DAIRY FARMING. Sagarika Borah and Tanmay Samajdar

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1 Vaccination Schedule for the cattle FMD HS BQ Brucellosis (Never in bull and male calves) Anthrax Tuberculosis Vaccine Revaccination Raksha FMD Raksha HS Raksha BQ Strain- 19,living vaccine Living spore vaccine B.C.G vaccine Dose and Route 2ml,S/c 4 2ml,S/c 6 2ml,S/c 6 5ml,S/c 6-8 1ml,S/c 6 1ml,S/c 6 Name of the disease Primary vaccination Every 6 Every year Every year Every year. In outbreak also it can be ml,s/c Every year Every 2 years DAIRY FARMING Sagarika Borah and Tanmay Samajdar Published by The Director, ICAR RC for NEH Region, Umiam, Umroi Road, Meghalaya, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tura ICAR RC for NEH Region Sangsanggre, West Garo Hills Meghalaya Ph (O) Year: 2015

2 Introduction India has been the largest milk producing country in the world since 1997 and the recently announced data for reiterated the strong position of the country in the global market. Growing by 5.01 per cent over , India remained the largest milk producing country in the world at Albendazole- 5-7mg/kg B.wt. (Single dose) in empty stomach. It is available in market as albendazole bolus, susp; albomar susp, bolus; etc Febendazole- 5-7mg/kg B.wt. (Single dose) in empty stomach. Available in market as Febendazole bolus, panacur tablets, fentas bolus etc.generally it is used in pregnant cows million tonnes as per last available data ( ). In Meghalaya per capita availability of milk is only 83 gm/day ( ) which is far below the world average of 285gm/day and also the minimum nutritional requirement of Against external parasites (Flies, lice etc) drugs to be used are Butox solution (Deltamethrin) Cyprol (Cypermethrin) 280gm/day as recommended by the ICMR. The total milk production of whole Meghalaya was thousand tonnes Lorexane spray, D Mag spray (Gamma Benzene Hexachloride and Proflavine hemisulphate with Cetramide) in , where as in West Garo Hills total milk production was only thousand tones ( ). NEH region with a total cattle and buffalo population of million and 0.96 million respectively could not so far take the advantage Ivermectin injection (200mcg/kg body weight) Vaccination Vaccination should be done against the diseases like of dairy sector. The insignificant growth in dairy sector in our region is basically due to limited involvement of tribal population in milk production. Due to increase demand of milk as a wholesome food item for all, dairy sector is booming now as an income generating activity for our poor farmers and rural youths. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) Black quarter (BQ) Anthrax Brucellosis Tuberculosis 2 11

3 a day in limited quantity. Otherwise it develops calf scour. Health Care The following points should be considered to keep the animals safe and healthy. Proper cleaning and disinfection of the cow shed. Proper disposal of manure, feed wastes and other excreta away from the shed. Proper disposal of carcasses. Segregating the sick animals. Adequate ventilation and light inside the shed. Proper nutrition. Routine programme of deworming. Control of lice and flies. Vaccination programme against some diseases. Deworming In calves deworming should be done once in a month from first month to sixth. After then it should be done once in every three interval. In pregnant cows it is better to done deworming in 5 or 7 pregnancy period. Against internal parasites drugs to be used are A successful dairy farming needsa. Rearing of good variety of cows b. Proper Housing c. Breeding d. Feeding e. Health Care Rearing of good variety of cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey are two good breeds of cattle to be reared for higher milk production. Over the years it has been experienced that Holstein Friesian breed and their crosses are suitable for high altitude areas while Jersey and their crosses for foothills of the region. One Jersey cow produces 12 to 15 lits of milk per day where as Holstein Friesian cow produces 15 to 20 lits of milk per day. Selection of breed should be done on the basis of milk production, persistency of milk production, age at maturity, temperament, adaptability, age at first calving, calving interval, average lactation yield and average lactation length. Housing Proper housing is an important factor to produce quality milk and to keep the animals disease free. In our region it is mostly neglected with the practice of housing in unhygienic areas and dumping the dung etc. close to the shed making the entire environment prone to the diseases and 10 3

