thermoregulation in four species of reptiles at Chester Why is this important? The study aimed to evaluate and improve heat provision for Komodo dragons, Galapagos tortoises and red tailed racers. By determining which heat provision methods provide the best conditions, we can help our animals to effectively thermoregulate. How was the data collected? Various measurements were taken to show the elevation of current heat provisions. A laser pointer thermometer was used to record temperature of the animals whilst basking and a thermal imaging camera was used to measure heat distribution of the animals. Behaviour was also recorded for each animal to determine how they maintained body temperature. This was achieved using camera traps that were set to take an image every minute during zoo opening hours. Data loggers were also used to determine the ambient temperature of the enclosures. What have we found out so far? The study demonstrated that for large reptiles such as Komodo dragons and Galapagos tortoises, spot lamp heating provisions are not suitable as they do not heat the entire body length of the animal. Heat panels may provide slightly less heat compared to the spot lamps, but the distribution of heat is more widespread and enables the reptiles to effectively thermoregulate. Larger reptiles tend to use spot lamps, but perhaps as a method of heating up quickly, before moving to the heat panel. Spot lamps were found to be effective heat sources for smaller reptile species such as red tailed racers. The findings from this study resulted in changes of heat provision sources for reptile species housed at Chester Zoo. Exposure of Asian elephants and exotic ungulates to Schmallenberg virus Why is this important? Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, mainly affecting ruminant livestock during fetal development The virus has subsequently spread throughout Europe, arriving in the UK in early It is transmitted through biting arthropods and Culicoides midges, which have been identified as key vectors for its spread How was the data collected? Frozen serum samples were collected from Artiodactylae, Perissodactylae and Proboscidae at ZSL and Chester Zoo over several years. A total of 232 samples were taken from 48 different species. Two methods were used to analyse the samples: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and Plaque Reduction Nutralization Tests (PRNTs). What have we found out so far? To our knowledge this is the fist systematic evaluation of previous SBV infection in captive exotic ungulates in Europe, providing compelling evidence of SBV infection in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in Asian elephants Antibodies against SBV were present in the blood samples meaning that the impact of SBV would be generally mild. As yet, clinical evidence of the presence of SBV has not been observed at Whipsnade Zoo, London Zoo or Chester Zoo. 9

10 Multiple mycobacterial infections in a zoo Aquarium Why is this important? Piscine mycobacteriosis also known as wasting disease and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality for ornamental fish. The presence of this disease within zoos and aquaria is persistent and a prominent issue. There is very little information documented on the disease and the presence of it within collections. How was the data collected? Over an 8-month period, tissues of formalin-stored, fresh and autolysed marine and freshwater fish were analysed by histopathology, PCR and ZN direct impression smears. 87 fish from 35 different species were included in the study. What have we found out? 68% of the individual fish sampled and 91% of species tested positive for the disease using each method. Based on sequencing results of the 16S rrna gene, preliminary findings suggest the existence of at least four different species of mycobacteria present in the collection. The continual importation of new fish populations is assumed to have played a major role in the multiple and complex nature of mycobacterial infection of the zoo aquarium. Continued surveillance for this disease will contribute to a more accurate picture of mycobacterial epidemiology within zoological collections, especially for tanks and fish species not represented in this study. Preliminary results also suggest that this study is likely to report the first identification of Mycobacterium stomatepiae in a Killiefish (Pachypanchax sakaramyi) and Ricefish (Oryzias sarasinorum). Investigation of suspected vitamin D 3 deficiency in indoor housed tropical birds and effects of ultraviolet light provision Why is this important? Vitamin D (25(OH)D 3 ) deficiency can occur if birds are fed a vitamin D deficient diet and do not have access to ultraviolet light in the wavelengths nm (UVB). Deficiency in breeding hens can result in the production of eggs with deficient yolks and metabolic bone disease in chicks. How was the data collected? 31 adult birds, from five orders, housed long term indoors without prior access to UVB light were tested for vitamin D levels before and 12 months after being provided with access to UVB light. The breeding records of the birds were analysed before and after UVB provision. The area of perching with UVB irradiance was filmed before and after UVB lighting was switched on to assess whether the birds chose to access the light. What have we found out? Following provision of UVB light there was a significant increase in vitamin D levels between 0 to 12 months from 9.3 nmol/l to 14.2 nmol/l. Annual incidence of metabolic bone disease in offspring dropped from an average of 14.4 % prior to UVB provision to 2.8 % afterwards, although this reduction was not statistically significant. Birds significantly increased the proportion of time spent in the area of UVB irradiance, although no correlation was found between the time spent in the UVB area and the change in individual birds levels. 10

11 Emerging Diseases and Biosecurity11

12 An investigation into the activity of European badgers,meles meles, on the Chester Zoo estate Why is this important? Bovine tuberculosis (btb) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. It has re-emerged as a major threat to the British cattle industry but can infect a range of species; therefore posing a threat to the animals within Chester Zoo s living collection. Localised spread and the gradual increase of the disease has been attributed to badgers. A number of mechanisms are being trialled in order to control the spread of the disease, include culling. Badger vaccination is a more humane control mechanism which has proven to reduce the severity and progression of btb and reduce excretion of M. bovis by badgers. This research formed the first part of Chester Zoo s badger vaccination programme, which was initiated in 2014 to help protect both the zoo animals and wild badgers from bovine tuberculosis. By developing an understanding of how badgers utilise the zoo estate we can ensure we take the necessary precautions to reduce the risk to the zoo as well as determine the best places to position traps during the vaccination process. How was the data collected? An initial site survey was completed in order to identify active setts and other evidence of badger activity across the entire zoo estate. Using methods adapted from Delahey et al. (2000) and Woodroffe et al. (2006) a bait marking study was conducted over two weeks. Each active sett was assigned a specific colour of indigestible pellet which was mixed with peanuts and golden syrup to act as bait ml of bait was positioned at the entrance of each active sett each afternoon over a 14 day period. A final site survey was completed where the location and pellet colour found in faecal deposits was recorded. This data, along with the initial survey information, was mapped using ArcGIS to provide a visual image of where badgers from each sett are ranging and the areas of highest activity. What have we found out so far? Camera trap monitoring of the setts allowed us to estimate population size and structure. A total population of approximately 10 badgers were living on the zoo estate at the time of the study. Badgers were going off-site to forage and defecate. The surveys revealed the most active setts, and showed that some badgers were using multiple setts across the zoo estate. The survey information allowed us to determine the best place to position traps to capture badgers for vaccination. Vaccination was carried out later in the year, following the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) procedure. In total 6 badgers were vaccinated and microchipped and a further survey will be conducted in the second year of our vaccination programme. 12

13 Human-Wildlife Conflict

14 Flutter back: The return of the Large Heath butterfly Why is this important? The last record of the Large Heath butterfly was at Heysham Moss in the beginning of the 20th Century. Due to habitat loss the species is extinct in Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside, and only found in two widely separated sites in Lancashire: Bowland Fells and Winmarleigh Moss SSSI The distribution of Large Heath butterflies in Europe is believed to have declined by 25-50% in the last 50 years. What are we doing? The Lancashire Wildlife Trust purchased Heysham moss in 2004 and Chester zoo is working with the trust and the Lancashire Environmental Fund to improve the habitat and reintroduce the butterflies. A small number of gravid female butterflies were collected from the Lancashire site in Winmarlegh Moss in 2013, under licence from Natural England. The females were moved to purpose built facilities at the zoo and successfully laid eggs. The larvae were reared on Hare s-tail cottongrass food plants. Once in pupae form they were transported to Heysham Moss and zoo staff assisted with the release. What have we found out so far? Large Heath butterfly eggs hatch after approximately 2 weeks. The larvae emerged from hibernation in April and pupation started a month later. Butterflies started to emerge in early June. The butterflies were observed mating on the day of release, the first time this has been seen at Heysham Moss for 100 years Further adults will be collected from Winmarleigh Moss in July 2015 for the second captive rearing phase at Chester Zoo. 14

15 Human-Jaguar Conflict Why is this important? Chester Zoo are working in partnership with WildCRU, the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit at Oxford University to lead a multi-national research project investigating the conflict between humans and jaguars There are very few areas remaining where jaguars can live without human disruption, therefore it is important to try and preserve these areas and reduce conflict in others. Key findings and recommendations from 43 published studies and 117 expert described case samples showed that the conflict appears in a range of states across Latin America What are we doing? Dr Alexandra Zimmermann, our Head of Conservation Science, focused her doctoral research on a range-wide study of the state of knowledge about human-jaguar conflict Her findings have been published in scientific journals and presented at conferences across the world What have we found out so far? 65% of the jaguar range is outside of protected areas and 85% of the range has some degree of overlap with livestock (45% of the range contains cattle). The areas where the Jaguars are most at risk are Costa Rica, Belize, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and people living in areas that most fear jaguars tend to have the lowest tolerance for them. Attitudes towards jaguars and tolerance of losses ranged from very negative to very positive and were generally not consistent within one community. in most cases strategies focussing on reducing mortalities of livestock combined with social marketing to improve attitudes towards jaguars may be the broad way forward for human-jaguar conflict resolution, although each case can be very much unique. Social marketing methods are vitally important to influence values and behaviours of residents and land owners. The conceptual model in Dr Zimmermans work explains the differences between perception and reality in human-wildlife conflicts and distinguishes between three levels of conflict: dispute, underlying and deeprooted. 15

16 Population Management

17 Development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of ovarian activity in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) Why is this important? Faecal hormone monitoring is a non-invasive way to assess female Asian elephant ovarian activity, though a more efficient method needs developing that does not use antibodies which are a finite source. The aim of the study was to investigate whether liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was an efficient alternative way of monitoring the ovarian activity. How was the data collected? Faecal samples were collected from 3 adult female Asian elephants (1 pregnant elephant and 2 cycling females). Several experiments were carried out to determine which was most effective, method for analysing faecal hormones. What have we found out so far? The study showed that the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was not as successful as first hoped and needs further development. However the study did determine three metabolites of importance present in elephant faeces: progesterone, 5α-DHP and 5β-pregnane-3α-ol-20-one, which is a positive step towards refining the method. Three assays have been developed for these metabolites using LC-MS in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific. This study can lead to future research into using the technique, which will hopefully mean that antibodies will no longer be reliant for hormone monitoring. A decade of dormouse discoveries Why is this important? Over the last 100 years the Hazel dormouse has disappeared from approximately half its geographical range in Britain. Since a national recording scheme in the UK began in the early 1990s, a long-term decline in both the number of dormice and the range of the species has been observed. What are we doing? We are involved in a partnership project studying two local dormouse populations; a wild population in North Wales and the other a reintroduced population in Cheshire. We have used capture, mark and recapture methods to find out about breeding behaviour, population sizes, survival rates and life spans. In 2014 we completed 10 years of data collection, marking over 1,100 dormice. We have also collected hair samples, from which DNA has been extracted to study family relationships What have we found out so far? The population in Wales is large and stable but the reintroduced population in Cheshire appears fragile. However animals may have dispersed beyond the survey area. Female dormice are promiscuous young in a single litter can have more than one father. Female dormice sometimes have two litters in one year, and very occasionally breed before they reach one year of age. Survival and mortality rates in our populations are similar to those found in this species in Europe 17

