1. For each genotype, indicate whether it is heterozygous (HE) or homozygous (HO) Ii Jj kk Ll

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1 Simple Genetics Practice Problems 1. For each genotype, indicate whether it is heterozygous (HE) or homozygous (HO) AA Bb Cc Dd Ee ff GG HH Ii Jj kk Ll Mm nn OO Pp 2. For each of the genotypes below, determine the phenotype. Purple flowers are dominant to white flowers PP Pp pp Round seeds are dominant to wrinkled RR Rr rr Brown eyes are dominant to blue eyes BB Bb bb Bobtails are recessive (long tails dominant) TT Tt tt 3. For each phenotype, list the genotypes. (Remember to use the letter of the dominant trait) Straight hair is dominant to curly. straight straight curly Pointed heads are dominant to round heads. pointed pointed round 4. Set up the square for each of the crosses listed below. The trait being studied is round seeds (dominant) and wrinkled seeds (recessive) Rr x rr What percentage of the offspring will be round?

2 Rr x Rr What percentage of the offspring will be round? RR x Rr What percentage of the offspring will be round? Practice with Crosses. Show all work! 5. A TT (tall) plant is crossed with a tt (short plant). What percentage of the offspring will be tall? 6. A Tt plant is crossed with a Tt plant. What percentage of the offspring will be short? 7. A heterozygous round seeded plant (Rr) is crossed with a homozygous round seeded plant (RR). What percentage of the offspring will be homozygous (RR)? 8. A homozygous round seeded plant is crossed with a homozygous wrinkled seeded plant. What are the genotypes of the parents? x What percentage of the offspring will also be homozygous?

3 9. In pea plants purple flowers are dominant to white flowers. If two white flowered plants are cross, what percentage of their offspring will be white flowered? 10. A white flowered plant is crossed with a plant that is heterozygous for the trait. What percentage of the offspring will have purple flowers? 11. Two plants, both heterozygous for the gene that controls flower color are crossed. What percentage of their offspring will have purple flowers? What percentage will have white flowers? 12. In guinea pigs, the allele for short hair is dominant. What genotype would a heterozygous short haired guinea pig have? What genotype would a purebreeding short haired guinea pig have? What genotype would a long haired guinea pig have? 13. Show the cross for a pure breeding short haired guinea pig and a long haired guinea pig. What percentage of the offspring will have short hair? 14. Show the cross for two heterozygous guinea pigs. What percentage of the offspring will have short hair? What percentage of the offspring will have long hair? 15. Two short haired guinea pigs are mated several times. Out of 100 offspring, 25 of them have long hair. What are the probable genotypes of the parents? x Show the cross to prove it!

4 More monohybrid Problems 16. In rabbits the allele for black coat color (B) is dominant over the allele for brown coat color (b). What is the genotypic ratio and phenotypic ratio be for a cross between an animal homozygous for black coat color and one homozygous for brown coat color? 17. White (W) hair in sheep is caused by the dominant gene while black (w) hair is recessive. A heterozygous white male and a black female are parents of a black lamb. What is the probability that their next lamb will be white? What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios? 18. Albinism is recessive in humans. An albino man marries a woman who is not albino, but had an albino father. What is the probability of this couple having a child that is not an albino? What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios? 19. Todd and Melissa are college students who are planning to get married. They are currently taking a genetics course and decided to determine the eye color of any possible children they might have. Blue eyes are recessive to brown eyes. Todd has brown eyes, like his three brothers. His mother and grandmother have blue eyes, but his father and all other grandparents have brown eyes. Brown eyed Melissa has one blue eyed sister and one brown eyed sister and a mother with blue eyes. Her father and all of her grandparents have brown eyes. Construct an accurate punnett square to determine the possible eye colors of their yet to be born children. What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios? 20. In Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, green shells are dominant over brown shells. Leonardo, who is heterozygous for a green shell, marries the lovely Mona Lisa, who has a brown shell. What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios?

5 21. In humans, polydactyly (an extra finger on each hand or toe on each foot) is due to a dominant gene. When one parent is polydactylous, but heterozygous, and the other parent is normal, what are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of their children? Two trait crosses For the following two trait crosses we will use some of the traits Mendel studied in pea plants. Use the chart below to determine if the allele is dominant or recessive. The chart also assigns letters to use for the following genetic problems. Trait Dominant Allele Recessive Allele Pod Shape Smooth (N) Constricted (n) Pod Color Green (G) Yellow (g) Flower Position Axial (A) Terminal (t) Plant Height Tall (T) Short (t) Flower Color White (W) Violet (w) 1. For the following genotypes below, determine the phenotype. NnWw ggaa ttnn wwtt WwTt aagg Aagg nnww 2. For each of the phenotypes, list all the possible genotypes. Remember to use the letters for each trait from the table above. Plant Height and pod shape Flower color and flower position tall, smooth white, axial tall, smooth white, axial short, constricted violet, terminal Pod color and pod shape Plant height and flower position Green, smooth tall, axial Green, smooth tall, axial yellow, constricted short, terminal

