2 Page 2 of 22 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION General Information on Reptile and Amphibian Fauna of Western and Central Macedonia Main Legislative Issues Scope of Work Features on which the Fieldwork was Focused 5 2 METHODOLOGY Sampling Methodology Study Sites Limitations Uncertainties - Biases 9 3 RESULTS Testudo Abundance along the Route Confirmed Amphibian and Reptilian Species Presence along the Route Other Important Reptilian and Amphibian Species within the Project 21 4 CONCLUSIONS Key Habitats and Species within the Study 22 LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 Sampling Locations 7 Table 3-1 Amphibian and reptilian species presence in the Study 13
3 Page 3 of 22 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Information on Reptile and Amphibian Fauna of Western and Central Macedonia Central and Western Macedonia is an area of mountains and freshwater habitats, encompassing ecosystems typical of the Balkans and central Europe, such as alpine areas with dense conifer and deciduous forests, open woodlands and meadows, flat areas with low vegetation and cultivated agricultural lands. On the other hand Mediterranean habitats such as maquis and phrygana are common as well. The main ecological feature that makes Macedonia distinct from the rest of Greece is the high presence of freshwater bodies, from large rivers to rivulets and from lakes to tiny ponds. This rich, in terms of diversity, landscape, hosts a numerous herpetofauna, including all reptilian and amphibian families that are present in Europe. The herpetofauna of Macedonia comprises many species that are related to high humidity ecosystems (e.g. the green lizard, Lacerta viridis). Thanks to the abundance of such humid habitats that support lush vegetation, species that are widespread around the country, like the Balkan green lizard (Lacerta trilineata) or the Caspian whip snake (Dolichopis caspius), occur in denser populations. Especially for amphibians, Macedonia harbors the highest number of taxa in Greece with 13 out of 23 species present in the country (Arnold, 2004). However no Macedonian endemic species has been described, despite the many species that are present in the area. The main reason for this lack of endemism is the minimal level of isolation and the geomorphologic continuity with the rest of the Balkans. Macedonian herpetofauna includes 14 snakes, 11 lizards, 5 turtles, 9 anurans and 3 urodelan amphibians (Böhme et al., 1981; Chondropoulos, 1986; 1989). A biogeographical rarity that has to be mentioned is the occurrence of the introduced Roughtail Rock Agama (Laudakia stellio) in the area around Thessaloniki. Despite this species shows a wide distribution in Middle East, its Greek populations are the sole ones in Europe (Gasc et al., 1997).
4 Page 4 of Main Legislative Issues Most Greek reptile species are protected within the National Legislation via the Presidential Decree (PD) 67/1981 (Government Gazette 23/Α/ ) for the indigenous flora and fauna of the country. The PD prohibits killing, causing injury, capturing, collection, commerce and transportation of all species included in its catalogue. However, the PD is already 30 years old and has not been revised to include new species or taxonomic changes that have been accepted during this period. Additionally its implementation is vague since the necessary measures it provides for have never been detailed. Some reptile species are recognized as species of Community Interest and are thus included in the Annexes of the habitats 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Regarding species that are expected to be found within the study area, the Annex II species of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation, include all terrestrial tortoises (Testudo graeca, Testudo hermanni), the Leopard snake (Zamenis situlus), the four-lined snake (Elaphe quatorlineata), the former Triturus species, the yellow bellied toad (Bombina variegata). The Annex IV species of community interest in need of strict protection also include a number of Greek reptile and amphibian species. Finally both Testudinidae species expected along the route (Testudo graeca and Testudo hermanni) are included in the Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) as species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. Regarding international conventions and agreements, all Greek reptile and amphibian species are included in the Bern Convention of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Most of them are included in Appendix II as strictly protected fauna species and all the rest in Appendix III. For species included in the, the collection, keeping in captivity, killing, damage to or destruction of breeding or resting sites, destruction or collection of eggs, disturbance, especially during the reproduction period, possession or commerce of live or dead specimens are strictly prohibited. From the amphibian and reptile species expected along the route only one has been assessed within an IUCN threat category. Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is listed as