18 Frogs and friendly bacteria, it s not just skin deep Understanding the interactions of frogs and their symbiotic bacteria to improve ex situ husbandry of amphibians and develop use of probiotic treatments against chytridiomycosis disease Why is the research important? Amphibians are undergoing massive population declines in the wild, in part due to infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In response, amphibian populations are being maintained in ex situ breeding programmes while viable treatments for chytridiomycosis are developed. One potential treatment involves the use of symbiotic bacteria from the skin of amphibians; however multiple factors likely affect the success of such probiotic applications, such as diet, environment and social housing. Compromised immunity to infectious diseases, which could be particularly significant for populations intended for reintroduction. How was the data collected? The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of husbandry practices and marking techniques on symbiotic bacterial communities of frogs maintained at Chester Zoo and the University of Manchester. Captive bred frogs were fed diets either high in carotenoids or carotenoid-free and their skin was swabbed periodically to measure bacterial colonies. Forty frogs were also provided with different UV light sources and two dietary treatments to monitor body condition, growth, fecundity and bacterial communities. Two marking methods were also assessed for potential impact: Passive integrated transponder tagging and visible implanted elastomer marking. Microbial community abundance and faecal glucocorticoid concentration were measured before and after marking. What have we found out? Specific dietary conditions (carotenoid availability) in captivity were found to alter the symbiotic bacterial communities associated with the frogs skin, whereas others (UV and calcium availability) have no effect. As such, husbandry conditions may influence the successful establishment of probiotics and affect the suitability of captive populations for reintroduction into the wild. Host-microbe-environment interactions were found to be vitally important in developing treatments for Bd and chytridiomycosis. At Chester Zoo, by gut-loading their cricket prey items, frogs are fed a carotenoid-enriched diet to enhance the skin colour and promote species richness and abundance of cutaneous bacterial community. Boosting baseline UV light provision had no effect on growth, breeding success or symbiotic bacterial communities and this costly addition to husbandry protocols has been stopped. When comparing marking methods routinely used in captivity and the wild for individual identification, we found that injecting a visible implanted elastomer tag caused less change to frogs skin bacteria than passive integrated transponders, a physiological response previously unobserved. Whether these bacterial changes increase susceptibility of amphibians to infectious disease is unknown and warrants further study. 18

19 Visitor Studies & Behaviour 18

20 Evaluating the contribution of world zoos to the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity Why is this important? The first target of the United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity states that by 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. Zoos and aquariums attract over 700 million visits worldwide every year, so they are well positioned to contribute to this target. However, their educational impacts have not been evaluated on an international scale. This study represents the largest ever global study with over 6,000 participants, evaluating the educational impacts of visiting zoos and aquariums. How was the data collected? Pre- and post-visit surveys were designed to measure our two dependent variables (biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity). Systematic random sampling was used to select participants for the pre-visit survey. The same participants were asked to complete a second survey after their visit. What have we found out so far? There was an increase from pre-visit (69.8%) to post-visit (75.1%) in respondents demonstrating at least some positive evidence of biodiversity understanding. There was an increase from pre-visit (50.5%) to post-visit (58.8%) in respondents that could identify a pro-biodiversity action that could be achieved at an individual level. This study provides the most compelling evidence to date that zoo and aquarium visits can have positive educational impacts relating to United Nations defined biodiversity targets. 20

21 Monitoring the transport carbon footprint of Chester Zoo Why is the research important? Chester Zoo is committed to environmental responsibility and improved sustainability for all aspects of its operations, including those of its staff and zoo visitors. Chester Zoo operates a robust, ISO accredited, Environmental Management System (EMS). A major consideration within the EMS is the impact of travel. The initial study aimed to develop standardised, replicable, methods for calculating the carbon emissions produced by various travel types relating to the commercial and mission related activities of the zoo. On-going, this methodology is being used for the annual calculation of the societies travel carbon footprint, allowing the measurement of continual improvement against key performance indicators as well as helping to identify the areas of most significant impact. ~What are we doing? The zoo s green travel scheme has various initiatives run throughout the year which aim to promote various sustainable travel options to staff and also offer incentives for green travel. Activities include free bike fix session, a 50 monthly draw for green travellers and a free park and ride service to the zoo. The travel carbon footprint research allows continuous monitoring of significant environmental impact, helps identify areas where improvements can/should be made and helps assess the impact of the various activities implemented by the Green travel Scheme. Data on the zoo s travel related activities (and their carbon impacts) encompasses many aspects of the zoo operations and is collected through various means. This includes assessment of staff commuting habits three times each year, assessment of visitor travel through annual surveys, assessment of business travel collated through booking information and of retail, catering and animal feed deliveries made to the zoo. The initial 2012 survey allowed us to highlight the significant areas of zoo operations that needed continual monitoring for carbon footprinting purposes. Each year data such as distance travelled and mode of transport are collated using the standardised methods and final carbon footprint data are then calculated using industry standard methods utilising Defra carbon emission values. What have we found out so far? The impact of our visitors travelling to the zoo is significantly higher than all other zoo operation related activities combined. As such the zoo continues to promote green travel to visitors and work with local agencies to help improve green travel options in the region The impact of staff commuting is also significant (9.3% of the overall footprint in 2013). Activities such as cycling and car sharing are increasing, but overall impacts of staff travel have increased as the zoo business and it s work force continues to grow. Standardised carbon emissions methods for each staff member or visitor allow better comparisons between years and assessment of progress against key performance indicators. 21

22 Disseminating Scientific Activity Publications, presentations and training Communicating scientific activities is integral to our work. It serves to provide an external audit of the quality of science undertaken, increases our profile within the scientific community and general public, and informs decision making both within the zoo and externally Number of peer reviewed publications: Number of presentations at scientific conferences: Number of talks, seminars and training provided: Talks and lectures to Chester Zoo staff, interns and members (e.g. Intern workshops, junior members summer school) University lectures and seminars Technical training (e.g. Hormone analytical methods, Extra-mural studies for veterinary students) Continuing professional development (e.g. EAZA academy, Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens)

23 Sharing Scientific Knowledge Media coverage Chester Zoo received a lot of media interest in the last year for scientific research and discoveries. This scientific research was wide-spread across several departments within the zoo, ranging from animal releases in the wild to veterinary procedures. Chester Zoo media stories have been reported on ITV news, BBC News, Sky News and many other local magazines, websites and newspapers. This coverage generates widespread interest in the zoo, reaching audiences that may not have previously visited us. In the month of May alone the media attention related to our scientific activities generated an advertising value equivalent (AVE) of over 640,000 Below are some examples of the scientific achievements that were reported in the media during the reporting period: In December 2013 research conducted by Dr Mark Pilgrim (Director General of Chester Zoo) resulted in the re-classification of the Ecuador Amazon parrot, reinforcing the vitally important conservation efforts for this highly endangered animal. In January 2014 an important amphibian project, led by the Curator of Lower Vertebrates and invertebrates Dr Gerardo Garcia, was conducted involving silicon tagging in Golden mantellas to allow monitoring in the wild for conservation purposes. In April 2014 Chester Zoos Animal Health Team collaborated with Blackpool Zoo, Nuffield Health and an Orangtuan specialist from Switzerland to perform the UK s first sinus operation on an animal. The procedure was performed on Vicky, a 29-year-old Bornean Orangutan with chronic sinusitis, who usually resides at Blackpool Zoo but was housed at Chester whilst the new Orangutan enclosure was developed at Blackpool. In May 2014 Veterinary Officer Steve Unwin conducted research using Orangutan teeth to accurately predict an animals age. This method will be used in the field to determine if orangutans are old enough to live independently from their mothers. In June 2014 the Field Programmes team worked with the Lancashire Wildlife Trust and the Lancashire Environmental Fund to re-release the native Large Heath Butterfly at Heysham Moss, where the species had not been seen in over 100 years. In July 2014 JF, the Reticulated python, was given a heart scan as part of an annual check up. The Herpetology Team handled the snake during the process while researchers from Cardiff Metropolitan University performed the scan. It is hoped that the research will also provide an insight into issues with the human heart. In September 2014 the Herpetology Team and Field Programmes Division worked with Natural England, Herpetological Conservation Trust, Amphibian and Reptile Conservation charity and Natural Resources Wales, to release sand lizards back into the wild. In December 2014 a team lead by Sarah Bird micro-chipped and recorded 920 dormice in Wales as part of an ongoing conservation research study that has been in place for 10 years. 25

24 Sharing Scientific knowledge Conference Participation Chester Zoo staff participate in a wide range of conferences and lecture programmes on an international level. This provides the perfect opportunity to share scientific findings and ideas with the wider zoo and academic communities, which can lead to further collaboration and research. During the reporting period over 30 presentations were made at scientific conferences such as the BIAZA Research Symposium at Blair Drummond Safari Park in Stirling and the International Parrot Convention at Loro Parque Fundación, Tenerife Some of our veterinary medicine cases are also presented at international conferences and workshops and published in peer reviewed journals. Many of our staff are invited to give lectures at universities in Liverpool, Manchester, Chester, Warwick and Edinburgh. We also provide workshops for the EAZA Academy course series. Chester Zoo hosts a variety of opportunities for future conservation scientists through our Junior Members Summer School and Zoo Intern Workshop programmes. Both programmes are led by Chester Zoo staff and wide range of departments provide tours and seminars as part of the Summer School. We hold several successful internal symposia to highlight scientific activity across the Zoo and we also invite leading academics and professionals to give lunchtime talks at the Zoo. By disseminating scientific activity we hope to encourage more students and researchers to work with us and raise the profile of Chester Zoo as a centre of excellence for animal and plant care based on sound scientific principles. Meet the Scientists Between the 27th and 30th May Chester zoo hosted Meet the Scientists; a variety of 30 minute sessions aimed at our zoo visitors as a taste of what goes on behind the scenes. These sessions were delivered as part of a wider event held across various sites in Cheshire entitled Amazed by Science. This science festival was promoted in several locations such as Jodrell Bank, Chester Cathedral, Reaseheath College, Delamere Forest as well as Chester Zoo. Sessions held at the zoo were delivered in conjunction with our Discovery and Learning division and speakers included members of the Science Team and Field Programmes Division: We also were joined by Jess French from CBeebies who engaged with our younger visitors. Each session highlighted some of the different disciplines of science across the zoo such as endocrinology, behavioural studies, social sciences, nutrition and field surveys. The talks were free to visitors and proved an excellent way of informing visitors and children of the scientific activity conducted by zoo staff and how we can use science to help inform management decisions. British Wildlife: Conservation in Action 2014 In Spring 2014, the fourth annual Conservation Symposium was organised and held at Chester zoo. Focusing on native species in 2014, the British Wildlife Conservation in Action symposium was attended by over 130 delegates, ranging from the general public, to university students, lecturers and conservation organisation representations, many of whom work or study in the field of UK wildlife conservation. Delegates were inspired throughout the day by a range of speakers from various organisations as well as the host and the Patron of Act for Wildlife, TV personality Steve Leonard. Highlights included talks on the partnerships to conserve the Barberry carpet moths, European badgers and the contentious issue of btb, Scottish wildcat conservation, owl species, Chester Zoo s UK wildlife programmes focusing on dormice, Large heath butterflies and the new nature reserve. There were also a number of interactive displays throughout the breaks including demonstrations from record (the leading biological records centre in Cheshire) and a native species touch table where our Discovery and Learning team displayed skulls, scats, nests and live harvest mice. Feedback forms submitted at the end of the event indicated that 100% of respondents felt the symposium represented good value for money. As well as being an awareness raising event and encouraging support and involvement for UK conservation, we raised 1,400 for our Act for Wildlife conservation campaign. 24

