Inferring #1 This diagram shows the beak of several different species of birds. Make observations about the beaks and answer the questions.

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1 Observing #1 1. Record a qualitative observation of the scene in the illustration. 2. Record a quantitative observation of the scene in the illustration. 3. Observation or inference? The house collapsed. 4. Observation or inference? The road damage is serious and it will be very expensive to repair. 5. Observation or inference? The house is built on unstable land. 6. Observation or inference? The damage at this scene was caused by an explosion.

2 Observing #2 1. Record a qualitative observation of the scene in the illustration. 2. Record a quantitative observation of the scene in the illustration. 3. Observation or inference? The cat wants to harm the baby birds. 4. Observation or inference? The adult bird is protecting the baby birds. 5. Observation or inference? The adult bird is flying near the nest.

3 Inferring #1 This diagram shows the beak of several different species of birds. Make observations about the beaks and answer the questions. 1. The seeds that make up the diet of some birds are difficult to crack. A thick beak is needed to crack the seeds. Most seed-eaters have short, thick beaks in comparison to other birds. Use observations and inferences to determine which of the birds shown here could be a seed-eater. 2. Some birds gather nectar from inner parts of the flowers. Use inferences to describe a beak that would be well suited for getting nectar from deep within flowers. 3. Which birds in the diagram above do you infer eat nectar? 4. A strong, curved or hooked beak is used by some birds to catch prey and tear meat. Make an inference about which bird in the diagram eats meat.

4 Inferring #2 You can make inferences about a bird s habitat and diet by observing the structure of the bird s feet. The diagram shows the feet of several different species of birds. Make observations about the feet and then answer the questions. 1. Some birds grasp their prey. Make an inference about which of the bird s feet show here would be best for grasping prey. 2. A fourth toe makes a bird run more slowly. Which bird or birds in the diagram do you infer are particularly fast runners? 3. Infer which bird foot or feet belong to a bird that swims. 4. What observation did you use to make the inference in Question 3? 5. What kind of information would allow you to determine if you inferences about birds are correct? What are two different ways you could get this information?

5 Inferring #3 The diagram shows layers of sedimentary rock from several different locations in an area. Use the diagram to answer the questions. 1. Layers of sedimentary rock are laid down one on top of the other. What can you observe about Rock Layer A in Diagram 1? 2. What can you infer about the age of Rock Layer A compared to the other rock layers in Diagram 1? 3. Scientists sometimes observe similar fossils, called index fossils, at different locations. The same index fossils are found in Layer C in Diagram 1 and in Layer S in Diagram 2. What can you infer about the age of each of these rock layers?

6 Inferring #4 The diagram shows the skulls of nine animals. The skulls are not drawn to scale. Make observations about the skulls and then answer the questions. 1. A mammal s teeth are adapted to its diet. Some mammals eat only plants. Many of their teeth have flat surfaces that enable the animals to crush and grind the tough material in plant parts. Which of the animals in the diagram have numerous flat teeth? What can you infer about their diet? 2. Some mammals eat other animals. Many of their teeth have sharp points that pierce animal flesh and tear off sections to swallow. Which of the animals in the diagram have numerous sharp teeth? What can you infer about their diet? 3. Some mammals eat both animals and plants. What inference can you make about their teeth? Which animals in the diagram do you think eat both animals and plants? 4. You can make other inferences from the skulls of mammals. Look for shadowy indentations and bone shapes that indicate the position and size of the eyes. Which mammals appear to have eyes side by side at the front of the head? Which mammals appear to have eyes on the side of the head? Mammals that capture other animals for food often have eyes at the front of the head. This position allows them to have excellent depth perception. Mammals that are hunted for food often have eyes on the sides of the head. These animals do not have depth vision, but they can see a larger area around them. 5. Based on the animals teeth and eyes, which one of these mammals, if any, might hunt other animals for food? 6. Based on the animals teeth and eyes, which one of these mammals, if any, might eat only plants? 7. Scientists sometime find skulls or parts of skulls from extinct animals, ones that are no longer found alive on Earth. How might they use inferences to learn about these animals from past times?

7 Predicting #1 The living things in an ecosystem interact with each other. They are also affected by the nonliving parts of the ecosystem, such as the amount of water and the weather. These graphs show information about some populations of living things in a particular ecosystem. 1. Describe a trend/pattern in the data of Graph A. 2. Using the trend/pattern you identified in Question 1; make a prediction about the rabbit population for If the moose population increased in the years following the ones show, make a prediction about the wolf population using Graph B. 4. Write 2 questions that could be answered by looking at these graphs.

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