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2 Report on the Unesco/COMAR 1st Octocoral Research Workshop and Advanced Training Course Phuket, Thailand 30 November - 13 December 1987 Organized by: Phuket Marine Biological Center - PMBC, Thailand and the Unesco Regional Office for Science and Technology (UNESCO-ROSTSEA) Jakarta, Indonesia._-.-_

3 Report on the Unesco/COMAR 1st Octocoral Research Workshop and Advanced Training Course Phuket, Thailand, 30 November - 13 December 1987 Table of Contents Introduction 1 1. Field and Laboratory Studies 2. Participants Expectations 3. Checklist of Octocoral Genera from Phuket 4. Description of Families and Genera studied from the Phuket region 5. Participants Evaluation of the meeting 5.1 The most useful aspect of the meeting 5.2 Elements of the meeting that should have received more emphasis 5.3 Effect of the meeting on future work 5.4 Suggested follow-up to the meeting 5.5 Unsatisfactory aspects of the meeting 5.6 Overall rating 6. Conclusion 7. Resolution Bibliography 18 Appendix I : Timetable Appendix II : Participants Appendix III : List of Literature distributed to participants Appendix IV : Acknowledgments Appendix V : Questionnaire Appendix VI : Welcoming Address and Speech Page _-.._

4 INTRODUCTION The idea of aunesco-sponsored Octocoral Taxonomy Workshop was originally conceived during discussions among Drs. K. Muzik, Y. Benayahu, and J.R.E. Harger (Unesco- ROSTSEA) the 5th International Coral Reef Symposium in Tahiti, The concept was further discussed between Dr. Y. Benayahu and Dr. D. Troost (Unesco-Paris) also in It was agreed that there is a lack of awareness among both the public and the scientific community of the abundance and importance of Octocorallia throughout the oceans of the world, particularly in the Indo-Pacific region where the diversity is at its greatest. Accurate taxonomy is essential to all studies involving octocorals. Recent research has indicated the importance of this group in both environmental and ecological reef studies. In addition there is currently great interest in the search for biologically active compounds in marine organisms and much effort has been concentrated on the Octocorallia by the pharmaceutical industry. Unlike the sceleractinian corals, no modern compilation of octocoral species exists in the literature, and currently there are only half a dozen researchers in the world actively pursuing taxonomic research of this group. Southeast Asia was considered as appropriate for the first taxonomic research training course since the activity would provide an appropriate follow-on for the previous two workshops which had already been implemented by Unesco. These were : (1) Regional Unesco (COMAR)/UNEP Workshop with Advanced Training on CoralTaxonomy, Phuket, Thailand, lo-26 February 1984 and Second Unesco/UNEP Workshop with AdvancedTraiing on Coral Taxonomy and Environmental Variation, Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines, May The Unesco/COMAR First Regional Octocoral Taxonomy Research Workshop and Advanced Training Course was held at the Phuket Marine Biological Center in Tharland between 30 November and 13 December The workshop was conducted by Dr. P. Alderslade (Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia), Dr, Y. Benayahu (Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel) and Dr. K. Muzik (Okinawa University, Aza Bise 2278, Motobu Cho Okinawa Ken , Japan). It was conceptualized by Dr. Robin Harger and Dr. Hansa Chansang, Phuket Marine Biological Center (PMBC). The training.course was attended by participants from Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Sri Lanka. Dr. Michael, Marani (associate expert in Marine Sciences, Unesco/ROSTSEA) formulated the budget allocations and organized the multiple aspects of the meeting and coordinated the selection process of resource persons and participants with the Unesco National Commissions of the region and Dr. Hansa Chansang. He represented Unescb/ROSTSEA at the venue. A supplementary lecture on octocoral chemical ecology was given by Dr. J. Co11 (James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Australia). Attendance of the Instructors and participants was funded by Unesco Regional Office for Science and Technology for Southeast Asia.

