Resource utilization and interspecific relations of sympatric bobcats and coyotes

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Resource utilization and interspecific relations of sympatric bobcats and coyotes"

Transcription

1 OIKOS 94: Copenhagen 2001 Resource utilization and interspecific relations of sympatric bobcats and coyotes Jennifer C. C. Neale and Benjamin N. Sacks Neale, J. C. C. and Sacks, B. N Resource utilization and interspecific relations of sympatric bobcats and coyotes. Oikos 94: We used scat analysis and radiotelemetry to characterize use of foods and habitats by sympatric bobcats and coyotes, and evaluated these in the context of spatial and temporal relationships to assess the potential for, and evidence of, interspecific competition. Bobcats and coyotes exhibited broad and overlapping diets. However, diets of the two predators differed in the relative contributions of small and large prey, with bobcats consuming relatively more rodent and lagomorph biomass and coyotes consuming relatively more ungulate biomass. Consumption among rodent prey species was highly correlated between bobcats and coyotes, indicating no evidence of prey partitioning within this group. Habitat selection by the two predators differed slightly at the landscape scale but not within home ranges. Bobcats and coyotes occupied small, overlapping home ranges, such that the likelihood of interspecific encounters (direct or indirect) was high. Bobcats displayed slight avoidance of overlapping coyote core areas during coyote reproductive seasons (winter and spring), when coyotes are typically most territorial (toward conspecifics), but displayed slight attraction during times of year when coyotes were not engaged in reproductive activities. Relative to coyotes, which were strongly nocturnal, diel activity patterns of bobcats were more diurnal and variable. However, activity patterns were not inversely correlated. Overall, these predators appeared to use resources independently and we found little evidence of negative interactions. Differences in resource use by bobcats and coyotes appeared to relate to fundamental niche differences as opposed to competition-related resource partitioning. J. C. C. Neale and B. N. Sacks, Dept of En ironmental Science, Policy and Management, Uni. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA (present address: JCCN: Dept of En ironmental Toxicology, One Shields A enue, Uni. of California, Da is, CA 95616, USA is.edu]; BNS: John Muir Inst. of the En ironment, One Shields A enue, Uni. of California, Da is, CA 95616, USA). Interspecific competition is thought to play an important role in structuring communities (Schoener 1982) and, according to theory, should be especially important in the top trophic level (Hairston et al. 1960, Oksanen et al. 1981). Empirically, the importance of competition among terrestrial carnivores has been difficult to assess due to the paucity of intensive field studies (Palomares and Caro 1999). Accordingly, we investigated resource utilization and interspecific interactions of two mesopredators with greatly overlapping geographic ranges (Nowak 1991), the coyote (Canis latrans) and the bobcat (Lynx rufus), the putative inferior competitor (Litvaitis 1992). Relationships between these two species have been difficult to assess. Because bobcats and coyotes have similar life requisites, they might be expected to compete where they co-occur. Evidence suggestive of competition between bobcats and coyotes includes declining bobcat populations in many parts of North America (Knowlton and Tzilkowski 1979) associated with range expansion of the coyote (Litvaitis and Harrison 1989, Parker 1995), an inverse relationship between popula- Accepted 19 March 2001 Copyright OIKOS 2001 ISSN Printed in Ireland all rights reserved 236 OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

