REVIEW ARTICLE. Banerjee B., Banerjee T. RKDF College of Pharmacy, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal (M.P.)

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1 REVIEW ARTICLE Medicinal Uses of Chenopodium album Linn.: A Review. Banerjee B., Banerjee T. RKDF College of Pharmacy, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal (M.P.) Abstract:- The review includes 20 references on Chenopodium album and comprises Ethanopharmacology, Microscopy, Morphology, phytoconstituents, pharmacological studies and safety profile of the plant. Alkaloids, phytosterols, Flavonoids, Essential oil, Mineral matter, Albuminoids, Nitrogen and Saponins constituent major classes of phytoconstituents of chenopodium album Linn. The leaves of plant have a long traditional used in the treatment of digestive, peptic ulcer and hepatic disorder. Key words:- Chenopodium album, phytochemicals, pharmacological activity and Flavonoids. Introduction:- Chenopodium, one of the smallest genus in the family Chenopodiaceae. Chenopodium encompasses 120 Species. It found throughout North America, Norten East, India and Europe. The genus is represented by 6 species in the flora of North America. It is an important food crop and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical countries, is widely used like food and folk medicine around of the world. There are a no. of different species are used in all over the world 1-2. Morphology and Microscopy 3-8 :- Leaves:- The leaves which are about 10 cm. long and merely white on the undersides; Leaves are petiolate, ovate-rhombic, wedge shaped at the base, Margins irregularly serrate to entire. At the night the young leaves become erect. 49

2 Stems:-The stems are erect, from a woody base, much branched with spreading, branches which are smooth or with rounded hair, veined and angular. Stems often red due to anthocyanin Pigment. Flowers: - The flowers are greenish yellow in colors. The flowers are arranged in a indeterminate, glomerules, cymose and usually densely crowded pattern. Fruits:- The fruits are smooth nearly kidney shaped, larger then the Calyx and enclosed by the calyx. Seeds:- Seeds superior, enclosed by Membranous pericarp which is easily detached orbicular convex on both sides. Majority of the seed black and shining. Phytoconstituents 9 :- The extract of Chenopodium album Linn. f petroleum ether, benzene chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract was evaluated and the show positive result for alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols and flavonoids. It mainly contain two flavonoids are kampferol and quercetin. H Quercetin 50

3 H Kaempferol The leaves of chenopodium album are rich in essential oil mineral matter particularly in potash salts and a considerable amount of albuminoids and another components of Nitrogen. The roots of Chenopodium album contain saponin. Two new compound (1,2) and 16 Apocarotenoids (3-18) were isolated from the weed chenopodium album the structure of new apocarotenoids were determined to be (3R,6R,7E,11E) 3-hydroxy-13apo-alpha-caroten-13-one(1) and (6S,7E,9E,11E)-3-oxo- 13apo-alpha-caroten-13-one(2) by spectroscopic NMR and MS analysis. Pharmacological activities The literature reveals the Chenopodium album Linn. Has been exhaustively explored for its pharmacological activities. Anthelmintic activity:- Chenopodium album Linn. possess anthelmintic activity against trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep by causing morality of worms and inhibition of egg hatching. Chenopodium album was found to be (LC 50 = 0.499mg/ml) in egg hatch test. In vivo maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was recorded as 82.2% with Chenopodium album AME at 3.0g/kg on day 5 post treatment. Levamisole (7.5mg/kg) a standard anthelmintic agent showed % reduction in EPG

4 Antipruritic and Antinociceptive activity:-the ethanoloic extract from the fruits of Chenopodium album linn. (FCAL). rally administered at doses of mg/kg, dose dependently inhibited scratching behavior induced by 5-HT (10ug per mouse, S.C) 11. Sperm cell death activity:-the study was conducted for explore the plausible pathway of Chenopodium album seed extract (CAE) mediated sperm cell death. CAE induced sperm cell death is due to lipid peroxidation of the spermcell membrane, oxidation of intracellular reduced gluthathione, indicating production of RS; activation of Mn-SD activity of catalase favoring endogenous accumulation of H(2)(2); generation of (2)(+,-) at by increased Mn-SD activity and protein expression; accumulation of RS in spermatozoa reflected in the fluorimetric experiments and increased production of (2)(+-) and H(2)(2) induced apoptosis like death in sperm cell as observed by DNA ladder formation. The sperm death mediated by CAE is due to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules by in situ 12. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity:- Free radicals such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl nitric oxide radicals cause degenerative human disease such as cancer, heart disease and cerebrovascular components delay or inhibit lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the initiation or propagation of oxidizing chain reactions and are also involved in scavenging free radicals 13. Assessment of Hypolipidemic potential of Chenopodium album Linn. :- Hyperlipidemia, including Hypercholesterolemia and Hypertriglyceridemia, is major risk factor for the development of Cardiovascular disease. The results suggest the consumption of Chenopodium album Linn. Can be linked to a reduction in the risk of Cardiovascular disease 14. Sperm Immobilizing activity:- Chenopodium album possesses appreciable spermicidal potential which may be explored as an effector constitute of vaginal contraceptive 15. Inhibition of mineralization of urinary stone:- The inhibition efficacy was studied increased intake of fruits juice and seed extract of Chenopodium album would be helpful in urinary stone prophylaxis