5 Achievements Taxonomic features and identification methods were presented. Existing specimens and new material collected during the workshop were sorted and identified to form a reference collection for the PMBC. Participants were instructed in methods of field collection and specimen curation. Important aspects of octocoral biology, including distribution patterns, reproductive biology, competitive capabilities, along with aspects of their chemical ecology, were introduced. 5. A checklist was made of octocoral taxa in the Phuket region based on the study of the 1,268 specimens in the newly-formed reference collection A list of families and genera with their distinguishing features was compiled. The status of octocoral studies in participating countries was assessed and the participants indicated their individual pre-workshop expectations. 8. The course was assessed by the participants and they presented a joint resolution for continuing taxonomic research in octocorals, including further training, cooperative endeavors and enhanced information exchange. 1. Field and Laboratory Studies Following introductory lectures on general morphology and systematics of the Octocorallia, field trips were conducted to observe living corals and collect specimens for identification in the laboratory. During two weeks of laboratory and field work, characteristics of the various taxa were demonstrated by the instructors and then observed first-hand by the participants. Instruction on collecting methods, preservation, and long-term curation was also provided. During the workshop, four diving sites were visited (Fig. 1): South Patong and Nai Haan (less than 15 meters deep); and Racha Noi and Dok Mai (to 30 meters). A total of 1268 specimens of Octocorallia in 14 families, including possibly 40 genera, was examined and identified. This comprehensive collection is representative -of the fauna of the Phuket region and now forms the reference collection of the Phuket Marine Biological Center. Slide-illustrated lectures were provided on related marine topics, including: octocoral reproduction and development, octocoral chemistry and chemical ecology, marine geology of the Phuket region, coral reefs of Thailand, an island park in Malaysia and environmental problems in Okinawa, Japan. 2. Participants Expectations At the beginning of the meeting, the participants were asked to note the major learning goals they expected to achieve through the workshop. A frequency distribution of the principal responses (Table l), based on the responses of 10 2


7 4


9 participants, shows that of primary interest was the acquisition of taxonomic identification techniques. Of nearly equal importance was the establishment of contacts with experts in the field and with other researchers from the region. Interest was also expressed for training in field identification and laboratory curation. Additionally, ecological aspects (diversity and community structure) of the Phuket region community were mentioned by the Thai participants.- There were requests for pertinent literature, for learning field-survey methods and the usefulness of Octocorals to humans. Table 1. Frequencies of items identified by the pmticipmls as beii desirable learning goals for the workshop and mining co11lse. Item LearningGoal Frequency 1. Learn techniques of taxonomic study Identify living Octocorals in the field Establish contacts with researchers from the region 9 4. Training in field identification 6 5. Learn techniques of curation 3 6. Species diversity and community structure 3 7. Gain introduction to pertinent literature 2 8. Learn field survey techniques 1 3. Checklist of Octocoral Genera from Phuket, Thailand The following genera were identified from the collections of the Phuket Marine Biological Center and from collections made during the workshop. Numbers in parentheses indicate number of specimen in each genus. The collection was not identified to species level because that is an extremely time-consuming processs. Identification to species at the workshop was impossible not only because of lack of time, but also because of lack of literature, and lack of microscope ocular scales for comparative measurements of sclerites. Specimens which could not be classified with any certainty even to generic level, because of the current status of their taxonomy, have been given only family status. Certain aspects of the taxonomy of the reference collection will form the basis of continuing study by the resource personnel. Order Helioporacea Bock 1983 Family Helioporidae Moseley, 1976 HelioDora Blainville, 1930 (1) Order Alcyonacea Lamoroux, 1812 Family Clavularidae Gray, 1840 Clavularia Blainville, 1830 (1) Cariioa Muller, 1867 (2) 6

10 Family Maasellidae Poche, Maasella Poche, 1914 (1) &&r&&thomson and Simpson, 1909 (2) Family Alcyoniidae Lamouroux, 1812 Cladiellq Gray, 1869 (1) Damoia Alderslade, 1983 (1) Loboohvtum Marenzeller, J 856 (49) Sarcoohvton Lesson, J 834 (75) Sinularia May, 1898 (273) Family Nephtheidae Gray J 862 Neohthea Audouin, J 826 (1826(92) Stereoneohthea KQkenthal, J 905 (13) DendroneohthvaKQkenthal, 1905 (347) Scleroneohthva Studer, J 887 (63) Family Nidaliidae Gray 1869 Siohononoraia K^lliker, 1874 (57) Family Xeniidae Ehrenberg, 1828 Xenia Lamarck, J 816 (36) Heteroxenia K lliker, J 874 (42) Svmoodium Ehrenberg, J 834 (1) Family AnthothelidaeBroch, 1916 Solenocaulon Gray, J 862 (3) Semoerina K^Jliker, 1870 (2) Family Subergorgiidae Gray, 1859 Subergorgia Gray, J 857 (28) Family Melithaeidae Gray, 1870 (17) 7