25 Encouraging and Supporting Scientific Research Invitations to review papers by other scientists are indicative of the scientific credibility or our staff. Undertaking a review can be time consuming but it involves developing critical thinking and scientific writing skills. The figures below show the number of manuscripts and abstracts reviewed and editorial positions held by staff members Number of manuscripts reviewed: (listed by discipline) Applied ethology and welfare In-situ conservation Physiology Veterinary medicine Zoology Social sciences Total Number of abstracts reviewed: Number of editorial roles held:

26 Encouraging and Supporting Scientific Research Alongside the services that our staff provide for the zoo many of them are active members or chairs of external boards and institutions as well. The list below gives an idea of the work that our staff have been involved with recently: UK BIAZA BIAZA Animal Welfare Focus Group BIAZA Bird Working Group BIAZA Conservation and Sustainability Committee BIAZA Education and Training Committee BIAZA Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change Committee BIAZA Field Programmes Committee BIAZA Living Collections Committee BIAZA Native Species Working Group BIAZA Plant Working Group BIAZA Research Group BIAZA Veterinary Advisory Group British Veterinary Zoological Society DEFRA Zoo Liaison Group IUCN-UK Committee Jane Goodall Institute (UK) Primate Society of Great Britain Royal Veterinary College/ZSL UK Elephant Welfare Group University of Glasgow University of Liverpool University of Oxford University of Warwick European Conservation Committee of Thoiry -Peaugres EAZA EAZA Alaotran gentle lemur EEP EAZA Amphibian TAG EAZA Aye-Aye EEP EAZA Bird TAG EAZA Conservation Committee EAZA Education and Exhibit Design Committee EAZA Elephant TAG EAZA Great Ape TAG EAZA Group for Zoo Animal Contraception EAZA Leptodactylus fallax ESB EAZA Nutrition Group EAZA Reptile TAG EAZA Research Committee EAZA Rhino TAG EAZA Sulawesi Macaque EEP EAZA Threatened Songbirds of Asia Working Group EAZA Zoo Horticulture Group Committee European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians European College of Zoological Medicine International Amphibian Survival Alliance AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Flora and Fauna International (North West Group) International Committee of American Association of Zoo Veterinarians International Society of Wildlife Endocrinology International Zoo Educators Association IUCN Amphibian Specialist Group IUCN Cat Specialist Group IUCN Conservation Breeding Specialist Group IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group IUCN Wildlife Health Specialist Group Mauritian Wildlife Foundation Orangutan Veterinary Advisory Group Pan African Sanctuary Alliance 26

27 Who s who in delivering science Chester Zoo Staff Ian Ashpole BSc BVSc MRCVS Veterinarian Ian graduated from The University of Liverpool Veterinary School in 2008, having completed a degree in Conservation Medicine. He has spent time working with the veterinary teams at Taronga Zoo in Sydney, Johannesburg Zoo and Singapore Zoo and in 2010 he completed a one year internship at one of the USA s busiest wildlife hospitals in Massachusetts. He then returned to the UK to work with exotic pets and wildlife rehabilitation. In 2012, Ian started a shortterm position at Howletts and Port Lympne wild animal parks in Kent, before travelling to West Africa to release a family group of captive Western lowland gorillas into the equatorial forest there. Ian worked at Chester Zoo temporarily for six months, covering Gabby Drake s maternity leave, and has now returned to work in Australia. Catherine Barton B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. Assistant Conservation Officer Cat studied for a B.Sc. in Zoology at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne and went on to gain her M.Sc. in Wildlife Conservation and Management at the same institution. Following her studies, Cat built up her experience through various voluntary posts with conservation organisations which included a post with the Australian Koala Foundation. Following a media role working on the ARKive project at UK wildlife charity Wildscreen, Cat joined Chester Zoo s Field Conservation and Research Team in August Her current role varies from communication with overseas partners to evaluation of field projects, organisation of symposia, liasing with media and marketing departments and native species research. Cat is currently working on the issue of sustainable palm oil, a major conservation issue in Southeast Asia. Sarah Bird B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. Biodiversity Officer Sarah has been Biodiversity Officer at Chester Zoo since 2003, after joining the zoo as Assistant Curator of Horticulture and Botany in Prior to this she worked as a curator in the Botany Department of Liverpool Museum. She holds a B.Sc. from the University of Durham and a Masters in Countryside Management from Manchester Metropolitan University. Her current role focuses on developing Chester Zoo involvement in UK conservation initiatives and protecting local wildlife found on the zoo estate. Lisa Holmes B.Sc. (Hons) Ph.D. Scientific Assistant Lisa joined Chester Zoo in May 2013 having just completed her Ph.D. at the University of Liverpool, investigating female competition in wild house mice. Prior to this Lisa completed her undergraduate degree in Animal Behaviour at Liverpool John Moores University, conducting a research project on social behaviour in Siamese Fighting Fish. A significant aspect of Lisa s role involves working with the curators to audit the animals and plant collection for issues that could be addressed using the scientific method. Lisa also supervises interns and students conducting Zoo commissioned projects. Gabby Drake B.Sc., B.VSc., MRCVS Veterinary Officer Following graduation from the University of Liverpool in Conservation Medicine and then Veterinary Science, Gabby worked in domestic animal practice until 2008, when she moved to South Africa to volunteer at Johannesburg Zoo for 6 months. On her return to England she worked with exotic pets and wildlife rehabilitation, until she took the position of Veterinary Resident at Chester Zoo in Having completed the residency, Gabby has now accepted a permanent position as veterinary officer. James Edwards B.Sc. (Hons) Keeper Elephant Team James joined Chester Zoo in the summer of 2010 having spent 3 years working at Banham Zoo in Norfolk. As well as holding the Advanced National Certificate in the Management of Zoo Animals, James successfully obtained a B.Sc. in Psychology, during which time he became interested in the study of animal behaviour. James continues to focus on behavioural aspects in his role as an elephant keeper. Maggie Esson EdD, MA, Cert Ed, Cert Health Ed Education Programmes Manager Maggie Esson has been Education Programmes Manager at Chester Zoo since 2004 and before this was Head of Conservation Education at Durrell Wildlife Park, Jersey. She holds a Doctorate from Liverpool John Moores University and a Masters from Plymouth University. Maggie has extensive overseas experience in conservation education practice and maintains a good network of overseas contacts as a result of this work. Maggie s work at Chester involves managing a dynamic education team in diverse educational initiatives including exhibit theming design, schools and university programmes, public talks, community outreach. 27

28 Who s who in delivering science Chester Zoo Staff Emma Evison B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc Keeper Elephant Team Emma joined Chester Zoo in 2009 following two years working as a zoo keeper with a variety of animals. She has an undergraduate degree in Applied Animal Behaviour and training from Bishop Burton College, East Yorkshire. She also completed and M.Sc. in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, looking closely at cost effectiveness of mitigation strategies in Assam for her thesis. Andrea Fidgett B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc., Ph.D. Nutritionist Andrea graduated from the University of Glasgow with a Zoology degree. Studying diet and mortality in endangered parrots as a Research Assistant at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust led her to focus on the discipline of comparative wildlife nutrition, via an MSc in Animal Nutrition and a PhD on avian nutritional ecology. Andrea joined the Society in 2002 and her role as a full-time nutritionist remains unique amongst UK zoos. Time is split between delivering an efficient and cost-effective internal nutrition service, providing expert training and consultancy to universities and zoos internationally, and conducting targeted, collaborative research. She also leads colleagues from the international community in the development of zoo diet management software. Gerardo Garcia Ph.D. Curator of Lower Vertebrates and Invertebrates Gerardo completed his doctorate at the University of Kent on the ecology, human impact, and conservation of the Madagascan freshwater turtles. His work experience started in 1991 at Barcelona (Spain) and Thoiry Zoos (France) he then went on to work as head of the Herpetology Department of Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust for nine years. Since then he has been involved with captive breeding programs of reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates and fish in Jersey, Montserrat, Madagascar, Spain, Mauritius, Mexico, UK and recently Bermuda. During the last ten years he has been involved in various training initiatives for amphibians around the world improving the husbandry protocols of captive colonies and diverse in situ programs. Gerardo is also the EAZA EEP Studbook Keeper for the Komodo dragons and ESB keeper for Mountain chicken frogs. At the European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA) he is the chair of the Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group (ATAG) and vicechair for the Reptile TAG as member of several IUCN Specialist Groups. Sonya Hill B.A. (Hons), M.Phil., Ph.D. Applied Ethologist Following a degree in Anthropology from the University of Durham, Sonya worked in Tanzania for the Jane Goodall Institute and then returned to Durham to undertake an M.Phil. in Biological Anthropology. She went on to work as an academic supervisor for the University of Cambridge and undertook a Ph.D. in the university s Department of Veterinary Medicine. She joined Chester Zoo in 2004 as Research Assistant, becoming Research Officer later the same year. In January 2013 she took up the zoo s new role of Applied Ethologist. She holds an Honorary Lectureship at the University of Liverpool and her own research focuses on behavioural investigations of animal welfare. Sonya left Chester Zoo in September 2014 to join the University of Chester as a lecturer in Animal Behaviour and Welfare. F. Javier López LdoVet M.Sc. MRCVS Veterinary Manager After graduating in 1992 from Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza in Spain, Javier worked as exotic and wildlife veterinarian in local practices and rehabilitation centres. In 1997 obtained the master s degree in Wild Animal Health from the Royal Veterinary College, London. Before joining Chester Zoo in August 2012, Javier worked for 13 years as head of Veterinary Services at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. He was responsible for the health care of the captive animal collection and veterinary aspects of Durrell s training, research and conservation programmes. These included the captive breeding and release of Malagasy chelonian, rescue programmes for the Montserrat mountain chicken frog and the Madagascar Pochard. Gordon McGregor- Reid Ph.D Director Emeritus/ Global Chair IUCN Freshwater Fish Specialist Group Gordon has had a diverse international career involving biological research, conservation, animal welfare and environmental education. He has authored more than 200 scientific publications and held senior positions in zoos, museums and universities. He is a Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Liverpool; Scientific Associate at the British Museum of Natural History; and Director Emeritus of Chester Zoo (The North of England Zoological Society). He was Director General of Chester Zoo for more than 15 years, until his retirement in Gordon founded the IUCN SSC/ Wetlands International Freshwater Fish Specialist Group in 2004 and was Global Chair until he stepped down in December