4 parasitic attack. ses and lukewarm water for drinking specially in winter. a. The shed should be dry, sanitary and well ventilated and can protect from cold, heat and winds. Calcium suspension should be given along with concentrate feed to avoid milk fever. b. The shed can be made up of locally available materials like wooden plank, big bamboos,thatch,tin etc c. Direction of the shed should be north-south d. Floor Space requirement (sq ft per animal) Cattle Covered Open Manger length Cows Young stock Pregnant cows Bull It should be ascertained that the placenta is dropped within 4-6 hrs after calving. If placenta is not discharged within 8 hrs the condition is called retention of placenta. In that case farmers should call the Veterinary Doctor.( Exapar or Uterotone or Replanta can be given). Cows again should be bred only after days of parturition. That is, a sexual rest for this period is necessary after parturition to allow the time for the reproductive system to prepare for the next conception and pregnancy. Care of new born calf e. Roof- A height of 8 ft at the sides and 15ft at the ridge will be sufficient to give the necessary air space to the cows. Breeding On an average, the indigenous cattle in the region produce 1.22 liters per day against 6.27 liters per day by the crossbred cows. So crossing of indigenous cattle with superior bulls resulted in increased milk production capacity of the offspring. The age of maturity of dairy cattle varies be- Immediately after birth, mucous from nostrils and mouth of the calf has to be cleaned to facilitate free breathing. Naval cord should be cut leaving at least 4cm from the body with sterilized blade or scissor and put tincture iodine. Colostrum must be fed (1/10 th of the B.Wt) within half an hour after birth. It gives immunity against the different diseases in the calves. Always avoid overfeeding. It is better to feed 2-3 times in 4 9

5 Feeding of mineral mixture is essential to avoid the deficiency diseases and to increase the breeding efficiency. Adding of calcium suspension (OstoVet/Calshakti) along with vitamin A (Vimeral) in the feed increases milk production in milking cows tween breeds. Generally indigenous breeds get maturity at 30 to 36, exotic at 18 to 24 and crossbred at 24 to 30. Before giving service to heifer, her body weight, health and age should be kept in mind. Service should be given when the animal is in proper body condition and age. Care and management of dry and pregnant cows Drying off the pregnant cows Milking has to be stopped 50 to 60 days before expected date of calving. Cows can be dried off by 3 methods- complete cessation of milking, intermittent milking, and incomplete milking. If the cow gives less than 5 lits of milk per day, complete cessation method can be followed. But in high yielding cows, intermittent milking or incomplete milking method for drying off cows can be followed. Drying off the pregnant cows is very important to get more milk in the next lactation. Steaming up/ Flushing- the feeding of concentrate mixture should be increased 15 days before the calving. Care during and after calving The pregnant cow should be transferred to a dry, calm, quite, comfortable, well-ventilated and well bedded spacious place and watch for parturition sign. Normally second heat is the best time for breeding in case of heifer. Artificial Insemination (A.I) plays an important role in propagation of crossbred cattle. For doing A.I., detection of heat and time of service are the two important points. Symptoms of heat are: a. Restlessness or excitement b. Less appetite c. Frequent bellowing d. Mounting on other cows e. Mucus discharge from vulva and swelling of vulva lips f. Frequent urination g. Licking of other cows Constant watch of the pregnant cow is needed. Special care has to be taken for feeding just after calving. Cows should be given moistened bran with molas- 8 A cow usually remains in heat for 18 to 24 hrs and the best time for doing A.I. is 12 to 18 hrs from the onset of heat. Cows first seen in heat in the morning should be inseminated 5

6 in the evening and those first observed in heat in the evening should be inseminated in the next morning. If the service is successful or the animal is conceived, the animal will not come to heat again. Pregnancy diagnosis can be done as early as 30 days after conception with the help of expert veterinarian. The gestation period of cattle is 280 days. Feeding Feeding is the most important part of a successful dairy farming. Feeding stuffs for the animals can be divided as roughages, concentrate mixture and additives. dient of animal diet. Feeding of green grasses like Para, Napier, Guinea, Stylo, subabool etc provide the animals the essential vitamins and minerals required by them. Feed requirement of different categories of dairy animals (Kg per animal per day) Type of feed 400 kg body wt cow producing 8 to10 lits milk per day Pregnant cows (400 Kg body wt) Growing Calf Green fodder Dry roughage In dairy sector green roughages constitute the major ingre- Concentrate mixture 2.5to per lit of milk produced Fresh drinking water must be made available at all the times Composition of concentrate mixture (In 100 kg) Ingredients Quantity (Kg) Maize 47 Wheat bran 30 Mustard oil cake 20 Mineral mixture 2 Salt 1 Total