11 Family Acanthogorgiidae Gray, 1859 AcanthoaorPiaGray, 1857 (1) Acalvciaornia KQkenthal, J 908 (9) Muricella Verrill, 1869 (1) Family Plexauridae Gray, 1859 EuDlexaura Verrill, 1865 (7) Echinonornia K^lliker, 1865 ( 19) Echinomuricea Verrill, J 869 (2) Astroaornia Verrill, J 868 (17) Villoaornia Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1868 (8) Bebrvce Philippi, 1841 (1) Gen. indet. (2) Family Gorgoniidae Lamouroux, Rumphella Bayer, 1955 (18) Family Ellisellidae, Gray 1859 Ellisella Gray, 1858 (10) Ctenocella Valenciennes, 1855 (1) Junceella Valenciennes, 1855 (35) Nicella Gray, 1870 (14) 4. Description of Families and Genera studied from the Phuket region Order Helioporacea Family Helioporidae Monomorphic colonies permanently anchored basally or attached by stolons, with a rigid calcareous skeleton composed of hexagonal crystals of aragonite, not fused sclerites, into which the polyps, with or without sclerites, are completely retractile. Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) Skeleton blue, massive, vertical, commonly in lobate plates; an important reef-former in some areas. 8

12 Order Alcyonacea Family Clavulariidae Colonies of generally small form, growing from ribbon-like or netlike membranous, stolons, or from a slightly thicker basal membrane. Polyps are monomorphic with anthocodiae retractile, into the anthosteles. Clavularia Polyps grow individually from stolons or membranous plaques. Calyces are elevated above the stolons and the anthosteles are reinforced with sclerites. Sclerites are spindles and rods. Cariioa Large axial polyps bearing small lateral polyps arise from stolons. Sclerites are slender, thorny or prickly rods, often branching and interlocking, sometimes fusing into clumps. Sclerites colorless, but colonies may be white, pinkish or red. Living colonies often overgrown by sponges. Family Tubiporidae Colonies consists of stolons forming multilayered sheets or platforms. Polyps monomorphic and retractile. Tubipora Skeleton red, colonies forming rounded clumps of large size, transversely partitioned by stolonic platforms. Anthosteles tubular, organ-pipe like, hence the common name organ-pipe coral. Sclerites solidly fused except in anthocodiae. Pachvclavularia Colonies formed of sheets, often multi-layered, mat-like. Polyps retractile into prominent calyces. Sclerites are spindles and radiates, not fused. Color purple or violet. Family Maaselidae Colonies consisting of polips arrangctd in di.w~r~ c1r on branches which 2-e retractile within a common sclerite-stiffened pedicel. Maasella Colonies small (l-3 cm), monomorphic, formed of bundles of polyps emerging at approximately the same level from a stiffened pedicel. Colonies may be united in series by ribbon-like stolons. Sclerites of pedicel are predominantly long prickly spindles. Studeriotes Colonies monomorphic, formed of tall, branched polypary which is retractile into a large, stiffened pedicel. Sclerites of pedicel mostly spindles. Family Alcyoniidae Fleshy colonies which may be membranous, digitiform, mushroom-like, massive, bushy, or tree-like. Polyps retractile, monomorphic or dimorphic. Cladiellg Small lobed colonies. Polyps monomorphic, covering all the lobes. Sclerites are minute disks and small dumbbells. Lobophvtum Colonies flattend, thick and spreading, sometimes with low stalk not sharply delimited from capitulum, which is lobed or folded. Polyps dimorphic. Sclerites of inner coenenchyme are stubby spindles with tubercles usually in transverse girdles, sometimes more irregular; outer layer with slender clubs. Sarcoohvton Colonies usually with distinct stalk and rounded, often marginally folded, capitulum; polyps dimorphic. Inner coenenchymal sclerites are irregularly tuberculated spindles, in some species rather acute, in others stout and blunt; outermost sclerites weakly to moderately developed slender clubs. 9