29 Who s who in delivering science Chester Zoo Staff Naomi Matthews B.Sc. (Hons) Conservation Assistant Naomi joined the conservation department in June 2013 having previously worked as an animal husbandry intern on the Twilight section. Prior to this Naomi completed an undergraduate degree in Geography, spending a year studying at the University of Queensland in Australia. Pursuing her interest in small mammals, Naomi has volunteered with a number of species in the wild including rodents, bats and koalas. Her current role involves assisting with the field project selection process and providing administrative support for various conservation activities. Naomi also coordinates the zoo s badger vaccination programme. Andy Moss B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. Education Research Officer After receiving his B.Sc. in Marine Biology from the University of Liverpool, Andy undertook a M.Sc. in environmental Science at the University of Salford, where he completed research investigating the optimal habitat size and habitat connectedness for a range of UK animal species. Andy joined the zoo in 2003 as an Education Officer and from 2004 onwards has been involved in social and educational research projects at the zoo. He became the Education Research Officer in 2007; the first permanent appointment of its type in any European zoo. Andy is and Associate Fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Warwick. Mark Pilgrim B.Sc. (Hons), Ph.D. Director General Chief Curator. In 2007 Mark became Director of Conservation & Education and became the fourth Director General of the society in Mark is the EEP Studbook co-ordinator for the Black Rhinoceros, Ecuadorian Amazon parrot and Jaguar. He is also the chair of the UK Elephant Welfare Group, an accreditation inspector for EAZA and active member of the EAZA and Taxon Advisory Groups (TAGs). James Probert BSC (Hons), MSc Assistant Conservation Officer James studied for a BSc in Zoology at the University of Bristol and went on to gain an MSc in Conservation Science from Imperial College London. In addition to his academic experience James has worked for several conservation organisations in the UK and abroad including the Kenya Wildlife Service, Sundarbans Tiger Project, Zoological Society of London and Wildlife Conservation Society. James joined Chester Zoo's Field Programmes Team in April 2014 in a maternity cover role and is now studying for a PhD at the University of Liverpool on roles of fire and mammalian herbivory in the Serengeti ecosystem. Rebecca Purcell B.Sc. (Hons) Endocrinology Technician Rebecca studied Forensic Science at the University of Central Lancashire and joined the Endocrinology Department at Chester Zoo in August Becky is responsible for the day-to-day running of the endocrine laboratory and cosupervises zoo interns and visiting students. Rebecca is currently studying towards a M.Res. in Conservation Biology at Manchester Metropolitan University. Stephanie Sanderson MA, Vet MB, M.Sc. (WAH); MRCVS Director of Science and Education Stephanie graduated from the University of Cambridge with degrees in Zoology and Veterinary Medicine. After two years in general practice she undertook a residency at the RSPCA wildlife hospital in Norfolk working with a wide range of British wildlife, including seals. In 1999 Stephanie gained a M.Sc. in Wild Animal Health and also joined Chester Zoo as veterinary resident. Since then she has held the position of Veterinary Officer, Veterinary Manager, Head of Conservation Medicine and Director of the Living Collections. At the end of 2013 Stephanie became the Director of Science and Education. She is also an honorary lecturer at the University of Liverpool and external examiner for the M.Sc. in Wild Animal Health at the Royal Veterinary College and advises BIAZA and DEFRA on wild animal disease policy. Jess Trotter B.Sc., M.Sc. Assistant Team Manager Elephants Jess worked as an animal keeper at Chester Zoo for eight years and periodically worked in the endocrinology lab to process samples for her animal section. She actively participates in the Elephant Welfare Group, building on her M.Sc. work to examine the relationship between physiology and behaviour in captive elephants. Jess left Chester Zoo in August 2014 to commence the post of Education Officer at West Midlands Safari Park. Mark started working at Chester Zoo as a bird keeper in 1988 and later became the Deputy Curator of Birds, followed by the 29

30 Who s who in delivering science Chester Zoo Staff Suzanne Turnock B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. Research Assistant/ Programme Officer IUCN/WI Freshwater Fish Specialist Group Suzanne studied for a B.Sc. in Wildlife Conservation at Liverpool John Moores University and went on to obtain a M.Sc. in Primate Conservation for Oxford Brookes University. Before joining Chester Zoo, Suzanne built up her experience by working with various conservation organisations on a voluntary basis, including the Sumatran Orangutan Society, the Great Apes Film Initiative and the Gibbon Rehabilitation Project in Thailand. After working as a Field Primatologist for Operation Wallace in Honduras, Suzanne joined us as the Research Assistant in 2010 and from 2013 Suzanne became the Programme Officer for the IUCN/WI Freshwater Fish Specialist Group while the current post holder was on maternity leave. Suzanne left Chester Zoo in 2014 to work with the Orangutan Peatland Project in Borneo. Steve Unwin B.Sc., B.VSc., MRCVS Veterinary Officer After graduating from Massey University (New Zealand) with zoology and veterinary degrees, Steve worked for six years in wildlife rehabilitation and zoo animal practice in Australia, Thailand and Cameroon. Steve joined the Chester Zoo team in He is an honorary lecturer at the University of Liverpool and has an interest in primate medicine and wildlife disease risk analysis. He is veterinary director of the Pan African Sanctuary Alliance, advisor to several primate release projects in Africa and Indonesia and part of the IUCN Disease Risk Analysis working group. Research Interests include emerging wildlife infectious disease, especially zoonoses Sue Walker B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. Head of Applied Science After gaining her B.Sc. at the University of Guelph (Canada), Sue went on to work with the red wolf SSP to gain her M.Sc. at the University of Guelph, in collaboration with Toronto Zoo. Sue spent time working in the Reproductive Physiology units at Toronto Zoo and the Smithsonian Institution (USA) before moving to the UK to gain her Ph.D. at the University of Liverpool, studying the effect of stress on reproductive health. She joined Chester Zoo in 2007 and has since built up the Endocrinology Department, making us the first UK zoo with its own dedicated endocrinologist and wildlife endocrinology laboratory. Sue took on the role of Scientific Manager in 2013 and became Head of Applied Science in August Roger Wilkinson B.Sc. (Hons), Ph.D. Head of Field Conservation & Research Roger started at Chester Zoo in 1983 as Curator of Birds, later becoming Curator of Higher Vertebrates and Research. Prior to this Roger spent six years conducting ornithological research and delivering lectures at Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. Roger is Chair of the EAZA Hornbill TAG, Vice President of the West African Ornithological Society, Vice President of the Avicultural Society and council member of the Mauritius Wildlife Foundation. Roger retired in 2014 though conducts his own research and work within field programmes Scott Wilson B.Sc., M.Sc. Conservation Officer/ Head of Field Programmes closely with colleagues in the zoo and overseas to promote and develop zoo s field conservation activities. He is particularly involved with Black Rhino, Asian Elephant and Nigeria Programmes and provides GIS and database management expertise for these programmes. He is also the Chair for the BIAZA Field Programmes Committee. Scott became the Head of Field Programmes in July Alex Zimmerman B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. D.Phil Head of Conservation Science Alex joined Chester in 2000, helping to set up the conservation department, assisting with conservation strategy matters, devising impact assessment methods and writing about the role of zoos in conservation. Her main role is developing overseas field programmes and carrying out conservation research, particularly on human-wildlife conflict. Alex founded the Assam Haathi Project and has led three Darwin Initiative projects. She holds degrees in Zoology (Leeds) and Conservation Biology (DICE), has worked for IUCN in Switzerland, FFI in the Phillipines and WCS in Brazil. She recently finished her D.Phil. on human-jaguar conflict at Oxford University and became Head of Conservation Science in August Scott joined the Field Conservation & Research Division in Scott s role as Conservation Officer involves working 30

31 Who s who in delivering science Visiting students and other researchers Jane Ansell M.Sci. Jane has recently completed her M.Sci. in Biosciences at the University of Birmingham. In collaboration with Dr. Sonya Hill, she investigated the use of sway poles by Sumatran orangutans at Chester Zoo, to inform the zoo on its provision of locomotory opportunities for orangutans. Jane has previously volunteered at West Midlands Safari Park and the Wildlife Trust, as well as a reptile specialist pet shop in Birmingham. Rachael Antwis B.Sc. (Hons) Ph.D. Student Rachel studied her Zoology undergraduate degree at the University of Manchester, after which she worked as an honorary research assistant for Amphibian Ark at Antwerp Zoo. Rachael received a Doctoral Training Award from the Biotechnology Sciences Research Council for a joint studentship between the University of Manchester and Chester Zoo. Her studies investigate the impacts of the captive environment on the health and fecundity of frogs, focusing on the effects of ultraviolet radiation and calcium on the reproductive success of red-eyed tree frogs. Rachael completed her Ph.D. in October 2014 and is continuing her research focusing on amphibians in South Africa. Ryan Boyle Herpetology Intern Ryan joined Chester zoo as a twelve month inter in 2013 as part of his sandwich year placement for a B.Sc. In Bio-veterinary science at Harper Adams University. His dissertation looks to evaluate heat provision effects on digestive performance and comparative methods of dietary calcium intake in leopard geckos. During his internship he conducted a project evaluating the current heat provision methods for effective thermoregulation in the Komodo dragons, Galapagos tortoises and red tailed racers using thermal imaging cameras. His findings were implemented by the animal team at the end of his study. Ashleigh Brown B.Sc. (Hons) Science Intern Ashleigh joined Chester zoo in September 2014 after successfully completing her B.Sc. in Animal Behaviour and Welfare at Myerscough College. Her dissertation focused on the effect of environmental enrichment on pacing in Giant anteaters which she presented at the BIAZA Annual Research Symposium in Prior to this she worked at Blackpool zoo as an education officer and volunteered in South Africa as well as at several different animal sanctuaries in the UK. Brianna Clark Nutrition Intern Brianna joined Chester Zoo in September 2014 after previously working as a keeper in both Auckland Zoo and Franklin Wildlife Sanctuary in New Zealand. She has extensive knowledge of a wide range of exotic animals and came to the UK to further her knowledge in the area of nutrition. As part of her internship Brianna is responsible for assessing dietary requirements of various species within the zoo and evaluating research to help improve nutrition in zoos. Charlotte Cox B.Sc. (Hons), MPhil EGZAC Intern Charlotte joined Chester zoo in September 2013 as the EGZAC intern after successfully completing her B.Sc. in zoology; following this she took a year out for her internship and also volunteered at a wildlife sanctuary for injured and orphaned animals in Namibia and assisted with large carnivore conservation research and then went on to successfully complete her MPhil in Animal Biology at the University of Manchester, with her thesis being focused around the effects of enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of breeding female rats. She is now working at The University Manchester as a research technician and hopes to study for a PhD in animal welfare science. Katie Edwards B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc., Ph.D. Katie studied Bio veterinary Science at the University of Liverpool, followed by a Master s degree in Evolutionary Psychology. As part of her M.Sc. Katie conducted a research project investigating faecal glucocorticoids in female Barbary macaques, in collaboration with Dr. Sue Walker. Katie was based at Chester Zoo between 2008 and 2013, completing her Ph.D. in collaboration with the University of Liverpool, investigating reproduction in the European captive population of black rhinos. Katie successfully defended her thesis in September 2013 and now works at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute conducting post-doctoral research in Asian elephants. Lily Guyer Nuffield Placement Student Lily is studying towards her A-levels at Priestly College and carried out research at Chester Zoo on the behaviour, enclosure use and visibility of Sumatran orangutans prior to their transfer to the Islands exhibit. This important research helped to create baseline data to determine how the transfer could alter the three aspects that were studied. Lily currently has several volunteering projects planned for the future. Lucy Hatton Birds Intern Lucy joined Chester zoo in 2014, working on the tropical birds section. Lucy is currently studying towards a B.Sc. in Zoology at the University of Manchester with her dissertation focusing on vision in birds; she is also completing a project as part of her degree during her internship. Her study aims to evaluate the new Islands enclosures for the Rhinoceros Hornbills and Southern Cassowaries. Lucy previously volunteered to work with sea turtles in Kefalonia last summer. 31