5 Page 5 of 22 Vulnerable because, despite its wide distribution, it faces a broad range of threats and most populations are declining (Legakis & Maragou, 2010). Enforcement of both national and EU legislation from the Greek Authorities is rather weak. Responsible authorities lack the necessary resources in terms of both human resources and funds to control illegal collection and disturbance. This is especially true for herpetofauna species where authorities also lack the necessary training to distinguish between species. Habitat loss and degradation are recognised as the main threat for reptiles and amphibians. All protected species and in general almost all species of the Greek herpetofauna are encountered in a protected area (national parks and or special areas of conservation). However, no measures have been proposed and or implemented specifically for the conservation of reptile or amphibian species present in the study area. 1.3 Scope of Work Features on which the Fieldwork was Focused The scope of work was to estimate reptile and amphibian species presence and abundance along the route. Emphasis was given to the two species of terrestrial tortoises, Testudo graeca and especially Testudo hermanni. Both these species are protected by national legislation, are included in the Annex II of the EU Habitats and are also included in both Bern and CITES international conventions. Testudo hermanni is listed as Vulnerable in the Red data Book assessment. Additionally tortoise species are characterised by a reduced escaping ability to habitat threats and degradation and as such are easier to suffer from construction works.
6 Page 6 of 22 2 METHODOLOGY A field survey was undertaken by a survey team consisting of Dr. Panagiota Maragou and Dr. Panagiotis Pafilis with support from ERM staff, at the end of June Sampling Methodology Line transects or distance sampling (Buckland et al., 1993; Jaeger 1994) has been the method used to assess tortoise population in the areas close to the route. This method provides information on both the active individuals within a biotope and the density of the population at the study site. According to the method a 100 m line was placed randomly across the area to be sampled and then an observer moved along the line, watching for animals. When an animal was detected, the distance to the animal was recorded. Within the sampling the line is considered the sampling unit. Distances measured across all the sampling units are used to estimate the sighting function, and then estimate density. As mentioned previously, the lines were chosen randomly so as to maximize the representativeness of the sample. The importance of the last is critical since biases can arise from a sample not representing the population under study. Though line selection was accidental, the field survey team tried to cover as many microhabitats as possible in order to depict each landscape s particular features. In every biotope at least 10 lines, each one of a distance of 100 m, were realized. All sampling was carried out by the same researchers. Five meters on either side of the line were monitored covering a total area of 1000 m 2 per sampling. In every encounter the age class and the sex (based on secondary sexual characteristics) were recorded, together with notes on the position it was found, time of the day, temperature and climatic conditions.
7 Page 7 of 22 The general formula to estimate population densities is the following: Density per hectare: (N x 10,000) / A where N is the total number of observed individuals (in our case tortoises) in all lines and A the total area of lines in square meters. In addition to the method of line transects and due to the few individuals that were found, the team walked long distances within the area, without following the aforementioned method, trying to spot more tortoises and other species of the local herpetofauna. It must be noted that special attention was given to water bodies (small streams, rivulets, ponds and rivers) in order to evaluate the amphibians of these locations. 2.2 Study Sites Table 2-1 GPS point Sampling Locations Name KP Habitat type Shortest distance from R Axios crossing R Loudias crossing R Loudias crossing I R Near village Aghia Fotini R Eastern Vermio close to Agia Fotini R Eastern Vermio close to Agia Fotini R Eastern Vermio close to Agia Fotini R Eastern Vermio close to Agia Fotini R Eastern Vermio close to Agia Fotini Gallery forest with old growth, embankments on the east side of the river Poplar plantation near the river Poplar plantation near the river Cherry orchard Deciduous mixed forest Deciduous mixed forest with several small ponds Deciduous mixed forest Deciduous mixed forest Deciduous mixed forest 2.1 km Downstream of 0.4 km 0.4 km Other remarks 71 m from Testudo graeca 116 m from 88 m from 32 m from 17 m from 213 m from Lucanus cervus