5 Phytochemistry of Chenopodium album:- Saponins from Chenopodium album:-seven cinnamic acid amides have been isolated from chenopodium album. The structure have been attributed by means of their spectral data one of them N-trans-4-o-methylferuloyl-4-o-methyl dopamine. Phytoconstituents from the leaves of Chenopodium album:-fractionation of crude petroleum ether extract of the leaves of the chenopodium album lead to the isolation of B- sitosterol (1), lupeol (2) and 3 hydroxy nonadeecyl henicosanoate 17. Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, zeaxanthine formation and light scattering in tact leaves of triazine susceptible Chenopodium album plants:-the tiazine-resistant biotype of chenopodium album has an impaired activity of photosystemii. In vivo, this leads to a higher sensitivity to photoinhibition, especially when the plants have been grown at a high irradiance 18. Stereochemical studies on ascaulitoxin;-the J-based NMR configurationally analysis was applied to the determination of relative stereochemistry of the ascaulitoxin molecule a phtotoxic metabolite with herbicide activity against Chenopodium album. This is method is particularly suitable for acyclic structure containing hydroxyl groups, besides 3J H, 3J C and 2J CH values can also be used to extract additional angular information 19. Ascaridole and related peroxidase from the genus Chenopodium:- The result on Ascaridol and the major volatiles and semi volatiles of wild species belonging to the genus Chenopodium provide important information on biologically active monoterpenoid compounds and volatile metabolities biosynthesized in wild medicinal plants growing in the East Mediterranean 20. Safety profile:- This plant is edible and not having any toxicity. 53

6 References:- 1. Ahmed A, Elmazar MMA. Isolation of Hypotensive Flavonoids from Chenopodium species Growing Egypt. Phytotherapy research 1997; 2: Kirtikar KR, and Basu BD. Indian Medicinal plants. 2 nd edition Plates seriesm/s Bishwas singh N.P singh, Dehardun, 1976; Yadav N, Vasudeva N, Singh S, Sharma KS. Medicinal Properties of genus Chenopodium Linn. Natural Product Radiance 2007; 6(2): Chenopodium album-bathua available at Chenopodium album available at album. 6. Nadkarani KM, Nadkarani AK. Indian Materia Medica. Bombay Popular Prakashan; , Chenopodium album Linn. Available at 8. Plant profile for Chenopodium album Linn. Available at 9. Marica MS, Jasprica I, Asjs SB. ptimization of Chromatographic conditions in thin layer chromatography of flavonoids and phenolic acids.croatica Chemica Acta 2004; 77 (1-2): Jabbar A, Zaman AM, Iqbal Z,Shamim A. Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium Album L. against trichostrongylid nemotodes of sheep. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 2007; 114: Wang TZ, Kubo M, But HPPH. Antipyretic and Antinociceptive effect of Chenopodium album Linn. In mice. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 2002; 81: Kumar S, Chatterjee R, and Banerjee S. Chenopodium album Linn seed extractinduced sperm cell death exploration of a plausible pathway. Contraception 2008; (6): Kumar S, Kumar D. African Journal of food. Agriculture Nutrition and development Patil UK, Saraf S, Singh P. Assessment of Hypolipidemic potential of chenopodium album linn on triton induced Hyperlipidimic rats. Reaserch Journal of Pharmacy. And Tech 2010; 3 (1):

7 15. kumar S, Biswas etal. Chenopodium seed extract: a potent sperm immobilizing agent in both in vitro and in vivo. Contraception 2007; 75: Mohamed NA, Mozhiyarasi P, Nalinir R. Inhibition of mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals by medicinal plants. E Journal of Chemistry 2006; 3(12): Available at Jhade D, Gavani U. Isolation of phytoconstituents from the leaves of Chenopodium album Linn. Journal of Pharmacy research 2009; 2(7): Available at Curwiel VB, Jack JS and Ransen V. Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, Zeaxanthin formation and light sacattering in intact leaves of triazine-resistant and triazinesuceesptible Chenopodium album Linn. plants. Journal of photocemistry B. Biology 1996; 35: Bassarello C, Bifulco G, Gomez-Paloma L. Stereochemical studies on ascaulitosin a J- based NMR configurational analysis of a nitrogen substituted system Tetrahedron Letters 2001;42: Valery D, Ilya S, Lumir H. Ascaridole and related peroxides from the genus Chenopodium. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky lomouc Czech Repub. 152(2):