32 Who s who in delivering science Visiting students and other researchers Matthew Hunt B.Sc. (Hons) EGZAC Intern Matthew joined Chester Zoo as the EGZAC intern in July 2014 after successfully completing his B.Sc. in Animal Biology at Nottingham Trent University. The responsibilities of his internship involve managing the international databases relating to contraception use and effectiveness in zoological collections as well as making contraception recommendations for a range of captive-housed exotic species. Amy Johnson Giraffe Intern Amy commenced her internship at Chester Zoo in September 2014, working on the giraffe section. Amy is currently studying towards a B.Sc. In Bioveterinary Science at Harper Adams University and during the internship will be completing a research project investigating the behaviour and paddock use of Banteng before they move to the new 'Islands' exhibit Darby Knight Nuffield Placement Student Darby completed research at the zoo as part of the Nuffield Placement Scheme. His project focused on Sumatran tigers in their current enclosure prior to the move to the new exhibit in Islands. This research provided baseline data for the animals behaviour, enclosure use and animal visibility to the public. The research will be continued throughout the winter moths and post transfer to determine how the animals are settling into their new environment. Darby is currently studying towards his A-levels at South Cheshire College and is aiming to study either Natural Sciences at Cambridge or Zoology at Bristol. Matthew McHale Giraffe intern Matthew began his internship at Chester zoo in September 2014, working on the giraffe section. He is currently studying towards a B.Sc. in Wildlife Conservation and Zoo Biology at the University of Salford, with his dissertation focused on improving elephant welfare within zoological collections. Matthew also completed a project as part of his placement year focusing on enclosure use and behaviour of Rothschild giraffe. His study aimed to evaluate paddock use, and record behaviour throughout the seasons. Matthew is now a part-time intern at Knowsley Safari Park whilst completing his degree. Callum Mclaren Nutrition Intern Callum joined Chester Zoo in September 2013 as the Nutrition intern for his sandwich placement year. Throughout his placement, Callum conducted a research project focusing on the feeding behaviour of the two species of flamingos in relation to various factors including the change in food presentation and how different behaviours of potential parents (prebreeding season) could influence chick mortality. While at the Zoo, Callum was involved in the Manchester 10K alongside other members of staff raising money for the Act For Wildlife campaign. He has now returned to Glasgow University for his final year of study. Rachel McNally Herpetology Intern Rachel joined Chester Zoo in September 2014 as a Herpetology intern. She is currently studying towards a B.Sc. in Zoology at the University of Manchester and is completing a research project as part of her sandwich year placement here. Rachel's study is evaluating the effectiveness of current enrichment practices for the zoo's monitor lizard species. Lewis Miles M.Sci Lewis recently graduated from the University of Birmingham with an M.Sci. in Natural Sciences, majoring in physics and biology. For his research project he worked with Dr Sonya Hill, focusing on nest building behaviours in Sumatran orangutans and investigate whether these complex behaviours could be instigated and sustained in the captive environment. This project provided a more accurate representation of orangutan natural behaviours resulting in the nest basket design to be incorporated in the new Islands exhibit. Lewis has also previously conducted research on social behaviours of mixed-species tamarin groups at the Birmingham Nature Centre. Elliott Rose Herpetology intern Elliott Rose commenced his internship at Chester Zoo in 2014 working in the Herpetology Team. Elliott is studying towards a B.Sc. in Zoology at the University of Manchester and will be completing a research project during his internship. His study will evaluate reptile enrichment for aquatic turtles species. Jennifer Sanderson B.Sc. (Hons), Ph.D. Postdoctoral researcher Jennifer studied biological sciences at the University of Edinburgh, during which time she took part in a research expedition to Borneo and volunteered as a field assistant on multiple research projects around Scotland. Following her degree, Jenni joined the Pika Camp Research Project, investigating the effects of climate change on populations on Arctic ground squirrels. Jenni moved to the University of Exeter to start her PhD looking at hormonal correlates of cooperative behaviour in wild Banded mongooses in collaboration with Dr. Sue Walker at Chester Zoo. Since completion of her PhD in 2013, Jenni has remained at the University of Exeter with a post-doctoral position investigating genetic and hormonal determinates of behavioural specialisations in the same wild Banded mongoose population. 32

33 Who s who in delivering science Visiting students and other researchers Kalisha Sandland Carnivore Intern Kalisha joined Chester zoo in September 2013 as one of the two carnivore interns for her placement year. Her internship formed the sandwich placement for her B.Sc. in Zoo Biology at Nottingham Trent University, which she is due to complete next year. Whilst at the zoo she conducted a study of lion and tiger behaviour before, during and after visitor talks. Prior to Chester zoo, Kalisha gained work experience in various animal environments including an abattoir which increased her interest in carnivore food preparation. Whilst completing her final year of university, Kalisha is currently volunteering at the community led Stonebridge City farm in Nottingham. James Sread Rhino Intern James worked with the Rhino Team from September 2013 until September 2014 as a placement for his bio-veterinary science degree. He has previously volunteered for Worldwide Experience where he has worked with Black rhinos in South Africa. Whilst at the Zoo James conducted a research project on the Indian rhino, monitoring interactions and behaviours, foot health and weights of the Indian rhino. He presented his research at the BIAZA Research Symposium in July 2014 and has provided evidence to help manage the species. Rebekah Titchard B.Sc. (Hons) Endocrinology Intern Rebekah commenced her internship within the endocrinology laboratory in September 2014 following her graduation from Bangor University after studying a BSc in Zoology. Rebekah s dissertation focussed on the individual and population level laterality in the Chilean Flamingo with a link to pair bonding, for which she received first class results. She has also volunteered in Zimbabwe with exotic African species. During her internship Rebekah will be undertaking a research project studying the Bornean orangutans. Rutendo Wazara BVMedSci (Hons), M.Sc. Rutendo has recently completed her M.Sc. in Veterinary Sciences at the University of Liverpool and conducted her research project in collaboration with staff at Chester Zoo. Rutendo quantified the social relationships between captive Asian elephants, testing basic data collection techniques and analysis methods to measure the strength of elephant bonds. Rutendo has recently volunteered at Antelope Park & ALERT s Lion Rehabilitation and Release programme in her home country of Zimbabwe and will undertake a PhD in undertook research on human-elephant conflict and crop-raiding in Cambodia for her M.Sc. at the Royal Veterinary College. She also worked as a Research Assistant at the University of Stirling on the Amboseli Research Project, Kenya. Lizzie is currently undertaking a part-time Ph.D. at the University of Stirling, researching behaviour and development in Asian and African elephant calves at multiple sites, including Chester Zoo and Uda Walawe National Park (UWNP), Sri Lanka. Ee Phin Wong B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. Ph.D. Student Ee Phin is currently studying for her Ph.D. at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and the Management and Ecology of Malaysian Elephants (MEME). Her research focuses on the development of non-invasive hormone monitoring methods for Asian elephants. Prior to her Ph.D. Ee Phin conducted behavioural studies on Bornean orangtuans and monitored hatching of painted terrapins and green turtles in Terengganu. Victoria Stretch BSc (Hons) Conservation Intern Victoria started in September 2013 on a one-year internship following her graduation in July 2013 from the University of Liverpool, with a degree in marine biology. During her final year at university she volunteered as an Aquarist at the Blue Planet Aquarium. In the Field Programmes office Victoria produced reports and used GIS techniques to assist in field surveys. For a few days each month, Victoria also worked on one of our animal sections to gain an insight into the lives of the animals we help conserve in the field. She now volunteers at Welsh Mountain zoo once a week. Sam Weatherall Rhino intern Sam commenced his internship at Chester Zoo in September 2014, working on the Rhino section. Sam is currently studying towards a B.Sc. in Animal Science at the University of Nottingham and is completing a research project during his internship. His study will investigate impact of visitor presence and construction work on behaviour and paddock use of the Sitatunga. Catherine Lizzie Webber B.Sc., M.Sc. Ph.D. Student (part-time) After spending a year as an intern on Chester Zoo s elephant section, Lizzie 33

34 Collaborating Institutions Africa Alive Anglia Ruskin University Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) Antwerp Zoo Bangor University Belfast Zoo Bellewaerde Park Berlin Zoo BIAZA Big Life Foundation Blackpool Zoo Blair Drummond Safari Park Brookfield Zoo Cardiff Metropolitan University Cardiff University CEPA Fundacion Pro-Bosque George Adamson Wildlife Trust Green Governance Nepal Halkyn Grazing Association Harper Adams University Imperial College London Institute of Forestry, Nepal IZVG Pathology Jan Palfijn Anatomy Lab, Belgium Kenya Wildlife Service Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme (KOCP) Knowsley Safari Park La trobe University, Australia Leipzig Zoological Garden Liverpool John Moores University Liverpool Museums ODDB Orangutan Information Centre OVAG Oxford Brookes University Paignton Zoo Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) Panthera Parc Zoologique de Paris Parken Zoo Philadelphia Zoo Quotient Bioresearch Reaseheath College Red Panda Network Nepal Ree Park Safari Royal Burgers Zoo Safari de Peaugres Cikananga Integrated Conservation Longleat Safari Park San Diego Zoo Global Foundation Save the Rhino International Lowland Tapir Conservation Initative Colchester Zoo Scottish Natural Heritage Lyon Zoo Coleg Llysfasi South Lakes Wild Animal Park Maasailand Preservation Trust Community agriculture and environmental protection association Spectacled Bear Conservation Mabula Hornbill Research and Society Conservation Project Copenhagen Zoo Staffordshire University Madagasikara Voakajy Cotswolds Wildlife Park Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Manchester Metropolitan University Project Countryside Service Manchester Museum Domaine de Vilvert, France The Aspinall Foundation: Port Lympne & Howletts Marwell Zoo Dublin Zoo The Conservation Land Trust Mauritian Wildlife Foundation Durrel Institute for Conservation and The Mammal Society Ecology N/a an ku sê Wildlife Sanctuary Earthwatch EAZA EcoSystems India Edge Hill University Edinburgh Museum Edinburgh Zoo Environmental Foundation Limited Nantwich Veterinary Hospital Napier University National Museums Scotland Natural Resources Wales New Nature Foundation Noah s Ark Zoo and Farm Nottingham Trent University The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (RZSS) Edinburgh Zoo Thermo Scientific Touro Parc TRAFFIC Twycross Zoo University of Birmingham University of Bristol Nuffield Foundation University of Buffalo University of Cambridge University of Central Lancashire University of Chester University of Exeter University of Florence University of Glasgow University of Groningen University of Kent University of Leicester University of Liverpool University of Manchester University of Newcastle University of Nottingham University of Oxford University of Reading University of Salford Venomtech Ltd. VulPro Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Welsh Mountain Zoo Wetlands International Wildlife Conservation and Research Unit Wildlife Vets International Wildtrack Wirral and Cheshire Badger Group Yayasan Begawan ZGAP Zoo Outreach Organisation Zoo Parc Overloon Zoological Society of London Zurich Zoo 34