8 Page 8 of 22 GPS point Name KP Habitat type Shortest distance from R Poad to Ano Meadows 210 m from Grammatiko R Ano Ponds in meadows 0.4 km from Grammatiko R Road to Meadows and rows of 146 m from Kato timber wood. Grammatiko R Further along the same road Small waters along the same road R ibid Small waters along the same road R-15 Grammatiko Grammatiko With riparian vegetation stream Stream 151 m from Other remarks 240 m from T. graeca, T. hermanni 23 m from T. graeca on the road above stream R-16 B m from R meadows Light oak forest 30 m from R-18 B m from R-20 B m from R-21 B67 new Quercus sp forest 39 m from R-22 B m from R-23 B Fagus forest 379 m from R-24 B Artificial pond 228 m from T. hermanni R Artificial pond Outside route Unidentified newt species R-26 B Forest Outside route T. graeca R-27 B Road to Kato Meadows 67 m from T. hermanni Gramatiko R Road Pyrgoi- Maniaki R-29 Castro river Between Antigonos and Filotas villages R-30 Kilada river Between Pentavrissos and Perdikas villages R Dexameni Near Mpodosakio hospital, Ptolemaida R Road Galateia - Variko R Terelikis hotel R Chapel of Aghia Kiriaki Hill among cultivations. Rocks, low vegetation and low Juniperus Eutrophic river Eutrophic river Fields and quarry Fields and light Quercus vegetation Fields 151 m from 77 m from 80 m from 23 m from 231 m from 141 m from 108 m from
9 Page 9 of 22 GPS point Name KP Habitat type Shortest distance from R Towards Aghios Athanasios and Variko village Light oak forest Other remarks 73 m from T. hermanni R ibid Light oak forest 67 m from T. hermanni R Above Alpine meadows 24 m from Identified L. Kleisoura village viridis R α Above Kleisoura village R Aliakmon river Black pine stand Riparian vegetation. Cultivations of beans and corn Light forest of Quercus sp. with Juniperus R-40 P NE of the current route R-41 Pa Fields and meadows and single oak trees R-42 Pa East of Light forest of Quercus Ieropigi sp. With rocky outcrops village. R-43 Pa Small stream with Populus sp and Alnus sp R-44 Pa Aliakmon river Dried up flood plain forest with various sandbeds & gravel accumulations. Riverbank (river with low water, gravel separate flow branches) 22 m from On route 2200 m from * 295 m from 2173 m from * 30 m from R-45 Pa Fields and orchards 139 m from R-46 Pa Bridge crossing the river 196 m from R-47 Pa Fields 210 m from 54 m from T. hermanni R-48 Paverga Fields, hedges, 117 m from R-49 Pa Pines at margin of beech forest 23 m from Note: * Field Survey conducted along 25th of November 2011 route Source: ERM field survey (July 2011) T. graeca T. graeca killed on Edesa- Kastoria road 2.3 Limitations Uncertainties - Biases All riparian habitats and river crossings of the were visited. The survey team also visited the largest part (more than 90%) of forest areas, including deciduous, mixed and light oak forests and all different types of biotopes. Each forest type, based on dominant forest species and density, was sampled. An indicative part of the agricultural land (10%) that the will be crossing was also covered. The agriculture land examined included selected points between
10 Page 10 of 22 KP and and towards the Greek-Albanian borders, south of Ieropigi village. We also visited the fields around of Ptolemaida (KP to 472). The area between KP 359 and 423, with the exceptions of the river crossings, were not surveyed due to the very intensive nature of these irrigated cultivations. The reason for this discrepancy among the locations under study is the expected difference in reptile and amphibian biodiversity in terms of species numbers. Deciduous forests (pure oak, mixed pine-oak) are characterized by higher reptile counts, both in terms of species numbers and diversity scores. This type of habitat lets higher light level to reach the forest floor, especially during spring. These forests are also characterized by a thicker litter layer, another positive factor for reptile presence and abundance. Kati et al. (2007) in a study researching diversity patterns, ecological structure and adequate habitats of herpetofauna in Dadia National Park (Evros prefecture) observed that the most important habitat for the conservation of lizards and tortoises were semi-open or open thermophilous habitats (usually Quercus pubescens, oak woods) that combined a variety of reptile microhabitats, such as shrubs, bare soil, grasses, dead oak leaves and stony patches. Homogeneous and closed oak or pine woods were also visited even though they have no particular conservation importance for terrestrial herpetofauna, except