35 Multiple Alleles Karyotype Remember: - Chromosomes occur in pairs.! (homologous pairs) - The different alleles of a gene occupy the same positions on each chromosome
36 Multiple Alleles So far each gene we have discussed has been made of two possible alleles.
37 Multiple Alleles So far each gene we have discussed has been made of two possible alleles.
38 Multiple Alleles So far each gene we have discussed has been made of two possible alleles. Ex. Y = Yellow y= green
39 Multiple Alleles However, it is possible to have several different allele possibilities for one gene.
40 Multiple Alleles However, it is possible to have several different allele possibilities for one gene. Multiple alleles is when there are more than two allele possibilities for a gene.
41 Multiple Alleles However, it is possible to have several different allele possibilities for one gene. Multiple alleles is when there are more than two allele possibilities for a gene.
42 Multiple Alleles In traits with multiple alleles, each individual can carry any two of the several possible alleles. Ex. BLOOD TYPE The gene for blood type has 3 possible alleles. I A, I B, and i
43 Blood Type In this case both A and B are dominant to O (recessive). A and B are codominant (both expressed) So... there are four human blood types
44 Blood Type In this case both A and B are dominant to O (recessive). A and B are codominant (both expressed) So... there are four human blood types Genotype I A I A, I A i I B I B, I B i I A I B ii Phenotype Blood type A Blood type B Blood type AB Blood Type O
45 Blood Type
46 Rh Factors Scientists sometimes study Rhesus monkeys to learn more about the human anatomy because there are certain similarities between the two species. While studying Rhesus monkeys, a certain blood protein was discovered. This protein is also present in the blood of some people. Other people, however, do not have the protein. The presence of the protein, or lack of it, is referred to as the Rh (for Rhesus) factor. If your blood does contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+). If your blood does not contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh negative (Rh-). A+ A- B+ B- AB+ AB- O+ O-
47 Who can give you blood? People with TYPE O blood are called Universal Donors, because they can give blood to any blood type. People with TYPE AB blood are called Universal Recipients, because they can receive any blood type. Rh + Can receive + or - Rh - Can only receive -
48 How common is your blood type? 46.1% 38.8% 11.1% 3.9%
49 Sex-Linked Traits
50 Sex Chromosomes Karyotype
51 Sex Chromosomes Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Karyotype
52 Sex Chromosomes Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Karyotype 1-22 are autosomes
53 Sex Chromosomes Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Karyotype 1-22 are autosomes The 23rd pair of chromosomes is related to the sex of an individual, these chromosomes are called sex chromosomes
54 Are you XX or XY?
55 Are you XX or XY? In humans, the sex of an individual depends on the presence or absence of the Y chromosome
56 Are you XX or XY? In humans, the sex of an individual depends on the presence or absence of the Y chromosome Female is XX Male is XY
57 Are you XX or XY? In humans, the sex of an individual depends on the presence or absence of the Y chromosome Female is XX Male is XY Y is much smaller and only contains about 25 genes (NOT MANY!)
58 How sex is determined:
59 How sex is determined: 50/50 Chance of becoming a male or female!
60 Sex-linked Traits
61 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome
62 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome Sex-linked disorders are passed from mother to son by a defective gene on the X chromosome.
63 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome Sex-linked disorders are passed from mother to son by a defective gene on the X chromosome. Since Y chromosomes contain almost no genes, whatever trait is expressed on the X chromosome will be shown in a male.
64 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome Sex-linked disorders are passed from mother to son by a defective gene on the X chromosome. Since Y chromosomes contain almost no genes, whatever trait is expressed on the X chromosome will be shown in a male.