35 Our Research Projects Commissioned Projects Animal Health and Wellbeing Aggressive behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) at Chester Zoo, University of Liverpool MSc Analyses of the skin microbiota in captive Golden Mantella frogs (Mantella aurantiaca), University of Salford PhD Analysis of nesting behaviours in captive Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii), University of Bimingham MSci Assessing fitness and behaviour of Bermuda skinks, University of Salford PhD Assessing social interactions in captive lion tailed macaques with particular focus on aggression and affiliative behaviour, University of Liverpool External professional Behavioural and endocrine responses of captive Sulawesi macaques (Macaca nigra) to a novel enclosure, University of Manchester MPhil Behavioural development of elephant calves in relation to welfare in captivity, University of Stirling PhD Behavioural observations, enclosure use and visibility of Javan Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros silvestris) and Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius): a preoccupancy of 'Islands evalutation, University of Manchester BSc Carry-over effects of environment on bacterial communities, peptide release and adrenal hormone activity in tadpoles and metamorphs of redeyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas) University of Manchester PhD Do mixed species aviaries work? Evaluating breeding success of bird species housed within mixed species enclosures within British and European zoological collections, Liverpool John Moores University MPhil Does flamingo behaviour and husbandry (pre-breeding season) influence the quality of their offspring? University of Glasgow MSc Effects of outside temperature and excessive machinery noise on the behaviour and enclosure use (including visibility) of giant anteaters Harper Adams University BSc Enclosure use and sleeping patterns of Rothschild giraffe during summer months University of Salford BSc Evaluating the effectiveness of current enrichment practices used with three monitor lizard species at Chester Zoo, University of Manchester BSc Evaluation of current enrichment for aquatic turtles species at Chester Zoo, University of Manchester BSc Evaluation of heat provision for effective thermoregulation in four species of reptiles at Chester Zoo (Komodo dragons, Salvador monitors, Galapagos tortoises and redtailed racers), Harper Adams University BSc Hormonal organisation of social behaviour in the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), University of Exeter Post-doctoral Indian rhinos: time budgets, weights, foot health, enclosure use and interactions with deer in paddock, Harper Adams University BSc Investigations intro fungal substrate preferences and fungus growth in Leafcutter ants (Atta cephalaotes) at Chester zoo, University of Chester BSc Linking physiological traits of amphibians corticosterone, peptides and symbiotic bacteria, University of Manchester PhD Multiple Mycobacterial Infections in a Zoo Aquarium, University of Liverpool MSc Pre-occupancy "Islands" evaluation of rhinoceros hornbills and southern cassowaries: Part 1 - Summer 2014, Nuffield foundation External student student Pre-occupancy "Islands" evaluation of Sumatran orangutans: Part 1 - Summer 2014, Nuffield foundation External Pre-occupancy "Islands" evaluation of Sumatran tigers: Part 1 - Summer 2014, Nuffield foundation External student Pre-occupancy Islands evaluation of Banteng, Harper Adams University BSc Quantifying social relationships of captive Asian elephants, University of Liverpool MSc Schmallenberg virus serological testing, External Professional Social hierarchies in a captive pack of African Painted Dogs, Reaseheath College BTEC The effects of calcium and ultraviolet radiation on the 35

36 health and reproduction of the redeyed tree frog, Agalychnis callidryas, University of Manchester PhD The influence of the Chester Zoo presenter talk environment on lion and tiger behaviour and enclosure use, Nottingham Trent University BSc The use of adrenal activity in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as a welfare management tool to monitor the effect of visitor presence after normal opening hours, Zoo Staff The use of Oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel ) for the treatment of a Spectacled Bear with Alopecia Syndrome, Zoo Staff Emerging Diseases and Biosecurity An investigation into the activity of European badgers,(meles meles), on the Chester Zoo estate Zoo staff The use of adrenal activity in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as a welfare management tool and potential indicator of EEHV viral shedding, Zoo staff Human-Wildlife Conflict A range-wide study of the state of knowledge about human-jaguar conflict, University of Oxford, Zoo staff DPhil Assam Haathi Programme, Human- Elephant Conflict in India, Zoo staff Factors influencing management and conservation of wild Asian elephants in Peninsular Malaysia University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, PhD Reintroduction of the Large Heath Butterfly to Heysham Moss, Zoo staff Population Management A Decade of Dormouse Discoveries, Zoo Staff Are captive Golden mantella frogs fit to be wild? How captivity affects individuals survival skills, University of Salford PhD HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis of reproductive activity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), University of Glasgow MSci In house monitoring of social interactions in male spider monkeys, especially antagonistic behaviours, to contribute to evidence based management of the group, University of Chester External student MSc Management of the brownheaded spider monkey, University of Groningen Novel use of elastomer marking techniques for Golden mantella, External professionals/zoo Staff Orchid - Mycorrhizal fungal interactions; improving propogation methods for chlorophyllous and mycoheterotrophic orchids, University of Manchester PhD Understanding the links between environment, behaviour and reproduction in the endangered black rhinoceros, University of Liverpool PhD Evaluating the use of satellite tracking belts for Mountain chickens in re-introduction programmes, Zoo Staff Visitor Studies & Behaviour Change Critically evaluate Chester Zoo's relationship marketing strategies to determine how they can attract a student market, University of Chester BSc Evaluating the contribution of world zoos to the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, Zoo staff Monitoring the Transport Carbon Footprint of Chester Zoo, Zoo Staff Pre- Islands Perceptions and Attitudes of Visitors at Chester Zoo, Zoo staff 36

37 Non-Commissioned Projects A comparison of Lemur catta body weights across UK institutions - a study exploring the effects of nutritional intake, age, gender and enclosure design on weight, Oxford Brookes University MSc Agonistic behaviour in multi-male groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Zoos and Wildlife Parks, University of Copenhagen MSc Behaviour, tool use, arboreality and locomotion as indicators of natural activity in captive lion-tailed macaques, University of Liverpool PhD Building the foundations of success: an assessment of successful reintroduction projects involving captive-bred animals, University of Southampton MRes Developing behavioural indicators, as part of a wider set of indicators, to assess the welfare of elephants in UK zoos, University of Nottingham & DEFRA External professional Genetic sampling of Bermuda skinks, University of Manchester External professional Individual differences in emotional perception in chimpanzees University of Edinburgh PhD Keeper-animal relationships in a zoo setting University of Bolton External professional Links between anticipatory behaviour and stereotypies in UK zoo elephants, University of Edinburgh MSc The role of neuropeptides as a proximate base for (pro)social behaviour: inter- and intraspecific comparison of bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, University of Antwerp PhD Biological Sample Requests A preliminary investigation into the diversity and distribution of nematodes infecting primates at Chester zoo, Liverpool John Moores University BSc Assessing the impact of freshwater protected areas through next generation sequencing of environmental DNA, Bangor University PhD Asymptomatic infection of cattle underlies the normal biology of ovine herpesvirus 2, University of Liverpool PhD Developing Next Generation DNA Sequencing approaches for the whole mitochondrial genome Forensic and Conservation Applications, University of Leicester BSc Development of an animal hair database/reference collection for species identification,staffordshire University BSc DNA as a tool for monitoring tiger populations, External Professional EEP Support Drawing From Nature, PGCE student Epidemiology and molecular biology of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpes Virus 1 in the Asian elephant University of Nottingham PhD Evolutionary analysis of genetic variation in the serotonin transporter in primates, University of Cambridge External Professional Genetics of the Banteng (Bos javanicus) in situ and ex situ population, EEP Coordinator Investigating malaria in apes, External Professional Metabolism of drugs in tiger and leopard species, External Professional Molecular basis of melanism in the Jaguar, Anglia Ruskin University External Professional Owl pellet dissection, Coleg Llysfasi External Professional Population genetics of mountain chicken Leptodactylus fallax before and after The introduction of chytrid fungus and implications for conservation Management, Cardiff University External Professional Proteomic and Genomic Comparison of Montserrat Tarantulas, External Professional Rapidly Mutating Sample to Investigate Human Male Population, University of Central Lancashire DPhil Towards the Conservation of UK Dune System Native Lacertidae Species, Bangor University DPhil Volumetric-based mass estimation: scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in primates, non-primate mammals and birds, University of Manchester External Professional 37