when possessing a more open and complex structure that permits the development of bush undergrowth. Pure coniferous forests and stands are characterised by relatively lower abundances and densities of reptiles (Ioannides et al. 2008, Loehle et al. 2005). This is probably due to limited direct sunlight, reduced litter and undergrowth in general. These observations were also verified during the present study. Farming areas are characterised by low reptilian biodiversity (Ribeiro et al. 2009). Intensively cultivated and irrigated land, as is the largest part of the farming areas crossed by the, usually supports populations of few and common species, but again only provided that there are some hedges or irrigation canal borders with natural vegetation to provide hiding places and thermoregulatory refugia. Specifically for tortoises a strong selection for non-irrigated croplands has been observed, probably due to effects in egglaying. Following observations in Prespa lakes, northwest of the TAP route, species expected in the agriculture land include Lacerta viridis/trilineata, Podarcis muralis and P. tauricus (Ioannidis and Bousbouras 1997). Based on literature data, cultivations are also used as feeding grounds for snake species such as Malpolon monspessulanus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Coluber caspius and Vipera ammodytes. Amphibians
11 Page 11 of 22 are also under-populated in such places as a result of water pollution due to extensive agriculture (Hutchens S. and C. DePerno, 2009). Finally, a limitation of the study concerns the field identification and distinction between the two species of green lizard (Lacerta viridis and L. trilineata) as distinction of adults is based mainly on number of belly and temporal scales. Therefore observations are referred as one taxonomic group, with the exception of the individual found in sampling point 37 that was captured and positively identified as Lacerta viridis. A similar difficulty concerns the identification of individual species within the green frog complex since the only effective method is by bioacoustics.
12 Page 12 of 22 3 RESULTS 3.1 Testudo Abundance along the Route The sparse tortoise populations in all sites alongside the route made the use of the line transect method hard to apply and to provide reliable density estimations. Though tortoises were encountered in different locations, the number of observations within the distance limits required by the methodology was too low. By means of the formula described in Section 2.1 and taking into account that within each location more than 1,000 m 2 were covered, it could be estimated a population density over 5 individuals per ha. Nevertheless, due to the small number of individuals found in the line transects, it would be dicey to make a numerical assumptions about the population density in the area under study. However, based on the observations during the field trip and taking into account the related literature (including sampling problems that are common in the case of tortoise), it can be affirmed that the abundance of tortoises lie within values that have been previously reported in similar studies from Mediterranean countries (varying from 0.3 up to 10 ind/ha, Rouag et al., 2007 and references therein; Fernández-Chacón et al. 2011). 3.2 Confirmed Amphibian and Reptilian Species Presence along the Route Five species of amphibians, that is 50% of expected species, and nine reptile species (~30% of expected species) were observed along the route.
13 Page 13 of 22 Project Title: Table 3-1 Amphibian and reptilian species presence in the Study Latin name (Family name) 1. Bufo bufo (Bufonidae) 2. Pseudepidalea viridis (Bufonidae) 3. Bombina variegata (Discoglossidae) 4. Hyla arborea (Hylidae) 5. Pelophylax kurtmuelleri (Ranidae) Common name Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Preferred habitat Common toad Should occur alongside the routing, in low and middle elevations in areas with dense vegetation Green toad Should occur alongside the routing, in low and middle elevations Yellow-bellied toad Common tree frog Greek marsh frog R-11, R-12, R-13, R-14, R-17, R-19, R-43 R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, R-6, R-7, R-11, R-13, R-46 Present in small water bodies (e.g. ponds) in middle and high elevations Should occur alongside the routing, in low and middle elevations Should occur in streams, rivers and rivulets in low and middle elevations Reason of conservation interest Appendix III of the Bern Convention Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Annex V of the EU Natural Habitats General comments Nocturnal species Never encountered most probably because of the time of the fieldwork In abundance, readily adapted to all kind of shallow water. In abundance Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period?