65 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome Sex-linked disorders are passed from mother to son by a defective gene on the X chromosome. Since Y chromosomes contain almost no genes, whatever trait is expressed on the X chromosome will be shown in a male. <-Baldness
66 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome Sex-linked disorders are passed from mother to son by a defective gene on the X chromosome. Since Y chromosomes contain almost no genes, whatever trait is expressed on the X chromosome will be shown in a male. <-Baldness
67 Sex-linked Traits Traits carried only on the X chromosome Sex-linked disorders are passed from mother to son by a defective gene on the X chromosome. Since Y chromosomes contain almost no genes, whatever trait is expressed on the X chromosome will be shown in a male. <-Baldness Hemophilia->
68 What do you see?
69 Color Blindness
70 Color Blindness is a condition in which certain colors cannot be distinguished, and is most commonly due to an inherited condition.
71 Color Blindness is a condition in which certain colors cannot be distinguished, and is most commonly due to an inherited condition. Problems in distinguishing reds and greens are the most common.
72 A pedigree for color-blindness Normal male Carrier female P1 F1 Carrier female Normal female Colorblind male Normal male
73 Sex-linked Punnett Square
74 Sex-linked Punnett Square X chromosome is shown with superscript. An upper case for dominant, lower case for recessive. Y chromosome has NO superscript
75 Sex-linked Punnett Square X chromosome is shown with superscript. An upper case for dominant, lower case for recessive. Y chromosome has NO superscript
76 Practice Problem A man without colorblindness has children with a woman who is homozygous recessive for colorblindness Give the phenotype and genotype of each parent. Show the cross What can we predict about any girls they will have? What about boys?
78 HEMOPHILIA Hemophilia is often called the disease of kings because it was carried by many members of Europe s royal family.
80 Queen Victoria Queen Victoria of England was a carrier of hemophilia and passed The disease to many of her descendants (including the Russian emperor s family and the Spanish royal family).
82 Family of Queen Victoria
84 The history of Queen Victoria's descendants illustrates the hereditary characteristics of hemophilia. We can take a look at her family tree(pedigree).
Exceptions to Mendel Complex Patterns of Inheritance Think about this You are walking around outside and you notice a bush with two distinctly colored flowers: red and white. However, you notice a pink
Beyond Mendel Extending Mendelian Genetics Chapter 12 Mendel s work did, however, provide a basis for discovering the passing of traits in other ways including: Incomplete Dominance Codominance Polygenic
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Welcome to Jeopardy! Genetics Please get your blood typing lab out for me to check. Come up to my desk with your partner If a boy is colorblind, he inherited it from A) His mother B) His father C) Both
DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST Unit 6 Assessment Objective 3.2.2 Vocabulary Matching + 1 point each 1. dominant 2. recessive 3. genotype 4. phenotype 5. heterozygous 6. homozygous 7. incomplete dominance 8.
Genetics Intervention Vocabulary: Define the following terms on a separate piece of paper. allele autosome chromosome codominance dihybrid diploid dominant gene gamete haploid heterozygous homozygous incomplete
1. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? a. Genotype is the physical characteristics; phenotype is the genetic make-up. b. Genotype is the genetic make-up; phenotype is the physical characteristics.
Lesson Overview 14.1 Karyotypes To find what makes us uniquely human, we have to explore the human genome. A genome is the full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA. A study of
Station 1 Using the cards, match the vocabulary word with its definition. If there are any words you do not know, write them down if you have time! Station 2 Answer the following questions on a separate
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Science 10-Biology Activity 17 Worksheet on More Complex Genetics 10 Name Due Date Show Me Hand In Correct and Hand In Again By NOTE: This worksheet is based on material from pages 398-404 in Science Probe.
Biology Ms. Ye Name Date Block Other Patterns of Inheritance: Incomplete Dominance o One allele is not completely dominant over the other, resulting in a o Incomplete dominance is not support for the blending
Name: # Date: Per: Genetics Extra Practice Show all work! Monohybrids 1. A cross between two pea plants hybird for a single trait produces 60 offspring. Approximately how many of the offspring would be
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Genetics Punnett Square Review Questions Work booklet Name: There are several types of questions that involve the use of Punnett Squares in this unit. Here s the break down or summary of those problems.