38 Undergraduate Training Projects A behavioural study on the Lion-tailed Macaque and the Sulawesi Crested Macaque looking at differences in behaviours in captivity, Liverpool John Moores University A comparative behavioural study of Asian Elephants located in a sanctuary with those located in zoos, University of Newcastle A comparative view on enclosure utilisation for Sumatran and Bornean Orangutans during high and low visitor density periods, University of Chester A comparison of self-directed behaviour in male and female Chimpanzees in response to zoo visitors, University of Roehampton A study into the behaviour of the giant Otter and other factors that affect species survival in captivity, Staffordshire University A study into the effect visitor numbers have on the daily behaviour of the African Painted Dogs at Chester Zoo, University of Salford A study of behavioural traits in Asian Elephants by comparing time budgets between captive and wild Elephants, Glyndŵr University An investigation into social inclusion during enrichment activity in captive Western Lowland Gorillas (Blackpool Zoo), Bornean Orangutans and the Common Chimpanzee, Liverpool John Moores University An investigation into the behavioural responses of chimpanzees towards visitors within two enclosure designs, University of Chester An observation of the Alpha male chimpanzee and his interactions with different members of his group: with particular focus on rough and tumble play with the juvenile members (Chimpanzees), Liverpool Hope University An observational study comparing chimpanzee behaviour in indoor and outdoor enclosures, University of Chester Animal observation for drama purposes, Manchester Metropolitan University Chimpanzee handedness: Exploring laterality through natural spontaneous behaviours, University of Chester Comparing the behaviour of Chimpanzees when indoors to when they are in the outdoor enclosure at Chester Zoo, University of Chester Comparison of social behaviour between Columbian Spider Monkeys and Celebes Crested Macaques, Liverpool John Moores University Differences in social behaviours of captive male and female Crested Black Macaques, Liverpool John Moores University Differences in the frequency of vocalisations depending on the time of day in Humboldt Penguins, University of Chester Different factors that cause stress levels to change in chimpanzees at Chester Zoo, University of Chester Different housing conditions affect tiger behaviour, focusing at space utilisation, University of Chester Do African Painted Dogs anticipate feeding time?, University of Chester Do Buffy-headed Capuchins exhibit manual and tail lateralisation during daily activities?, University of Chester Do Chimpanzees understand goals and intentions?, University of Chester Do non-human primates have the ability to acquire language (Chimpanzee, Sumatran &, Bornean Orangutans)?, Nottingham Trent University Do varying numbers of visitors impact the behaviour of Rothschild Giraffes?, University of Chester Do visitors have an effect on giraffe behaviour, University of Chester Does enclosure design affect the behaviours exhibited in Asiatic Lions?, Wiltshire College Does felid activity levels have an effect on zoo visitor interest (Cheetah, Jaguar, Sumatran Tigers, Asiatic Lions, Serval), University of Chester Does grooming high status individuals help provide support during agonistic encounters (Chimpanzees)?, Liverpool John Moores University Does maladaptive behaviour occur in captive, zoo-living Chimpanzees and is the behaviour influenced by visitor numbers present?, Liverpool John Moores University Does the behaviour and location of the Lion-tailed Macaques change during different visitor densities?, University of Chester Does the British weather have an effect on the behaviour of Asian Elephants?, University of Chester Does the number of visitors to an animal s enclosure affect the animal s behaviour (Cheetah)?, Liverpool John Moores University Does the proximity of the Alpha female have an effect on the behaviours of the male African Painted Dogs?, Liverpool John Moores University Does the size of an animal s natural home range in the wild encourage stereotypical behaviours when in captivity? (species studied: Cheetahs, Asiatic Lions), Liverpool John Moores University Does vigilance increase in Pekin Robins in visiting time compared with non-visiting?, University of Chester Does visitor density affect the behaviour of zoo-housed Meerkats?, University of Chester Effects of zoo visitor density on activity pattern and enclosure use in captive Cheetahs, University of Chester Enclosure utilisation of captive black rhinoceros, University of Chester 38

39 Facial expressions in Lion-tailed Macaques, University of Chester Feeding behaviour of two hypercarnivore dogs in captivity: the Bush Dog and the African Painted Dog, Liverpool John Moores University Flamingo social behaviour, Bangor University How different species of primates use facial expressions and body language to express different behaviours in order to determine whether they could be housed together in a mixed species exhibit (Columbian Spider Monkeys, Howler Monkeys, Sumatran Orangutans, Ring-tailed Lemurs, Geoffroy s Marmosets), University of Chester How does Ring-tailed lemur behaviour differ in single and multiple lemur species groups?, Bishop Burton College How is social interaction behaviour affected in Asian Elephants of different ages in relation to feeding times?, Liverpool John Moores University How the zoo environment affects the behaviour of Spider Monkeys, Liverpool John Moores University How visitor numbers effect the behaviour of Chimpanzees, University of Chester Impact of visitors on behaviour of Bush Dogs, University of Chester Investigations intro fungal substrate preferences and fungus growth in Leafcutter ants (Atta cephalaotes) at Chester zoo, University of Chester Mapping social relationships in flamingos to aid in furthering captive husbandry techniques; also looking into laterality in flamingos and aggression, Bangor University Music technology: location recording, Glyndŵr University Observation of interaction of animals and visitors from point of view of education, Charles University, Prague Patterns of social grooming in captive Buffy-headed Capuchins and Western Chimpanzee groups, University of Liverpool Photography (PH3012 Independent Practice), University of Central Lancashire Sex differences in play and social behaviour of captive Mandrill juveniles, Liverpool John Moores University Social interactions between Liontailed Macaques at Chester Zoo, University of Chester Social interactions within a captive pack of African Painted Dogs, University of Chester Space utilisation and behaviour of Chimpanzees at Chester Zoo, University of Chester Temporal and spatial variation in the behaviour of captive Meerkats, Liverpool John Moores University Testing the stress reduction by grooming others hypothesis (Lion-tailed Macaques), Manchester Metropolitan University The comparison of behaviours in captive African Painted Dogs when presented with a carcass feed or a meat/muscle feed, University of Chester The diversity of locomotor patterns in captive Chimpanzees, University of Sheffield The effect of pack structure on social interactions in captive African Painted Dogs, University of Chester The effect of visitor density in the behaviour of captive Mandrills, University of Chester The effect of zoo visitors on the behaviour of the Humboldt Penguins, University of Chester The effect on the number of zoo visitors on the behaviour of Lion-tailed Macaques at Chester Zoo, University of Chester The effects of visitor density on Chimpanzees behaviour, University of Chester The effects of weather conditions on behaviour and enclosure use in the Humboldt Penguins, University of Chester The influence of group size and dynamics on two groups of captive Chimpanzees behaviour, University of Chester The influence of visitor numbers in relation to facial expressions presented by chimpanzees, University of Chester The level of aggression in a group of captive Mandrills, University of Chester The social complexities within Asian Elephants in captivity, University of Chester The visitor effect on Chimpanzees: the influence of the subject s age, University of Chester Vigilance in Meerkats, Liverpool John Moores University Visitor effect on behaviour & enclosure use of Eastern Bongo, University of Chester Visitor effect on captive Sumatran Orangutan behaviour, University of Chester Visitor Effect on Chimpanzees, University of Chester Visitor effects on behavior and enclosure use in captive Giant Otters and Asian Short-clawed Otters, University of Chester Visitor effects on Cherry and Cumming s Barb behaviour, University of Chester Visitor effects on the behaviour of captive Asian Elephants, University of Chester Visitor effects on the behaviour of captive Mandrills at Chester Zoo, University of Chester Weather and its effects on behaviour of Tapirs in captivity, University of Chester Whether there is a genetic predisposition toward dominant handedness in spontaneous bimanual gestures and behaviours in Chimpanzees at Chester Zoo, University of Chester Zoo landscapes and layouts and their influence on human-animal interactions: comparing Chester Zoo and Blackbrook Zoological Park, University of Keele 39

40 Publications Akister, M. (2014). Social development of juvenile mandrills [BSc Dissertation]: University of Chester. Antwis, R. E., Garcia, G., Fidgett, A. L., & Preziosi, R. F. (2014). Tagging frogs with passive integrated transponders causes disruption of the cutaneous bacterial community and proliferation of opportunistic fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 80(15), Antwis, R. E., Haworth, R. L., Engelmoer, D. J., Ogilvy, V., Fidgett, A. L., & Preziosi, R. F. (2014). Ex situ diet influences the bacterial community associated with the skin of red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas). PLoS One, 9(1), e Antwis, R. E., Preziosi, R. F., & Fidgett, A. L. (2014). The effect of different UV and calcium provisioning on health and fitness traits of redeyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidrays). Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 2(3), Antwis, R. E., Preziosi, R. F., & Fidgett, A. L. (2014). The influence of diet and lighting on fitness related traits and cutaneous skin bacteria in anurans. Paper presented at the 10th Comparative Nutrition Society Symposium, USA. August Antwis, R. E., Purcell, R. S., Walker, S. L., Fidgett, A. L., & Preziosi, R. F. (2014). Effects of visible implanted elastomer marking on physiological traits of frogs. Conservation Physiology, 2(1). doi: / comphys/cou042 Barlow, C. J. (2014). Variation in captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behaviour between enclosure type and the effects of visitor presence at Chester Zoological Gardens [BSc dissertation]. Chester: University of Chester. Boyle, R. (2014). Evaluation of heat provision for effective thermoregulation in four species of reptiles at Chester Zoo (Komodo dragons, Galapagos tortoises and red tailed racers) [BSc Dissertation]: Harper Adams University. Boyle, R., Fidgett, A. L., & Baker, B. (2014). Hot enough? Evaluation of heat provision for effective thermoregulation in three species of reptiles at Chester Zoo (Komodo dragons, Galapagos tortoises and red tailed racers) Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Campbell, E., Purcell, R. S., Liddicoat, T., & Walker, S. L. (2014). Development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of ovarian activity in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Chadwick, C. (2014). Social behaviour and personality assessment as a tool for improving the management of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity [PhD Thesis] University of Salford. Contreras MacBeath, T., Rodriguez, M. B., Sorani, V., Goldspink, C., & McGregor-Reid, G. (2014). Richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6(2), Davis, N. (2014). The introduction of new male into an established group of zoo-housed spider monkeys. Paper presented at the Primate Welfare Symposium, Chester Zoo. November Davis, N., & Helm, C. (2014). Zoo Design Principles. Paper presented at the ABWAK Enclosure Design Workshop, Chester Zoo. July Dove, V., French, N., Grillo, T., Holyoake, C., Jakob-Hoff, R., Kock, R., Langstaff, I., Lees, C., MacDiarmid, S., McInnes, K., Miller, P., Murray, N., Reiss, A., Rideout, B., Siah, S., Skerratt, L., Tompkins, D., Travis, D., Unwin, S., van Andel, M., Vitali, S., & Warren, K. (2014). Manual of Procedures for Wildlife Disease Risk Analysis (pp. 160). Paris. In association with IUCN and SSC. Drake, G. J., Lopez, J., Edwards, L., Kolter, L., Cosgrove, S., & Nuttall, T. (2014). Early success using oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel ) to treat Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Congress of the ESVD-ECVD, Salzburg, Austria. September Drake, G. J., Lopez, J., Purcell, R. S., Lewis, N., Argo, C., Pettit, M., Matsun, T., Kelsall, A., Penfold, L., Schook, M., & Walker, S. L. (2014). A new conservation breeding tool - minimal intervention artificial insemination for wild equids. Paper presented at the BVZS Autumn meeting, Lancaster University/ Blackpool Zoo. November Edwards, K. L., McArthur, H. M., Liddicoat, T., & Walker, S. L. (2014). A practical field extraction method for non-invasive monitoring of hormone activity in the black rhinoceros. Conservation Physiology, 2, 1-8. Edwards, K. L., Shultz, S., Pilgrim, M., & Walker, S. L. (2014). Irregular ovarian activity, body condition and behavioural differences are associated with reproductive success in female eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). Gen Comp Endocrinol, In Press. doi: /j.ygcen Ehlers Smith, D. A. (2014). The effects of land-use policies on the conservation of Borneo's endemic Presbytis monkeys. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23(4), Esson, M. (2014). Innovation in public education - it's a risk! Paper presented at the 22nd Biennial 40