14 Page 14 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 6. Rana dalmatina (Ranidae) 7. Rana graeca (Ranidae) 8. Salamandra salamandra (Salamandridae) 9. Lissotriton vulgaris (Salamandridae) Common name Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Preferred habitat Agile frog Should occur in streams, rivers and rivulets in low and middle elevations Greek brown frog R-15 Should occur in streams, rivers and rivulets in low and middle elevations Fire salamander R-14, R-15 Should occur in middle and high elevation forests, close to small river and rivulets Smooth newt Should be present in ponds in middle and high elevations Reason of conservation interest Appendix III of the Bern Convention Appendix III of the Bern Convention Appendix III of the Bern Convention General comments Never encountered, probably due to its being active mainly at dusk and during night. Additionally the species shows large gaps within its distribution. A typical species of streams in mountain areas. Reported as occurring in low densities in Western Macedonia Only larvae have been found, most probably because of the time of the fieldwork since the species is nocturnal and inactive in summer Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period?
15 Page 15 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 10. Triturus carnifex (Salamandridae) 11. Testudo hermanni (Testudinidae) 12. Testudo graeca (Testudinidae) 13. Mauremys rivulata (Geoemydidae) 14. Emys orbicularis (Emydidae) Common name Alpine crested newt Hermann s tortoise Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise Balkan terrapin European pond terrapin Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) R-14, R-13, R-35, R-36, R-44 R-4, R-10, R-14, R-17, R-15, R-19, R-45, R-47, R-49 R-6, R-7, R-29, R-30, R-43 Preferred habitat Should be present in ponds in middle and high elevations Open areas and forest meadows Open areas and forest meadows Water bodies like lakes, small rivers and big ponds in low and middle elevations Water bodies like lakes, small rivers and big ponds in low and middle elevations Reason of conservation interest Appendix III of the Bern Convention Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Vulnerable species according to the Greek Red Data Book Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats The species is listed as near threaten in the IUCN Red Data Book General comments In good frequency In abundance in standing and polluted water Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period?
16 Page 16 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 15. Anguis fragilis (Anguidae) 16. Pseudopus apodus (Anguidae) 17. Cyrtopodion kotschyi (Gekkonidae) 18. Lacerta trilineata (Lacertidae) Common name Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Preferred habitat Slow worm Grasslands, cultivated fields, deciduous and mixed forests European glass lizard Open areas, cultivated fields and grasslands Kotschy s gecko Rocky areas and human settlements Three-lined lizard R-2, R-3, R-4, R-6, R-7, R-10, R-12, R-17, R-15, R-19, R-28, R-29, R-30, R-32, R-33, R-34, R-36, R-39, R-40, R-41, R-42, R-46, R-48 Open areas, bush lands, forest meadows and sparse forests Reason of conservation interest General comments In abundance Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period? Impossible to identify species without capture
17 Page 17 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 19. Lacerta viridis (Lacertidae) 20. Podarcis erhardii (Lacertidae) 21. Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) 22. Podarcis tauricus (Lacertidae) Common name Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Green lizard R-37 R-2, R-3, R-4, R-6, R-7, R-10, R-12, R-17, R-15, R-19, R-28, R-29, R-30, R-32, R-33, R-34, R-36, R-39, R-40, R-41, R-42, R-46, R-48 Erhard s wall lizard Common wall lizard R-4, R-6, R-7, R-10, R-12, R-17, R-19, R-31, R-35, R-36, R-37, R-40, R-42, R-43, R-44, R-46, R-48, R-49 Balkan wall lizard R-40, R-44, R- 46 Preferred habitat Open areas, bush lands, forest meadows and sparse forests Rocky areas and dry stone walls Rocky areas, meadows, foothills and bush lands Open areas, forest meadows and grasslands Reason of conservation interest General comments Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period? In abundance Individual in point R- 38 was caught and positively identified Impossible to identify species without capture In abundance
18 Page 18 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 23. Typhlops vermicularis (Typhlopidae) 24. Coronella austriaca (Colubridae) 25. Dolichophis caspius (Colubridae) 26. Elaphe quatorlineata (Colubridae) 27. Malpolon insignitus (Colubridae) 28. Natrix natrix (Colubridae) 29. Natrix tessellata (Colubridae) Common name Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Preferred habitat Reason of conservation interest Worm snake s with soft ground like humid meadows, places in proximity of water bodies and cultivated areas of low and middle elevations Appendix III of the Bern Convention Smooth snake Bush lands and meadows Caspian whip R-44, R-46, Grasslands, maquis, snake R-47 phrygana and bush lands Four-lined snake Open areas and grasslands, maquis and phrygana Montpellier snake Stony areas, maquis and phrygana Grass snake R-1, R-2, R-3, R-6, R-7, R-10, R-24 Lakes, rivers and ponds in low and middle elevations Dice snake Lakes and ponds in low and middle elevations General comments Never encountered, probably because of the time of the year Appendix III of the Bern Convention In good frequency Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Appendix III of the Bern Convention Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period?