13 Sinularia Colonies often large, may be low and encrusting, tall and lobate, or bushy. Polyps monomorphic. Predominant sclerites are large, tuberculate spindles covered by a superficial layer of small clubs. Damoia Colonies large with a lobed and folded capitulum. Polyps monomorphic, retractile into prominent calyces. Sclerites like those of Sinularia. Family Nephtheidae Lobed, arborescent or bushy colonies. Polyps monomorphic, with or without supporting bundles, single or in clusters (lobes, catkins, umbels, etc.) on stems and branches. Neohthea Arborescent or bushy colonies. Polyps with supporting bundles, arranged in lobes or catkins on stems and branches. Sclerites of surgace layer, spindles often unilaterally spined and sometimes branched, and small irregular bodies; interior sclerites spindles, stars, or irregular forms. StereoneDhthva Lobed, stiff colonies. Polyps with branches and main stem. Sclerites like Nephthea. supporging bundles, isolated on Dendronnhthva Arborescent colonies, which may be divaricate, glomerate, or umbellate. Polyps with supporting bundles arranged in small groups on twigs and branches, occasionally on main stem. Sclerites like Nephthea, and in addition may include antlers in canal walls. Colonies often brightly colored. Scleronephthva Stiff, lobed to bushy colonies; branches and twigs short. Polyps single or in groups, non-retractile, without supporting bundles. Sclerites of polyps arranged in 8 more-or-less converging double rows, sometimes forming a collaret. Sclerites are spindles. Family Nidaliidae Colonies with a more-or-less rigid stem and branches. Sclerites large tuberculated spindles, Iongitudinally arranged. Calyces hardly projecting at all to very prominent. SiohonoPorgia Upright, usually rigid, abundantly branched colonies. Branches formed of densely-packed tuberculate spindles, those in the canal walls often small needles. Polyps with well-formed crown and points armature, retractile, sometimes forming prominent calyces. Family Xeniidae Soft fleshy colonies, membranous, erect, branched or mushroom-like. Polyps monomorphic or dimorphic, retractile or non-retractile. Tentacles commonly with more than one row of pinnules down each side. Sclerites minute (0.02 to 0.03 mm, occasionally to 0.1 mm) circular or oval discs, which sometimes are elongated (finger-biscuits), or absent altogether. Xenia Unbranched or sparsely branched colonies, polyps monomorphic, non-retractile, occurring only on the summit of the capitulum. Sclerites if present are discs, oval to elongate in shape. Heteroxenia Like Xenia except adult colonies are dimorphic. Svmpodium Small white membranous colonies, polyps monomorphic and completely retractile. Sclerites minute oval or elongate discs. 10

14 Family Anthothelidae Monormorphic, membranous or arborescent colonies with a scleritic axial medulla, separated from the cortex by a ring of boundary canals. Polyps retractile. Sclerites fusiform, sometimes clavate or bent, occasionally with radiate bodies and capstans. Solenocaulon Arborescent colonies, trunk and/or main branches hollow, tubular or gutter-like. Medulla of needle-like sclerites often fused. Cortex of very warty globular to spindle-shaped sclerites. Semperina Arborescent colonies, polyps crowded on three sides of branchlets, and on one side of large branches and main stem. Branch tips clavate and commonly fistulose. Medullar sclerites needles and spindles. Outer cortical sclerites rounded to oval and warty, inner cortical sclerites are girdled spindles and sclerites intermediate to those of the medulla. Family Subergorgiidae Colonies arborescent, sometimes planar. Polyps retractile, may form verrucae. Medulla separated from cortex by a ring of boundary canals. Medullar sclerites smooth, fusiform, irregularly branched, partially anastomosing, surrounded with organic horny material. Cortical sclerites spindles and capstans. Family Melithaeidae Colonies planar or bushy, Axial skeleton jointed, with stiff internodes of inseperably fused sclerites and flexible nodes of sclerites bound by horny sheaths. Branches arise from the nodes. Polyps small, retractile. Sclerites of the skeleton straight smooth rods. Cortical sclerites extremely variable in shape, including double disks, leaf clubs, leaf globes, and warted spindles, often unilaterally developed. Color of colonies variable, often orange, red, yellow. pink or white. The literature describing the genera in Melithaeidae, including Melithaea (=Melitodes, =Birotulata, =Melitella?), Acabaria, Ciatharia. Moosella, and Wrinhtella, is extremely confused and scattered. Most specimens do not conform to the descriptions of the genera, which seem to form a continuous series. Family Acan thogorgiidae Colines arboresecent and planar, with an axial skeleton of pure gorgonin. Polyps not functionally differentiated into anthocodia and anthostele, contractile but not retractile within common coenenchyme, tentacles folding over oral disk in contraction. Sclerites in polyps spindles, in the coenenchyme spindles and radiates. Acanthonornia Sclerites of tentacle bases with sharp projecting spines, forming a conspicuous thorny crown. Polyp sclerites arranged en chevron in 8 longitudinal rows. Acalvciaorgia Polyps tall, without a thorny crown. Sclerites arranged in 8 distinct en chevron rows and merging with those of tentacle bases which are not abruptly smaller. 11