41 Conference of International Zoo Educators Association, Ocean Park, Hong Kong. September Esson, M., & Moss, A. (2014). Zoos as a context for reinforcing environmentally responsible behaviour: the dual challenges that zoo educators have set themselves. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 2(1), Esson, M., Moss, A., & Pitchford, L. (2014). The 'Thinking Big' Elephant Project. Journal of the International Association of Zoo Educators, 50, protect biodiversity in zoo and aquarium visitors. WAZA Magazine, 15, Hall, R. H. (2014). Evaluation of feeding behaviour of captive big cat species when fed diets of differing ease of consumption, including assessment of amount of bone consumed [BSc Dissertation]. Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University. Hilser, H. (2014). Macaca nigra - Bacan Island Expedition. End of Project Report NEZS - Chester Zoo. Indonesia: Selamatken Yaki. abiotrophy in two related lion-tailed macaques ( Macaca silenus ). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 150(1), 93. Masters, N., & Lopez, J. (2014). Practical management of EEHV for UK elephant collections. Paper presented at the BVZS Autumn meeting, Lancaster University/ Blackpool Zoo. November Matthews, N. (2014). Bovine tuberculosis and zoos - a badger vaccination programme at Chester Zoo BIAZA News (Vol. Autumn 2014, pp. 14). London: BIAZA. Fidgett, A. L. (2014). From ingredients to nutrients - the recipe for optimal parrot nutrition. Paper presented at the VIII International Parrot Convention, Loro Parque Fundacion, Tenerife. September Fidgett, A. L., & Gardner, L. (2014). Advancing avian nutrition through best feeding practice. [ / izy.12057]. International Zoo Yearbook, 48, Fidgett, A. L., & Walker, S. L. (2014). Chester's growing crash! The Horn Magazine (Spring 2014), 10. Garcia, G., Randrianantoandro, C., Griffiths, R., Razafimanahaka, J., Rakotondrasoa, E., Andriantsimanarilafy, R., Ralaiarimalala, S., Bungard, M., & Edwards, W. (2014. Challenges and opportunities for Malagasy amphibians: Golden Mantella Programme. Paper presented at the Amphibian Conservation Research Symposium. April Guarino, F. M., Garcia, G., & Andreone, F. (2014). Huge but moderately long-lived: age structure in the mountain chicken, Leptodactylus fallax, from Montserrat, West Indies. Herpetological Journal, 24(July 2014), Gusset, M., Moss, A., & Jensen, E. (2014). Biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help Hosey, G., Brunger, D., Formella, I., Ward, S., Melfi, V., & Hill, S. P. (2014). Do zoo visitors cause an increase in wounding aggression in captive chimpanzees and ring-tailed lemurs? Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Hough, L. (2014, 26/11/14). Controlled parent-rearing of waterfowl. Paper presented at the BIAZA Bird Working Group Annual Meeting, Hawk Conservancy, Andover, Hants. November Jakob-Hoff, R., MacDiarmid, S., Lees, C., Miller, P., Travis, D., Kock, R., Dove, V., French, N., Grillo, T., Holyoake, C., Langstaff, I., McInnes, K., Murray, N., Reiss, A., Rideout, B., Siah, S., Skerratt, L., Tompkins, D., Unwin, S., Van Andel, M., Vitali, S., & Warren, K. (2014). Manual of Procedures for Wildlife Disease Risk Analysis Published in association with the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the Species Survival Commission. Paris: World Organisation for Animal Health. Malbon, A. J., Ricci, E., Unwin, S., & Chantrey, J. (2014). Cerebellar abiotrophy in two related lion-tailed macaques ( Macaca silenus ). Paper presented at the ESVP/ECVP Proceedings. August Malbon, A. J., Ricci, E., Unwin, S., & Chantrey, J. (2014). Cerebellar McHale, M., Hutchinson, S., Rowlands, T., Roffe, S., & Bottell, L. (2014). Investigating paddock use and behaviour of Rothschild giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) at Chester Zoo Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July McLaren, C., Bottell, L., Nager, R., Owen, A., McLeod, W., & Fidgett, A. L. (2014, 01/07/14). Does flamingo behaviour and husbandry (prebreeding season) influence the quality of their offspring. Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Michaels, C. J., Antwis, R. E., & Preziosi, R. F. (2014). Manipulation of the calcium content of insectivore diets through supplementary dusting. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 2(3), Moss, A. (2014). The difficulties in measuring biodiversity-friendly behaviour change in zoo and aquarium visitors. Paper presented at the 8th International Zoo and Aquarium Marketing Conference, Bristol Zoo Gardens, Bristol. May Moss, A. (2014). Engagement: What does it look like and how do we measure it?. Paper presented at the BIAZA Annual Conference, Yorkshire 41

42 Wildlife Park. June 2014 Moss, A. (2014). Visitor Studies at the zoo: The long but worthwhile road to developing internal support. Paper presented at the Visitor Studies Group Annual Conference, London. July Moss, A., & Esson, M. (2014). Zoo Education: Outputs, outcomes and measuring the unexpected. WAZA Magazine, 15, 2-5. Moss, A., Jensen, E., & Gusset, M. (2014). Evaluating the contribution of zoos and aquariums to Aichi biodiversity target 1. Conservation Biology, doi: /cobi Moss, A., Jensen, E., & Gusset, M. (2014). A Global Evaluation of Biodiversity Literacy in Zoo and Aquarium Visitors. WAZA Executive Office: WAZA Executive Office. Moss, A., Jensen, E., & Gusset, M. (2014). What do zoo and aquarium visitors know about biodiversity?. WAZA News, 1+2(14), Moss, A., Jensen, E., & Gusset, M. (2014). Zoo visits boost biodiversity literacy. Nature, 508(186), 10 April 14. Neller, S. (2014). Housing the hornbill: a study of enclosure use [BSc Dissertation]. Chester: University of Chester. Nelson, E. (2014). The Effects Of Visitors On Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [BSc Dissertation]: University of Chester. Owen, A. (2014). EAZA European studbook for Sumatran (Black and White) Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor (Vol. 2). Chester: Chester Zoo. Owen, A. (2014). How important are off-show facilities to the success of our programmes? The Chester example. Paper presented at the Midyear meeting Birds TAG, Vogel Park Avifauna, Alphen a/j Rijn, The Netherlands. June Owen, A. (2014). Report on the threatened songbirds of Asia Working Group, including news from Cikananga Breeding Centre. Paper presented at the Mid-year meeting Birds TAG, Vogel Park Avifauna, Alphen a/j Rijn, The Netherlands. June Owen, A., Wilkinson, R., & Sozer, R. (2014). In situ conservation breeding and the role of zoological institutions and private breeders in the recovery of highly endangered Indonesian passerine birds. International Zoo Yearbook, 48, Pilgrim, M., & Biddle, R. (2014). EAZA Best Practice Guidelines Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Chester. Rose, C., Worsfold, H., Caskie, E., Hall, D., Rowlands, T., & Bottell, L. (2014). Who's top dog? A study of behaviour and paddock use of the African painted dog (Lycaon pictus) at Chester Zoo. Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Royle, C. (2014). The effects of visitor presence on the behavioural patterns of Sumatran orangutans [BSc Dissertation]. Chester: University of Chester. Sanderson, J., Young, A., Hodge, S., Kyabulima, S., Walker, S. L., & Cant, M. (2014). Hormonal mediation of a carry-over effect in a wild cooperative mammal. Functional Ecology, 28(6), Sandland, K. E. F., Treanor, A. P., Kidd, H., & Hill, S. P. (2014). Does the behaviour of lions and tigers change in relation to presenter talk events? Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Shave, R., Oxborough, D., Somauroo, J., Feltrer, Y., Strike, T., Routh, A., Chapman, S., Redrobe, S., Thompson, L., Unwin, S., Sayers, G., Murphy, H., Rapoport, G., & Stohr, E. (2014). Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and funding in great apes: a practical guide. International Zoo Yearbook, 48 (1), Sread, J., & Hill, S. P. (2014). Using research to help with management of the greater one-horned rhinoceros at Chester Zoo. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Stott, L. E. (2014). Individual Differences In Hand Preferences For Tool Use In Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [BSc Dissertation]: University of Chester. Sutherland, W. J., Aveling, R., Brooks, T. M., Clout, M., Dicks, L. V., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Gibbons, D. W., Keim, B., Lickorish, F., Monk, K. A., Mortimer, D., Peck, L. S., Pretty, J., Rockstrom, J., Rodriguez, J. P., Smith, R. K., Spalding, M. D., Tonneijck, F. H., & Watkinson, A. R. (2014). A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2014 [Contributing author: McGregor- Reid, G.]. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 29(1), Tahas, S., Timofte, D., Chantrey, J., & Lopez, J. (2014). Multiple mycobacterial infections in a zoo aquarium. Paper presented at the BVZS Spring Meeting 2014, Marwell Zoo, U.K. April Tahas, S., Timofte, D., Chantrey, J., & Lopez, J. (2014). Multiple mycobacterial infections in a zoo aquarium. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians, Warsaw, Poland. May Tapley, B., Rendle, M., Baines, F. M., Goetz, M., Bradfield, K. S., Rood, D., Lopez, J., Garcia, G., & Routh, A. (2014). Meeting ultraviolet B radiation requirements of amphibians in captivity: a case study with mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and general recommendations for pre -release health screening. Zoo Biology, 34(1),

43 Titchard, R. (2014). Individual and population level laterality in the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and the link with pair bonding [BSc dissertation]: Bangor University. Vercoe, M. (2014,). Grey Breasted Parakeet Pyrrhura griseipectus. Paper presented at the BIAZA Bird Working Group Annual Meeting, Hawk Conservancy, Andover, Hants. November Weise, F. J., Stratford, K. J., & van Vuuren, R. J. (2014). Financial costs of large carnivore translocations-accounting for conservation. PLoS One, 9(8), e doi: / journal.pone Otters (Aonyx cinerea) [BSc Dissertation]: University of Chester. Williams, E., Bremner-Harrison, S., Harvey, H., Evison, E., & Yon, L. (2014). A behavioural assessment of resting behaviour in captive Asian elephants. Paper presented at the 16th Annual BIAZA Research Symposium, Blair Drummond Safari Park, Stirling, Scotland. July Zimmermann, A. (2014). Jaguars and people: a range-wide analysis of human-wildlife conflict. [DPhil thesis], University of Oxford. Zimmermann, A. (2014, August 2014). Solutions for human-elephant conflict: lessons from Assam. Paper presented at the Asia Regional Weise, F. J., Wessels, W., Munro, S., Conference of the Society for & Solberg, M. (2014). Using artificial Conservation Biology, Melaka, passageways to facilitate the Malaysia. movement of wildlife on Namibian Zimmermann, A. (2014, May 2014). farmland. South African Journal of The state of knowledge about humanwildlife Research, 44(2), jaguar conflicts: a synthesis of expert White, D. (2014). Rodrigues fruit bat opinion, empirical research and a spatial model of conflict hotspots. (Pteropus rodricensis) species update. Paper presented at the EAZA Paper presented at the International Symposium on Wild Cats Small Mammal TAG, Budapest. Conservation, Costa Rica. September Wickett, G. (2014). Visitor Effects On Behaviour & Enclosure Use In Captive Giant Otters ( Pteronura brasiliensis ) & Asian Short-clawed 43

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