Classification and Taxonomy

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1 NAME: DATE: PERIOD: Taxonomy: the science of classifying organisms Classification and Taxonomy Common names of organisms: Spider monkey Clown fish Mud puppy Black bear Ringworm Sea horse Sea monkey Firefly Horned toad Jellyfish Crayfish Puffer fish These names do not always give accurate clues for what the organism really is and they can be confusing. Names can also vary by region. For example, a firefly is also called a lightning bug. Why do we classify? About 1.5 million species are named but there are million species yet to be discovered! It also keeps the species lists organized. Taxonomy groups similar organisms together AND it assigns each organism a name. Naming Organisms: Organisms have common and scientific names. All organisms only have one scientific name but can have many common names. They are usually Latin or Greek and were developed by Carolus Linnaeus. Binomial Nomenclature: two-word naming system Written in italics (or underlined if handwritten) First word is capitalized (Genus) Second word is lowercase (species) Examples: Felis concolor, Ursus arctos, Homo sapiens, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris The scientific name is always italicized or underlined. Genus is capitalized. Species is not. Scientific names can be abbreviated by using the capital letter of the genus and a period: Example. P. leo (lion) or H. sapiens (human) Members of the same genus are closely related. Only members of the same species can interbreed (under natural conditions). Some hybrids do occur under unnatural conditions: Ligers are crosses between tigers and lions. Linneaus - devised the current system of classification, which uses the following schema: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species There are many mnemonic devices to help you remember the order: Kids Playing Chicken On Freeways Get Squished Kings Play Chess On Fancy Glass Stools King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach Kings Prefer Chocolate Over Fudge Generally Speaking

2 Examine how these animals are organized into the different groups : Human Cougar Tiger Pintail Duck Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Phylum Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata Class Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Aves Order Primate Carnivora Carnivora Anseriformes Family Homindae Felidae Felidae Anatidae Genus Homo Felis Panthera Anas Species sapiens concolor tigris acuta The six kingdoms are Animalia, Plantae, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Fungi, and Protista. Every organism (except viruses) fits into one of these six kingdoms. Viruses are not considered alive so they do not have a kingdom.

3 Use the following picture to answer questions 1-21: True/False 1. Dogs belong to the order Felidae. 2. A fox belongs to the phylum Arthropoda. 3. Snakes belong to the phylum Reptilia. 4. Lions belong to the class Mammalia 5. All arthropods belong to the Class Insecta 6. All rodents belong to the phylum Chordata. 7. All amphibians belong to the class Reptilia. 8. All primates are mammals. 9. The class Mammalia includes dogs, cats and rats. 10. A lion belongs to the genus Felis. 11. All mammals are primates. 12. Insects and lobsters are arthropods

4 In each set, circle the pair that is most closely related. 13. snakes & crocodiles snakes & frogs 14. rats & cats cats & dogs 15. insects & lobsters insects & birds 16. lions & tigers lions & cougars 17. foxes & rats foxes & dogs 18. cats & dogs cats & lions 19. List (use species name) all the animals pictured that belong in the Felidae family. 20. The image does not show orders of insects. Suggest three categories of insects that would likely be grouped into orders. Hint: think about what kind of insects there are. Add your three categories to the image. 21. Create an addition to the picture on the previous page given the following information. Draw it on the picture. Mollusks are divided into three classes: Class Cephalopoda (squids), Class Gastropoda (snails), Class Bivalve (clams and oysters) Cephalapods have a few orders, one of which is Octopoda (octopus) and another is Teuthida (squids) The scientific name for the common octopus is Octopus vulgaris. The scientific name for the common European squid is Loligo vulgaris. Classification Questions 22. There are six kingdoms, give an example for each kingdom: Animal Plant Fungi Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protists 23. Into what kingdom would each of the following be classified? a) unicellular prokaryotes that live in dust b) unicellular eukaryotes that live in pond water c) multicellular eukaryotes that live all over the planet and consume food d) unicellular prokaryotes that live in volcanic ash and other inhospitable environments e) multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls and are heterotrophic f) multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls and are autotrophic Use the information below to answer questions Scientific Name Panthera onca Felis concolor Panthera leo Felis catus Canis lupus Panthera tigris Common Name Jaguar Mountain lion Lion House cat Wolf Tiger

5 24. Which two animals are most closely related to the tiger? 25. Would you expect an animal with the name Rania concolor to look similar to a mountain lion? Why or why not? 26. Which animal is most closely related to the house cat? 27. Organisms that belong to the same class, must belong to the same: (circle) Order / Phylum / Kingdom / Family 28. Fill in the blanks: Kingdom --> --> Class --> --> --> Genus --> 29. In each pair, circle the one that you would expect to find the most individual species: kingdom and genus phylum and kingdom phylum and genus genus and species phylum and class class and family order and class order and phylum CLADOGRAM ANALYSIS What is a cladogram? It is a diagram that depicts evolutionary relationships among groups. It is based on PHYLOGENY, which is the study of evolutionary relationships. Sometimes a cladogram is called a phylogenetic tree (though technically, there are minor differences between the two). In the past, biologists would group organisms based solely on their physical appearance. Today, with the advances in genetics and biochemistry, biologists can look more closely at individuals to discover their pattern of evolution, and group them accordingly - this strategy is called EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION CLADISTICS is form of analysis that looks at features of organisms that are considered "innovations," or newer features that serve some kind of purpose. (Think about what the word "innovation" means in regular language.) These characteristics appear in later organisms but not earlier ones and are called DERIVED CHARACTERS. PART I - Analyze the Cladogram Examine the sample cladogram, each letter on the diagram points to a derived character, or something different (or newer) than what was seen in previous groups. Match the letter to its character. Note: this cladogram was created for simplicity and understanding, it does not represent the established phylogeny for insects and their relatives. 30. Wings Legs 32. Segmented Body 33. Double set of wings 34. Cerci (abdominal appendages) 35. Crushing mouthparts 36. Legs 37. Curly Antennae

6 PART II - Create Your Own Cladogram To make a cladogram, you must first look at the animals you are studying and establish characteristics that they share and ones that are unique to each group. For the animals on the table, indicate whether the characteristic is present or not. Based on that chart, create a cladogram like the one pictured above. Cells Backbone Legs Hair Opposable Thumbs Slug Catfish Frog Tiger Human DRAWING OF YOUR CLADOGRAM:

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