15 Muricella Polyps short and verruciform, without a thorny crown. Sclerites more or less in 8 en chevron rows, merging with the sclerites of tentacle bases which are not abruptly smaller. Family Plexauridae Colonies arborescent, bushy or planar. Axial skeleton of gorgonin with locules which may be filled in with fibrous substance or non-scleritic calcium carbonate. Polyps retractile, sometimes into well-developed calyces. Sclerites usually longer than 0.3mm, and may be very large (lengths to 5mm more), shape variable, tubercular sculpture not in whorls, Euolexaura Calyces low and inconspicous, often projecting little or not at all. Coenenchymal sclerites are blunt spindles, sometimes almost spheroidal with or without a median waist. Anthocodial armature of few sclerites, which may be large. Echinonornia Colonies usually planar. Sclerites of the calyces thorn-scales. Projections of thorn-scales may be flat and leafy, with marginal lobes, globular, or may consist of several thick points. Coenenchymal sclerites sometimes unilaterally spined spindles, sometimes identical to calycals. Axial sheath with 6-rayed capstans. Anthocodial armature absent to very strong. Echinomuricea Colonies planar, and may be reticulate. Sclerites of the calyces thorn-scales with a diverging or branching root from which arises a single strong distal spike. Coenenchyme with thorn-spindles. Anthocodial armature with numerous small sclerites. Astrogornia Colonies planar. Polyps retractile, calyces often well-developed. Sclerites spindles. Anthocodial armature numerous small sclerites but not forming a distinct collaret. Villoaorfzia Colonies planar, calyces prominent. Sclerites of calyces thorn-scales wider than high, with two broad, diverging basal processes and a distal foliate or spinose projection which is usually strong but may be inconspicuous. Sclerites of the coenenchyme 4-radiates with a central projection. Bebrvce Colonies planar. Coenenchyme of two layers, the outer sclerites rosettes or collarbuttons, the inner ones warted thorn stars often with a central boss. Pacific _ species may be encrusted with sponges, which makes separation of sclerites for examination difficult. Family Gorgoniidae Axial skeleton of gorgonin, with loculation or not, loculae may be filled with non scleritic calcium carbonate. Polyps retractile, some within aalyces. Sclerites 12

16 variable, if spindles, with tubercular sculpture usually in whorls. Anthocodial sclerites if present are tapered flat rodlets with scalloped or lobed edges, not usually forming a crown and points. Rumphella Colonies bushy, usually with long branches. Polyps fully retractile into general coenenchyme, leaving no projecting calyx. Sclerites are symmetrically tuberculated spindles clubs and capstans. Family Ellisellidae Colonies whip-like, sparsely-branched, or profusely branched in one plane, sometimes reticulate. Axial skeleton extensively calcified in non-undulating, concentric layers. Calyces often prominent, folded against branch in contraction. Sclerites small, characteristically dumb-bells, double-heads, clubs and small spindles. Ellisella Colonies unbranched or with few long whip-like branches. Polyps in biserial rows or all around the branches, often prominent. Sclerites dumb-bells and double-heads and short spindles. Ctenocella Like Ellisella, but colonies lyrate. Junceella Colonies whip-like or dichotomously branched. Polyps in biserial rows or all around the branches, often prominent. Characteristic sclerites of coenenchyme flattened clubs. Nicella Colonies branched in one plane, terminal branches short and numerous and may anastomose. Characteristic sclerites dumb-bells and double heads. 13

17 5. Participants Evaluation of the meeting A short questionnaire (see Appendix 5) was handed to the participants to be answered after the closure of the meeting. All participants (9) and one observer responded. The topics covered by the questionnaire are given below, each immediately followed by the evaluation given by the participants. A summary of responses is presented in Table The most useful aspect of the meeting. For seven participants, the meeting furnished the occasion to gain direct, indepth knowledge of octocoral taxonomy for the first time. Several participants mentioned being able to distinguish gorgonians from soft corals but had no previous taxonomic knowledge prior to the meeting. Directly connected to this situation were the responses of three participants who also mentioned the laboratory identification exercises as being useful. Two participants, engaged in active octocoral research, found that the meeting deepened their knowledge on the subject and gave them the opportunity to interact with the specialists that lectured. 5.2 Elements of the meeting that should have received more emphasis Octocoral ecology and species identification were mentioned by six participants. It was felt that both taxonomy and ecology should have been covered but there was realization that the duration of the course did not permit such extensive coverage. 5.3 Effect of the meeting on future work. Five of the participants stated that the knowledge gained during the training course will be utilised in a direct way in their future activities. Several of them mentioned that they would, in the future, include octocoral identification and study within their researches. Three participants, engaged mainly in hard coral research, noted that the training course would now have an indirect effect on their studies by allowing a more detailed description of octocoral cover in their study areas. Three participants also noted that meeting other persons engaged in the same research field would enhance the exchange of information and provide links between research bodies of different countries. 5.4 Suggested follow-up to the meeting. There was unanimous agreement on the need for a second workshop or training course dealing with Octocorallia. Five participants also suggested that the informal octocoral network they formed be recognised and helped by way of follow-up questionaires for example, as suggested by one participant. 14