2 tion indices of bobcats and coyotes (Linhart and Robinson 1972), apparent increases in bobcat densities following population reduction of coyotes (Nunley 1977, Henke and Bryant 1999), and reports of coyote-caused bobcat mortality (Anderson 1986, Knick 1990). Other studies, however, reported positively related patterns of abundance of bobcats and coyotes (Schnell et al. 1985) or no relationship (Lovell et al. 1998, Main et al. 1999), suggesting a variable or ambiguous relationship. The major niche dimensions that competitors may use to partition life requisites in short supply are habitat and food (Schoener 1986). Contingency models of resource partitioning suggest that when resources are abundant, animals should be maximally specialized in use of food or habitat type (Schoener 1974a); morphological differences are particularly effective in allowing specialization by food size (Schoener 1974b). As food becomes limiting, breadth of food and habitat types used should increase. Unfortunately, theoretical predictions related to competition and resource utilization have largely ignored spatial relationships, which add another layer of complexity to, and interact with, interspecific dynamics. Assessing resource use at the population level and without respect to space or time can generate ambiguous findings with respect to competitive mechanisms, especially when only one niche axis is examined, as in many comparative studies of carnivore food habits. Spatially explicit and temporal patterns of resource overlap and separation can aid interpretation. We investigated use of food and habitat types as well as spatial and temporal relationships between sympatric bobcats and coyotes. Our study took place in northern California during July 1994 December 1995, shortly after the end of a severe drought ( ; Sacks 1998) when resources appeared superabundant (Neale 1996) and predator populations likely were approaching equilibrium levels. Densities of bobcats (Neale 1996) and coyotes (Sacks 1996) at our study site approximated the maxima reported for these species (Camenzind 1978, Hall and Newsom 1978, Jachowski 1981, Andelt 1985, Lembeck 1986), increasing the likelihood of chance encounters. To explore resource use in this context, we (1) characterized diets of the two predators through fecal analysis utilizing two approaches frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumption to compare use of foods, (2) investigated habitat selection at both the landscape and within-home range scales using radiotelemetry, (3) assessed spatial relationships on multiple scales, and (4) compared diel activity patterns. Methods Study area The study area was centered on the 21-km 2 Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC; N, W) in Mendocino County, California, USA. This site was located in the Coast Range mountains in the Russian River drainage and had a primarily southwest aspect; topography was hilly to semi-rugged, with elevations ranging m. Vegetation consisted of a mosaic of four principal types: chaparral, mixed evergreen-deciduous forest (forest), annual grassland (grassland) and woodland (Murphy and Heady 1983). Cover density was greatest in chaparral and forest and least in grassland. The climate was characterized by cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. Numerous potential prey of coyotes and bobcats occurred on the site including two lagomorph species, 13 rodent species, blacktailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and various birds, reptiles, and invertebrates (Neale 1996). In addition to wild prey, between 900 and 2500 domestic sheep were regularly maintained on the site. Coyotes on the study area suffered high mortality due to routine removal to reduce sheep depredation (Sacks et al. 1999a). Bobcats generally were not associated with sheep kills (Neale et al. 1998) and none were removed during our study. Food habits Scats of bobcats and coyotes were collected bi-weekly from 21 transects (0.5 km in length) established throughout the study area (57% of scats), as well as opportunistically when found fresh (43%). Scats were assigned to predator species based primarily on size and shape (Murie 1954, Danner and Dodd 1982) as well as odor and other sign. Inspection of scats collected from known individuals from traps or during radiotracking confirmed our classification criteria. Approximately 10% of carnivore scats were of ambiguous origin and were discarded. Scats were oven-dried, placed in nylon bags, washed in an automatic clothes washer, and tumbledried, as described by Neale (1996). Hair, teeth, and bone were identified using reference skins, skulls, skeletons, hair keys, and photomicrographs (e.g., Mayer 1952, Glass 1973). Although frequency of occurrence (the percent of scats containing each food item) is commonly used to quantify diets of carnivores, this measure does not accurately reflect the proportional consumption of food items in carnivore diets. For example, frequency of occurrence tends to overestimate vegetative food items (Andelt and Andelt 1984), underestimate large mammalian prey (Weaver 1993), and can be biased with respect to detection of prey in scats due to differences among rodent prey in recovery rates of teeth and hair (Kelly 1991). Therefore, to more accurately assess food habits of these predators, we estimated biomass consumed. Fecal analysis was performed according to specifications of Kelly s (1991) residue-weight model, which OIKOS 94:2 (2001) 237

