11/2/2016. Basics of Behavior. Rest Rooms Comfort Breaks and Bonus Videos

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1 Basics of Behavior Lora Perry, MS, BCBA Board Certified Behavior Analyst Licensed Behavior Analyst (VA) (207) Rest Rooms Comfort Breaks and Bonus Videos Learners will increase understanding of how to change student behavior, take simple data, and promote independence and choice in students with intellectual and emotional behavioral disabilities. 1

2 Jason 05:23 2

3 A science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior. Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E. & Heward, W. L. (1987). Applied Behavior Analysis, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, p. 14. The Fun Theory: Piano Stairs 01:47 Practitioners of behavior modification focus on changing behavior, but not on why a particular behavior occurs as a fundamental requirement for designing behavior change interventions. Practitioners of Applied Behavior Analysis seek to identify the function of a behavior, and design function-based interventions. 3

4 Conceptual (or Theoretical) Experimental Applied Theoretical Science 01:22 4

5 Experimental Science 03:07 Applied Science 00:50 YES! FunctionAL Behavioral Assessment FunctionAL Behavioral Analysis Applied Behavior Analysis NO! Applied BehaviorAL Analysis 5

6 ABA doesn t work for everyone. Natural science Obeying rules or law of natural origin. Uses the scientific method to study nature Examples of natural sciences Astronomy Biology Chemistry Earth sciences Physics Applied behavior analysis is also a natural science; ABA holds that behavior obeys rules or law of natural origin. Adapted from Wikipedia Pigeon Ping Pong 00:38 6

7 Quality ABA programs use multiple behavior analytic procedures, both adult-directed and learner-initiated, to promote learning in a variety of ways. Effective Use of Reinforcement Sounds simple, but it s NOT! Preference Assessments Schedules of Reinforcement Differential Reinforcement Fading of Reinforcement Transfer of Reinforcement to naturally-occurring contingencies The Matching Law Shaping Chaining/Task Analysis Prompt Hierarchies Analysis of Verbal Behavior Functional Communication Training Augmentative Communication PECS Behavioral Momentum Premack Principle Response Class Hierarchies Functional Behavioral Assessment Functional Behavioral Analysis Tantrums Need an Audience Pivotal Response Training Discrete Trials Incidental Teaching Modeling and Imitation High Probability Response Sequence Functional Equivalence Training Antecedent Modification Visual Activity Schedules Token Economies Environmental Engineering Accepting No Aggression Bolting Cooperation with Instructions Disrobing Disruptive Vocalizations Elopement/Leaving Area Feces Smearing Flopping Food Refusal Food Stealing Non-compliance Pica Picking Perseveration Property Destruction Response to Interruption Response to Transition Sexualized Behavior Self-injurious Behavior Stereotypy Tantrum Tearing Thumb-sucking Urination, as Opposition/Protest Behavior Verbal Opposition Vomiting, Operant Waiting 7

8 Effective use of reinforcement Schedules of reinforcement The Fun Theory: Bottomless Bin 01:26 Baer DM, Wolf MM, Risley TR. Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. J Appl Behav Anal Spring;1(1):91 97 Baer DM, Wolf MM, Risley TR. Some still current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. J Appl Behav Anal Winter; 20(4):

9 Escalation Hierarchies A Word From the Cat 01:29 Topography: The physical form or shape of a behavior (Cooper, Heron, Heward). --What the behavior looks like Operational Definition of a Behavior Example, Aggression: Episodes in isolation or in combination of kicking, punching, hitting and scratching, separated by 30 seconds Helps ensure all data-takers are scoring based upon the same thing Example: Insults 9

10 Permits us to intervene early! Topography of Simon s Cat s Challenging Behavior CRISIS PHASE Seeks and obtains long, heavy object; forcefully swings object to make contact with source of reinforcement (eg hitting with object) Intermittently kneads and jumps; may thwack ear of reinforcer source Taps source of known reinforcement, especially on the source s cheek Kneads with paws, in isolation or in combination with meowing; volume of meowing may increase Jumps in combination with meowing; volume of meowing increases Jumps; may begin to jump in sets of two Approaches and attends to known source of reinforcement; meows Identified Trigger: Hunger Simon s cat is happy; sleeps a lot; purrs. Seek treatment for head injury Feed the damn cat!!! Seriously, feed the cat!!! Feed the cat 10

11 The Impact of Learning (and Unlearning) on the Brain 02:02 Topography of Simon s Cat s Challenging Behavior CRISIS PHASE Seeks and obtains long, heavy object; forcefully swings object to make contact with source of reinforcement (eg hitting with object) Intermittently kneads and jumps; may thwack ear of reinforcer source Taps source of known reinforcement, especially on the source s cheek Kneads with paws, in isolation or in combination with meowing; volume of meowing may increase Jumps in combination with meowing; volume of meowing increases Jumps; may begin to jump in sets of two Approaches and attends to known source of reinforcement; meows Identified Trigger: Hunger Simon s cat is happy; sleeps a lot; purrs. 11