18 5.5 Unsatisfactory aspects of the meeting. The need for more literature on the taxonomy of octocorals was considered by four participants to be one of the shortcomings of the meeting. 5.6 Overall rating Excellent - 2 Good -6 Satisfactory - 2 Table 2. Frequencies of items identified by the participants in the post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. Items Frequency Most useful aspect : 1. Gain knowledge of octocoral taxonomy for the first time 2. Laboratory identification techniques 3. Deepen knowledge and interaction with specialists More emphasis on : 1. Octocoral ecology 6 2. Species identification 6 3. Taxonomic keys 1 Effect of knowledge gained on future work : 1. Direct utilisation in octocoral research 2. Integration with hard coral research 3. Create links among researchers of the region Follow-up : 1. Second workshop 2. Recognition of informal octocoral network 10 5 Unsatisfactory aspects : 1. Need for more literature 2. Pre-workshop communications Conclusion From a general standpoint, the meeting showed that the Southeast Asian region, matching a world-wide situation, is lacking in trained personnel and basic research in the field of octocoral taxonomy. This fact is illustrated by the responses to the first and third questions : namely, that seven persons were exposed to octocoral taxonomy for the first time and that five persons would be actually directly involved in octocoral research in the future. 15

19 This should perhaps be taken as an important breakthrough towards the integrated study of the Coral Reef ecosystem that characterises much of Southeast Asia and which is presently undergoing intense environmental pressure. The participants, unanimous in expressing the need for a second octocoral workshop or training course, also furnished the basic outline of its objectives and aims by the answers to question two. The logical follow-up to a workshop in taxonomy should, in fact, be the study of octocoral ecology as done by the two Unescosupported training courses dealing with hard corals. More detailed identification to the species level was also mentioned, though this second aspect is a problem that also confronts present-day octocoral taxonomy specialists in that the classification methods for octocorals are in graet need of revision, there being a continuum of gradual morphological variation between several genera with new distinctive identifying characters. Another aspect of follow-up activities was suggested by the responses to number four : namely, the identification of the problems faced by the participants engaged in active octocoral research, by means of a follow-up questionaire, would be a first step in supporting the informal octocoral network the participants intended to create. There could also be the possibility of addressing at least one of the unsatisfactory aspects of the meeting mentioned in number five by exchanging and circulating scientific literature within the network. It follows from above that an eventual second workshop should aim at deepening the understanding of octocoral ecology with the objective of identifying groups (superspecies) of octocorallia whose basic functional processes and interactions with other coral reef organisms can be ecologically distinct from one another. This would furnish a powerful tool for the further integration of coastal environmental management strategies in the region. 16

20 7. Resolution The following is a set of resolutions and recommendations drawn up by the participants on the closing day of the workshop : Octocorals are one of the major fauna1 components of coral reef ecosystems, long-recognized to play important roles in fisheries, tourism, and pharmaceutical research. Bioactive compounds found in octocorals are being used as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal drugs. Current anti-aids Research has stimulated further interest in compounds isolated from octocorals. The Workshop demonstrated there is a remarkable lack of taxonomic knowledge of the Indo-Pacific octocorals, knowledge crucial for management of this important resource. The Workshop has been effective in providing to the participants the necessary scientific background in octocoral taxonomy, which will serve as a basis for developing octocoral research in each of the participants regions. Realizing the above, we the participants of the Workshop resolve that: (1) A network of information exchange be started to provide linkages among interested individuals and organizations; (2) Research into taxonomy and biology of octocorals be undertaken in each participating country; (3) Reference collections be established in each participating country; and (4) A second workshop be conducted. We strongly recommend that a meeting of interested individuals be convened at the VIth International Coral Reef Congress to be held in Townsville, Australia in August 1988 to formulate a concrete proposal for a second Octocoral Workshop and to determine priority research areas. We the participants wish to thank Unesco for sponsorship of the workshop, Phuket Marine Biological Center-PMBC for hosting it, and the resource persons for effectively conducting the workshop. 17