19 Page 19 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 30. Platyceps najadum (Colubridae) 31. Telescopus fallax (Colubridae) 32. Zamenis longissimus (Colubridae) 33. Zamenis situlus (Colubridae) 34. Vipera ammodytes (Viperidae) Common name Dahl s whip snake Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Preferred habitat Grasslands, maquis and phrygana Cat snake Bush lands, stony areas, maquis and phrygana Aesculapian snake Bush lands, stony areas, maquis and phrygana Leopard snake Bush lands, stony areas, maquis and phrygana Nose-horned viper Rocky areas, grasslands, maquis and phrygana Reason of conservation interest Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Annex II of the EU Natural Habitats The species is listed as threaten in the IUCN Red Data Book Annex II of the EU Natural Habitats General comments Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period?
20 Page 20 of 22 Project Title: Latin name (Family name) 35. Vipera berus (Viperidae) Common name Records within Project area (refer to GPS points of sampling locations listed in Table 2-1) Preferred habitat Adder Rocky areas, grasslands and maquis in middle and high elevations Reason of conservation interest General comments Never encountered. Greece is the southernmost end of its distribution and populations of this species are notoriously. Is the taxon in need of consideration and special mitigation measures during the preconstruction / postconstruction project period?
21 Page 21 of Other Important Reptilian and Amphibian Species within the Project During the fieldwork several species known from scientific literature to occur within the general area of study, were not observed. Three may be the underlying reasons: first, the populations of these taxa are so sparse that an encounter would be predictably rare. Second, the activity of some taxa is restricted to crepuscule and night. For instance the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is a nocturnal species and as such it is not active during the day, when the survey was carried out. Third, since the range of the mainland Greek herpetofauna is far from being well documented (Valakos et al., 2008), the sites surveyed might not host the taxa expected to be present according to the literature of the broader area. On the other hand some species having never been reported from particular areas were indeed found, though the published literature predicts their presence in the general area of Macedonia. The Balkan wall lizard (Podarcis tauricus) and the Green lizard (Lacerta viridis), that were observed in Aliakmon river (KP 528.3) and Kleisoura (KP 493) respectively, fall into this category and this observation constitutes the first record for the two taxa in this specific area.
22 Page 22 of 22 4 CONCLUSIONS 4.1 Key Habitats and Species within the Study The two terrestrial tortoises and Testudo hermanni in particular, remain as the key species within the study area. Testudo hermanni was observed in five different locations and Testudo graeca in nine. These places include mountain meadows and light oak forests. This observation agrees with the literature data described in Section 2.3 of this document.
23 Trans Adriatic Pipeline AG Greece (Branch Office) 21st Floor, Athens Tower, 2-4 Messogion Ave., Athens, Greece Phone.: Fax: Date 06/2013 Copyright Reserved: This document may not be copied, shown to or placed at the disposal of third parties without prior consent of TAP AG. The latest version of the document is registered in the TAP Project's Database.
Annex 6.5.6 East - Herpetofauna Baseline Study Page 2 of 27 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 3 1.1 General Information on Reptile and Amphibian Fauna of the CentralMacedonia and Thrace 3 1.2 Main Legislative
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