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Mendelian Genetics Part 4: Dihybrid Cross Name Terms and Explanations Explain the following terms and concepts, using both a diagram and an explanation in sentences or statements: Monohybrid cross Meiosis
Station #1: Multiple alleles, blood types (Remember, the possible multiple alleles for blood are written as I A, I B, i, with types A and B being codominant, and O being recessive.) 1. A man with blood
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Name period date assigned date due date returned ollow instructions 1-4. ross 1. Place the parents genotypes in the Punnett Square and fill in the offspring s genotypes. Parent 2 Parent 1 Genotype Results
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Name: Period: Date: Practice Study Guide Genetics: Solve the following questions: Problem 1: a. What is the most likely mode of inheritance for this pedigree? Why? Problem 2: Assume that the individual
Name Mendelian Genetics SI Date 1. In sheep, eye color is controlled by a single gene with two alleles. When a homozygous brown-eyed sheep is crossed with a homozygous green-eyed sheep, blue-eyed offspring
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Lab 9, Biol-1, C. Briggs, revised Spring 2018 Sample Size Adapted from Schmidt, et al. 2006. Life All Around Us. Name: Lab day of week: Objectives Observe the benefits of large sample sizes. Instructions
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+ Human Heredity + Karyotypes A genome is the full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA. Karyotype: Shows the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged
Please keep all extra notes and practice problems neatly organized in your notebook so that may reference them as needed This information is covered in 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 and chapter 7 of your textbook Study
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100 Points Name: Date: Period: Genetics: Punnett Squares Practice Packet Bio Honors Most genetic traits have a stronger, dominant allele and a weaker, recessive allele. In an individual with a heterozygous
Questions from last week You have a mouse with red eyes and a mouse with blue eyes. How could you determine which is the dominant trait? Mouse Eyes Without knowing anything about the parents you ll need
Genetics Worksheet Name Section A: Vocabulary 1. Identify if the alleles are homozygous (Ho) or heterozygous (He). a. DD b. Ee c. tt d. Hh 2. For each genotype below, determine the phenotype. a. Purple
Genetics Review Name: Block: Part 1: One Trait Crosses 1. Describe the genotypes below using vocabulary terms given in class. a. DD: b. Dd: c. dd: 2. In humans, brown eye color (B) is dominant over blue
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Genetics & Punnett Square Notes Essential Question What is Genetics and how are punnett squares used? History of Genetics Gregor Mendel Father of modern genetics Studied pea plants Found that plants that
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Name Period Genetics Practice Problems 1. For each genotype, indicate whether it is heterozygous (HE) or homozygous (HO) AA Bb Cc Dd Ee ff GG HH Ii Jj kk Ll Mm nn OO Pp 2. For each of the genotypes below,
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Biology 100 Instructor: K. Marr Name Lab Section Group No. Quarter ALE #8. Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Practice Problems Answer the following questions neatly and fully in the spaces provided. References:
Genetics Why don t you look exactly like your parents? Pull How are traits passed to the next generation? Pull What s Genetics? An organism s heredity is the set of characteristics it receives from its
Parent 2 : SpongeSusie Name: : Patterns in Genetics Do Now: Answer the following question based on the information below. As we know, Spongebob is hertereozygous for his yellow body color and his squarepants,
66 Patterns in Pedigrees P R O B L E M S O LV I N G As you now know, genes are inherited and affect the characteristics of an organism. By growing Nicotiana seedlings, you ve seen how a trait is inherited.
Q1.In cats, males are XY and females are XX. A gene on the X chromosome controls fur colour in cats. The allele G codes for ginger fur and the allele B codes for black fur. These alleles are codominant.
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Heredity B Station 1 Examine the following karyotype. 1. What gender is this individual? a. male b. female c. indeterminate d. you cannot tell from this type of diagram 3. Which is true about this karyotype?
1). Make a list of all the genetic traits you can think of. What makes you different from everyone else? How did you get the traits you have? Why do some children look totally different from both of their