21 Bibliography Alderslade, P. (unpublished) 66-page compilation of sclerites illustration, representing * 72 octocoral genera; 4 page compilation of diagrams of colony structure. Bayer, F.M Octocorallia. In: R.C. Moore (ed) Treatise on Invertebrate * Paleontology, Part F. Coelenterata: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press: Lawrence. Bayer, F.M Colonial organization in octocorals. In: Boardman, R.S., A.H. * Cheetham, W. A. Oliver, (Eds. ) Animal Colonies: Development and Function through Time: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Rose, Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania. Bayer, F.M Key to the genera of Octocoralla exclusive of Pennatulacea * (Coelenterata: Anthozoa), with diagnoses of new taxa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(3): Bayer, F.M., M. Grasshoff, J. Verseveldt (Eds.) Illustrated trilingual * glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia: 75 PP., 20 pls. E.J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys, Leiden. Muzik, K. and Wainwright, S Morphology and habitat of five Fijian sea fans. * Bull. Mar. Sci.: 27(2) Nutting, C.C Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Muriceidae. Siboga- Expedite VII, Mon. XIII. 108 p., 22 pl. Nutting, C.C Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Plexauridae. Siboga- Expeditie VIII, Mon. XIII : 20 p,. 4 pl. Nutting, C.C Gorgonaea of the Siboga Expedition. Isididae Siboga- Expeditie VIII, Mon. XIII : 24 p., 6 pl. Nutting, C.C Gorgonacea of the Siboga Expedition. Gorgonellidae. Siboga- Expeditie VIII, Mon. XIII : 40 p., 11 pl. Nutting, C.C Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Gorgoniidae. Siboga-Expeditie VIII, Mon. XIII : 12 p., 3 pl. Nutting, C. C Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition, Scleraxonia. Siboga- Expeditie VIII, Mon. XIII : 62 p., 12 pl. Stiasny, G Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Revision der Plexauridae. Siboga-Expeditie VIII, Mon. XIII : 1065., 7 Taf. Thomson, A.J., and Dean, L.M.I Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Alcyonaria III. With an addendum to Gorgonacea. Siboga-Expedities IX, Mon. XIII : 228 p., 28 pl. Verseveldt, J A revision of the Genus Sinularia May (Octocorallia, _ Alcyonacea) Zoologische Verhandelingen, 179 : Verseveldt, J A revision of the genus Sarcophvton Lesson (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). Zoologische Verhandelingen, 192 : Verseveldt, J A revision of the genus Lobophvtum Von Marenzeller (Octocorallia, alcyonacea). Zoologische Verhandelingen., 200 : l

22 Verseveldt, J. & Benayahu Y., Sarcophyton. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 208: l-38. Versluys, J Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Chrysogorgiidae. Siboga- Expeditie VII, Mon. XIII: 120s. Versluys, J Gorgonacea of the Siboga-Expedition. Primnoidae. Siboga-Expeditie VII, Mon. XIII : l88s, IO Taf. * Literature distributed to participants. 19

23 APPENDIX II Participanlx THAILAND Mr. Niphon Phongsuwan Phuket Marine Biological Center P.O. Box 60 Phuket, Mr. Suraphol Choonhabandit Sichang Marine Science Research Station Sichang Island Cholburi, Mr. Vipoosit Manthachitra Department of Marine Science Faculty of Science Srinakharinwirot University Bangsan Cholburi, INDONESIA Mrs. Yosephine Tuti Center for Oceanological Researh and Development Jln. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur P.O. Box 580/DAK Jakarta I 100 I MALAYSIA Dr. Mohd. Zaki Mohd. Said Faculty of Fisheries University of Agriculture Malaysia P.O. Box 203 Sungai Besi, U.P.M. Serdang Selangor PAPUA NEW GUINEA Mr. William Asigau Department of Environment and Conservation P.O. Box 660 1, Boroko THE PHILIPPINES Miss Maria Louella Dolar Marine Laboratory Silliman University Dumaguete City 501 Mr. Porfirio M. Alino University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (present address: Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville, QLD 48 11) 21

24 SRI LANKA Dr. S.U.K. Ekaratne Department of Zoology University of Colombo Colombo OBSERVERS: Mr. Ronnachai Mordee Marine Fisheries Laboratory Department of Fisheries Soi Sapan-Pla Yannawa, Bangkok, Thailand Miss Suvaluck Natenkanjanala Department of Marine Science Faculty of Sciences Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, 10500, Thailand INSTRUCTORS: Mr. Philip Alderslade Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory P.O. Box 4646 Darwin, 5794 Australia Dr. Yehuda Benayahu Department of Zoology Tel Aviv University Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv Israel Dr. Katherine Muzik Museum of Comparative Zoology Harvard University Cambridge, MA U.S.A., PMBC Organizing Committee: Mr. Komaet Charoenpanich, Director Dr. Hansa Chansang Unesco Organizer: Dr. Robin Harger Unesco/ROSTSEA Tromolpos 273/JKT Jakarta, Indonesia Mr. Michael Marani Unesco/ROSTSEA Tromolpos 273/JKT Jakarta, Indonesia 22