12 CHILD s Levels of Agitation SIB Crisis phase PBSP was not followed, or failed due to variables in play Grabbing Kicking/Hitting Stomping, Kicking Out, Growl-like NCVs Elbow Bang (hard), thumb press (hard) Crying, pinched expression Maintain safety of CHILD, staff/caregivers and peers Do not attempt to teach at this level this is not a teachable moment This is a Critical Incident; Complete Critical Incident Report, and convene a Collaborative Problem Solving meeting as soon as possible to analyze what went wrong. Revise PBSP accordingly. Facial tension, rocking, gait changes, stomping, elbow bang (gentle), NCVs louder, hands over eyes, clenched hands, thumb press Provide break; re-direct to a preferred activity Increase schedule and value of R+ for the absence of escalating behavior Examine antecedents to behavior. This is where we want to be! NCVs at low volume, calm facial expression, happy, smiling, compliant CHILD is happy and calm! Provide lots of reinforcement while working together. (NCV=Non-communicative vocalizations) Be aware that crowded, noisy or hot environments are difficult for CHILD and may trigger escalation in agitation. Example: Jason I don t want to talk about it right now. Simon s Cat: Let Me In 01:51 12

13 Lalli, J. S., Mace, F. C., Wohn, T., & Livezey, K. (1995). Identification and modification of a response-class hierarchy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, Richman, D.S., Wacker, D. P., Asmus, J. M., Casey, S. D., & Andelmand, M. (1999). Further analysis of problem behavior in response class hierarchies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, Basics of Data Collection Lora Perry, MS, BCBA Board Certified Behavior Analyst Licensed Behavior Analyst (VA) (207)

14 Data are taken on specific measures of target behavior so they can be aggregated, graphed and inspected visually for trends and correlations 40 Duration Intensity Percent correct Percent Independent (task analysis) Percent of Measured Intervals (partial interval and whole interval recording) Percent of Opportunities Product Rate (frequency) 14

15 Used when it s important to record the amount of time a behavior takes place Clearly define the onset and offset of the behavior to be timed (eg when does it become a tantrum?) Staff need a reliable watch, preferably with an easy-to-use stopwatch feature 44 A subjective measure and of very little practical use 45 15

16 TAs are used to teach a complex skill by breaking it down into its component parts Data are taken by recording the level of prompt required in each step Over time, progress toward independence can be seen in these self-graphing data collection sheets Top section totals the number of steps in the TA performed independently during that session Used with behaviors that have a discrete beginning and end Hatch mark is recorded each time an occurrence is observed Absolutely needs to be converted to an hourly rate so we compare apples to apples 48 16

17 49 Let a spreadsheet do it for you! 17

18 My all-time favorite for recording challenging behavior! 18

19 Measure: Partial interval recording: Mark as having occurred if present during any part of the 15-minute interval. Note: This measure (partial interval recording) is to gain initial data to guide preliminary decisions. Whether more sensitive (and therefore more labor intensive) measures are warranted will be determined by the Team based upon the initial data. Bolting/Elopement: Percent of Measured Intervals 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% -5.00% Non-compliance: Percent of Measured Intervals 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 19

20 Off-task Behavior: Percent of Measured Intervals 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Anything being tracked should be immediately recorded, or as close to the event as is possible Sometimes it s not possible to be accurate observers we are distracted by a fire drill, for example. In these cases write ND (for No Data) in the space on the data sheet. Then do not include the ND intervals in making calculations after the shift

21 Percentage of steps completed independently Percentage of opportunities performed independently 12/18/ /18/ /25/ /25/2009 1/1/2010 1/1/2010 1/8/2010 1/8/2010 1/15/2010 1/15/2010 1/22/2010 1/22/2010 1/29/2010 1/29/2010 2/5/2010 2/5/2010 2/12/2010 2/12/2010 2/19/2010 2/19/2010 2/26/2010 2/26/2010 3/5/2010 3/5/2010 3/12/2010 3/12/2010 3/19/2010 3/19/ /2/2016 Visual inspection of data is a cornerstone of ABA Not hard to do! Basic Excel skills needed Interpretation of graphed data does not require one to be a rocket scientist Walks in Pedestrian Areas Street Crossing

22 Responses per hour 12/18/ /25/2009 1/1/2010 1/8/2010 1/15/2010 1/22/2010 1/29/2010 2/5/2010 2/12/2010 2/19/2010 2/26/2010 3/5/2010 3/12/ /2/2016 Aggression Antecedent (what happens before) Behavior (what s the behavior of interest) Consequence (what happens after) 22

23 Restricted access to something (item, activity, attention) How the student is inside Performance Demands 23

24 For More Information Lora Perry, MS, BCBA Board Certified Behavior Analyst Licensed Behavior Analyst (VA) (207)

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