6 For the following problems use the letters provided. Give the phenotypic ratio of the following two trait crosses. 3. TTAA x ttaa 4. ttaa x TTaa Phenotypic ratios 5. TtAa x ttaa Phenotypic ratios 6. TtAa x ttaa Phenotypic ratios Phenotypic ratios

7 7. TtAa x TtAa Phenotypic ratios Solve the following word problems using the traits Mendel studied. Show your work. 8. If a homozygous tall, heterozygous green plant were crossed with a short yellow plant and they had 16 offspring, how many would you expect to be tall and yellow? a. 1/16 b.9/16 c. 8/16 d. 12/16 e. 16/16 f. 0/16 9. If a heterozygous tall, terminal plant were crossed with a short, terminal plant, how many offspring out of 16 would you expect to be short, terminal? a. 1/16 b. 9/16 c. 8/16 d. 12/16 e. 16/16 f. 0/ If a short plant with constricted pods was crossed with a heterozygous tall plant that is homozygous for smooth pods, how many of the 16 offspring would be short with constricted pods? a. 1/16 b. 9/16 c. 8/16 d. 12/16 e. 16/16 f. 0/ A tall plant with white flowers is crossed with a tall plant with white flowers. Some of the offspring are short with violet flowers. What are the genotypes of the parents? 12. A tall plant, who had a tall and a short parent, is crossed with a short plant. Out of 100 offspring, what percentage would you expect to be short? 13. What is the probability that a heterozygous tall pea plant and a heterozygous tall plant would have 4 short offspring in a row? 14. What is the probability that the 5 th offspring would be short?

8 Use probability to predict the results of the following three trait crosses. 15. Two individuals with genotype AaBbDd are crossed. a. What fraction will have genotype AABbDd? b. What fraction will have genotype aabbdd? c. What fraction will have genotype AabbDd? d. How many phenotypes would you expect to show the dominant trait for all three? e. How many would show the recessive phenotype for all three? 16. Parents with genotype AABbDD and AabbDd are crossed. a. What fraction will have genotype AabbDd? b. What fraction will have genotype aabbdd? c. What fraction will have genotype Aabbdd? d. How many phenotypes would you expect to show the dominant trait for all three? e. How many would show the recessive phenotype for all three? Incomplete Dominance Problems 17. Yellow coat color in guinea pigs is produced by the homozygous genotype, YY, and cream color by the heterozygous genotype, Yy. White is produced by the homozygous genotype, yy. What genotypic ratios are produced by matings between cream colored guinea pigs? Describe the phenotypic ratio. 18. In humans hair texture is controlled by incomplete dominance. A curly haired individual and a straight haired individual have all wavy haired children. If two wavy haired people have children, what will the phenotypic ratio be?

9 19. In Japanese four o clock flowers, color is inherited by genes that show incomplete dominance. In such flowers, a cross between a homozygous red flower and a homozygous white flower will always result in pink flowers. a. A cross is made between two pink flowers. What is the probability for each phenotype? b. What is the genotypic and phenotypic ratio for a cross between a plant with red flower and a plant with pink flowers? c. A plant breeder wants to produce only pink Japanese four o clock flowers. Can he do so by crossing pink Japanese four o clock flowers with white Japanese four o clock plants? Use a punnett square to support your answer. 20. Hair texture in humans is incompletely dominant. Curly hair plus straight hair gives you wavy hair. Also, having 2 eyebrows is dominant over one eyebrow. If two individuals are heterozygous for both traits, what is the probability of each phenotype in their future offspring? 21. Remember that hair texture is incompletely dominant. Widow s peak is dominant to not having a window s peak. If a couple has wavy hair and both do not have a widow s peak, what is the phenotypic probability of their children? Co-dominance Problems 22. In shorthorn cattle, the hybrid between red and white is roan, having red and white hairs intermingled. If a roan is bred with a white, what will the phenotypic ratio be? 23. What will the phenotypic ratio be if you crossed a white with a red cow? 24. What will the phenotypic ration be between a roan and a roan?

10 Multiple Allele Problems 1. Suppose a man with homozygous A blood marries a woman with AB blood. What blood types would you expect to find among their children? 2. A man of type AB blood is married to a woman of type O and he questions the legitimacy of her child, who has type O blood. What should the legal judgment be? 3. A child has blood type AB, and the mother has blood type A. a. What are the possible genotypes of the child s father? b. Could the father be type O? Explain. 4. Mrs. Doe and Mrs. Jones had babies at the same hospital at the same time. Mrs. Doe took home a girl and named her Nancy. Mrs. Jones received a boy and named him Richard. However, Mrs. Jones was sure she had had a girl and brought a law suit against the hospital. Blood tests showed the Mr. Jones was type O. Mrs. Jones was type AB. Mr. and Mrs. Does were both type A. Nancy was type B and Richard was type O. Had an exchange occurred? Explain! 5. Mike and Carol Brady are expecting their first child together. Mike, however, has noticed that Sam the Butcher has been hanging around the house at weird times and often when Alice is not around. When baby Brady is born, Mike notices that its blood type is B+. Mike is concerned because he has AB- blood and Carol has O+ (heterozygous positive). Sam the butcher has A+ (heterozygous positive) blood. Is Mike just being sill and as normal will they have this situation settled in 30 minutes, or will the show be continued for paternity suits?

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