25 APPENDIX III List of literature distributed to participantx Alderslade, P. (unpublished) 66-page compilation of sclerite illustrations, representing 72 octocoral genera; 4-page compilation of diagrams of colony structure. Bayer, F.M Octocorallia. In: R.C. Moore (ed) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F. Coelenterata: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press: Lawrence. Bayer, F. M Colonial organization in octocorals, In: Boardman, R.S., A.H. Cheetham, W.A. Oliver. (Eds.) Animal Colonies: Development and Function through Time: Dowden, Hutchison, and Ross, Strousberg, Pennsylvania. Bayer, F.M Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive of Pennatulacea (Coelenterata: Anthozoa), with diagnoses of new taxa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(3): Bayer, F.M., M. Grasshoff, J. Verseveldt (Eds.) 1983 Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia: 75 pp., 20~1s. E.J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys, Leiden. Muzik, Katherine and Stephen Wainwright 1977 Morphology and habitat of five Fijian sea fans. Bull. Mar. Sci.: 27 (2)

26 APPENDIX IV Acknowledgments I. The instructors give special thanks to Niphon Phongsuwan, Namphon Karnjanasaya, and Sombat Poowachiranon of PMBC. 2. PMBC wishes to thank Unesco/COMAR for making the event. possible and to gratefully acknowledge the effort on the part of the instructors and participants in their conttribution to the Reference Collection. 24

27 APPENDIX V Questionnaire: Follow-up to the Unesco/COMAR 1st Octocoral Research Workshop and Advanced Training Course I. Has the knowledge gained at the Training Course been directly or indirectly applied in your research or work and how? 2. Have you been able to transmit the information furnished at the training course to other person/persons in your place of work? Please explain. 3. Have you or other from your institute or working place collected and identified octocorals from your country since the training course. Please give some details. 4. Are you in contact with any of the other participants or resource persons that were present at the training course, on the subject of octocorals? If yes, please furnish names and briefly describe type of correspondence. 5. What will be your future involvement in the field of octocoral research? 6. What do you think should be the objectives and the themes to be covered by a future second training course on octocorals? 25

28 Welcoming Address by: Mr. Komaet Charoenpanich Director of the Phuket Marine Biological Center-PMBC Phuket, Thailand Mr. Michael Marani, Unesco-ROSTSEA; Distinguished instructors and participants. It is my pleasure to welcome you to the Phuket Marine Biological Center. As you may know, the Center has a strong commitment in taxonomy study of local flora and fauna as part of our activity. The task is made possible by the assistance of Unesco which has always been the important force in increasing the marine science knowledge within this region. In the past, have organized two regional workshop related to coral reef study under the joint organization of Unesco and UNEP. These are the Unesco/UNEP Regional Workshop on Comparison of Reef Survey Method in December 1982 and the Workshop with Advanced Training in Coral Taxonomy in February As the results these 2 workshops have expanded our knowledge of reefs and increased cooperation among scientists within Southeast Asia. For this reason we are very happy to welcome this workshop and training course. I am certain that this event will be a success in opening the new frontier of taxonomy study of reef fauna in Southeast Asia, that is the study of the octocoral group. Finally I wish you all the participants a successful workshop and a pleasant stay in Phuket. I also would like to thank the Unesco for the support and the instructors in giving their times to our cause. Thank you. 26

29 Welcoming speech by : Mr. Michael Marani Associate Expert in Marine Sciences UNESCO-ROSTSEA, Jl. Thamrin 14, Jakarta Indonesia Mr. Komae Charoenpanich, Director of the Phuket Marine Biological Center; Instructors; Distinguished participants; Ladies and Gentlemen. Thank you all individually for making your time available to attend this (Taxonomy) Research Workshop and (Advanced) Training course on octocorals here at the Phuket Marine Biologial Center. In particular I would like to mention the government of Thailand and the Director and Staff of PMBC for hosting this meeting and for providing the facilities to make it possible. You are all surely aware that this workshop is one piece of the mosaic that makes UP Unesco s Coastal Marine Project, a major interregional project on research and training that should lead to the integrated management of coastal systems. The need for holding an advanced training course on octocoral taxonomy has been indicated as timely since, although these organisms represent one of the most common fauna in many reefs of Southeast Asia, the amount of attention paid to them, from a research and, particularly, a training point of view does not seem to reflect their wide distribution. And, as you all know it is the integrated knowledge about specific ecosystems that is an important step towards successful, longterm management on a national and regional scale. We are thus very fortunate in having the assistance of eminent resource persons from Australia, Japan and Israel in order that future research and data exchange concerning octocorals can be promoted and expanded throughout this region. 1 hope that, as Unesco I can be of assistance to you all in any matters that arise and I am sure that, as a marine geophysicist, I shall learn very much from all of you. Let me conclude by wishing you all, also on behalf of Dr. Robin Harger who is at Unesco Headquarters in Paris at the moment, every success in the work that you are going to undertake. In Italian Buon Lavoro. 27