QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SHEEP MUTTON PRODUCTION WITH THE HELP OF MOLECULAR MARKER AND GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGY : A REVIEW

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1 Bhartiya Krishi Anushandhan Patrika, 31(4), , 2016 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SHEEP MUTTON PRODUCTION WITH THE HELP OF MOLECULAR MARKER AND GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGY : A REVIEW Satish Kumar, Amar Singh Meena, Basanti Jyotsana, Rajiv Kumar and S. M. K. Naqvi Animal Biotechnology Section, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avika Nagar, Malpura (Rajasthan) ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to provide future prospects of molecular markers and genome editing technology in the mutton production. In the country presently, Indian populations food habit are changing day by day and people are shifting towards non-vegetarian diet. The availability of the meat for human consumption is very less according to daily minimum requirement. With the help of the molecular markers in

2 286 sheep breeding programme the per animal availability of meat can be increased with same input without any additional loss of natural resources. The fecundity gene which is playing major role in prolificacy identified in Garole and Kendrapada sheep breeds. This gene is introgressed in the other non-prolific sheep breeds in India like Deccani and Malpura. After introgression of the fecundity gene and new born lambs in prolific sheep are selected on the basis of molecular marker at the time of birth. Due to fecundity gene the chance for two, three or four lambs in single lambing increases as compared to their native breeds. This leads to quantitative improvement of the mutton production in sheep. In modern lifestyle diseases are emerging as a big threat to human being in India and world. There are several non-communicable diseases like diabetes, obesity, hypertension and hypotension, cancer and mental stress increasing tremendously. By the interventions in the food habitats in daily life, the modern life style diseases in human being can be controlled delaye with the help of the genome editing technology in sheep, quality of the mutton is improved. The incorporation of the omega-3 fatty acids synthesis gene and knockdown of myostatin gene in sheep has improved the quality of sheep mutton. Presently, several livestock based products quality modifications according to human need based research is in progress in various institution in India. (ICMR) (Wool) (Molecular Marker) Editing) (Mutton) (Genome

3 287 (Awassi) (ICAR) (Transfer) (Prolific) (Flock) (Heterozygote) (Homozygote) (FecB) (Litter size) (Booroola fecundity gene) (Back-Cross) (NBAGR) (Non-Prolific) (Breeds)

4 288 (Lifestyle) (Multiple purpose) (FecB) (NonCommunicable diseases) (SNP) (Transgenic Animal) (Out of Season breeding)

5 289 (Cloning) (Deep Sea Fish) (Existence) (RNA interference) (Texel) (Genome editing) (ZFN) (TALEAN) (CRISPER/Cas9) (Value added products)

6 290 Anonymous (2016). ICAR-CSWRI Vision document, (2050) of ICAR-CSWRI Annual Report (201112, and ). Davis, G.H., Galloway, S.M., Ross, I.K., Gregan, S.C., Ward, J., Nimbkar, B.V., Ghalsasi, P.M., Nimbkar, C., Douglas Gray, G., Subandriyo, Inounu, I., Tiesnamurti, B., Martyniuk, E., Eythorsdottir, E., Mulsant, P., Lecer, F., Hanrahan, J.P., Eric Bradford, G., Wilson, T (2002). DNA tests in prolific sheep from eight countries provide new evidence on origin of the Booroola (FecB) mutation. Biol. Reprod. 66: (Malnutrition) Davis, G..H. (2004). Fecundity genes in sheep.anim. Reprod. Sci : (Resources) (Conservation) Hu, S., Ni, W., Sai, W., Zi, H., Qiao, J., and Wang, P. (2013) Knockdown of Myostatin Expression by RNAi Enhances Muscle Growth in Transgenic Sheep. Plos One 8(3): Kumar, S., Kolte, A.P., Mishra, A.K., Arora, A.L., Singh, V. K. (2016). Identification of the FecB gene mutation in Garole??Malpura sheep and its effect on litter size. Small Rumin. Res. 64: Kumar S., Mishra, A.K., Kolte, A.P., Dash, S.K. and Karim, S.A. (2008). Screening for Booroola (FecB) and Galway (FecX G) mutations in Indian sheep. Small Ruminant Research 80 (1), Kumar, S., Mishra, A.K., Kolte, A.P., Arora, A.L., Singh, D. and Singh, V.K. (2008). Effects of the Booroola (FecB) genotypes on growth performance, ewe s productivity efficiency and litter size in Garole Malpura sheep. Animal Reproduction Science 105 (3), Kumar, D. ; Joshi, A. ; Naqvi, S.M.K. ; Kumar, S. ; Mishra, A.K. ; Maurya, V.P. ; Arora, A.L. ; Mittal, J.P. and Singh V.K. (2007). Sperm motion characteristics of Garole X Malpura sheep evolved in semi-arid tropical environment through introgression of FecB gene. Animal Reproduction Science 100:

7 291 Meena, A.S., Kumar, S., Kumar, R., Jyotsana, B. and Naqvi, S.M.K. (2016). Production of desired livestock by sperm sorting technology: A review. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika, 31(2): Meena, A.S., Kumar, R., Kumari, R., Jyotsana, B., Prince, L.L.L. and Kumar, S. (2013). Genetic polymorphism of melatonin receptor 1A gene (MTNR1A) in Indian sheep breeds. Indian Journal of Animal Science. 83(12): Meena, A.S., Kumar, R., Kumarim R., Jyotsana, B., Prince, L.L.L. and Kumar, S. (2016). Aromatase gene polymorphism in native sheep breeds of India. The Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 22(2): Mishra, A.K. ; Arora, A.L. ; Kumar, S. and Prince, L.L.L. (2009). Studies on effect of Booroola (FecB) genotype on lifetime ewe s productivity efficiency, litter size and number of weaned lambs in Garole x Malpura sheep. Animal Reproduction Science 11: Naqvi, S.M.K. ; Joshi, A. ; Gulyani, R. ; Kumar, D.; Kolte, A.P. ; Kumar, S. ; Maurya, V.P., Saha, S. and Mittal, J.P. (2006). Production of prolific microsheep from large size non-prolific sheep through embryo transfer. The Veterinary Record 159: Saxena, V.K. ; Jha, B.K. ; Meena, A.S. ; Narula, H.K.; Kumar, D. and Naqvi, S.M.K. (2015). Characterization of MTNR1A gene in term of genetic variability in a penal of sub-temperate and subtropical Indian sheep breeds. Journal of genetics. 94 (4) : Zhang, P. ; Liu, P. ; Dou, H. ; Chen, L. and Chen, L. (2013). Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Plos One 8(2):

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