3 utilized correction factors derived from feeding trials to infer amount consumed from food remains. Depending on the scat contents, analysis involved separating and weighing hair, teeth, and bones, including count and weight of each tooth type present, as well as estimating percent volume for each food item in each scat (Kelly 1991). We used Program SCAT (Version 1.5.1) to estimate biomass consumption represented by scat contents and to calculate the proportion of total biomass represented by each food item. This program did not include a correction factor for reptiles or vegetation. However, based on visual estimates of percent volume, reptile remains did not contribute substantially to prey biomass for either predator. Occurrence of manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) berries was high in scats of coyotes (Neale 1996); we therefore calculated a correction factor for manzanita (1.85 g fresh berry consumed per 1 g residue) based on the number of berries represented per gram residue and the average weight of a fresh berry. Items found in scats but excluded from analyses included grass and occasional orchard fruits, as well as very rare occurrences of moles (Scapanus latimanus) and various carnivores. We compared bobcat and coyote food niches based on overall and seasonal diets, with seasonal periods designated as follows: summer (Jul. Sep.), fall (Oct. Dec.), winter (Jan. Mar.), and spring (Apr. Jun.). Rather than pool scats across seasons to estimate overall diets (which would have resulted in biases toward seasons with larger scat samples), we averaged across seasonal values to generate overall values. We calculated measures of dietary breadth (B) and food niche overlap ( ) based on Pianka (1973):, B=1 p i 2 = (p i q i ) p i2 q i2, where p i is the proportion of food item i in the diet of predator p, and q i is the proportion of food item i in the diet of predator q. In this study, a maximum of 13 categories were available such that breadth ranged from 1 (only 1 food item taken) to 13 (all food items taken, in equal proportions). The index of overlap ranges from 0 (complete dissimilarity) to 1 (complete similarity). Overlap indices should be based on resource categories at least as fine as those perceived by the predators (Krebs 1989), thus we categorized prey to the species level whenever possible (Greene and Jaksíc 1983). For comparative purposes, we also calculated overall frequency of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence (the latter values were expressed as percent of all occurrences, to allow direct comparison with biomass) as well as total and seasonal breadth measures and overlap indices based on frequency of occurrence. An additional 226 coyote scats were analyzed using only frequency of occurrence due to the extensive time requirements of biomass estimation. Radiotelemetry study Bobcats and coyotes were captured using No. 3, padded-jaw leghold traps (Woodstream Corp., Littitz, PA, USA) or homemade snares (coyotes only) with stops to prevent strangulation. Devices were set along roads, ridges, fences, and drainages throughout HREC. Bobcats were sedated with a mixture of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride (10 mg ketamine+1.6 mg xylazine/kg body mass). Captured animals were radiocollared, weighed, measured, and examined for reproductive and general condition (Neale 1996, Sacks et al. 1999b). Animal care and handling procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, Univ. of California, Berkeley (Protocol cr ). We conducted radiotelemetry of resident predators throughout the day and night 5 7 d per week using stationary and mobile (hand-held) units as described previously (Neale et al. 1998, Sacks et al. 1999b), locating most individuals at least once per day. Average telemetry error was estimated at 146 m, with 95% of errors 356 m (Sacks 1996). We used program CALHOME (Kie et al. 1996) to calculate annual and seasonal 65% and 90% adaptive kernel (AK) isopleths and annual 95% minimum convex polygons (MCP). The AK ranges reflected intensity of use (Worton 1989); the 65% and 90% isopleths corresponded to core areas and home ranges, respectively (Sacks et al. 1999b). The MCPs were used to bound areas of availability (e.g., of habitat) because, in contrast to AKs, MCPs were relatively insensitive to dispersion of locations (i.e., clumped, uniform, or random). We determined annual home ranges for resident bobcats and coyotes with 100 radiolocations and monitored during 9 months of the study. Home range sizes of bobcats did not vary significantly by sex (Neale 1996) and thus were pooled for estimation. Male and female coyotes of a territorial pair used virtually identical areas; thus we chose one range (the female s) to represent the territory. Seasonal core areas and home ranges were calculated for territorial female coyotes (range= locations per season, X SD=126 69). Habitat selection We assessed habitat selection, i.e., use relative to availability, by bobcats and coyotes at two spatial scales. We used a vegetation map derived from LAND- SAT imagery (Fox et al. 1997) in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS; ARCVIEW 3.0a, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) to classify habitats into the four major types 238 OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

4 on our study area: chaparral, forest, grassland, and woodland. To compare habitat selection of the two carnivores at the level of home range establishment (i.e., landscape), we calculated habitat composition of the annual 95% MCPs using the GIS. We used individual home ranges as the sample unit and calculated 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals on arcsine transformed mean proportions (Zar 1984: 239). Next, we tested for habitat selection within home ranges by comparing the proportion of each individual s radiolocations in each habitat type (observed) to the proportion of that habitat in the individual s MCP (expected). Previous studies comparing habitat use of bobcats and coyotes (e.g., Major and Sherburne 1987, Litvaitis and Harrison 1989) have used the radiolocation as the sample unit. Although this has been common practice in habitat selection analyses (Neu et al. 1974, Byers et al. 1984), the use of radiolocations instead of individuals as the sample unit amounts to pseudoreplication (Hurlbert 1984), which in this particular application (i.e., for territorial species) is especially problematic (Litvaitis et al. 1994). To avoid this problem, we calculated habitat selection indices for each individual separately, for each habitat type, as logtransformed ratios ( +1; Zar 1984: ) of observed to expected proportions of radiolocations minus log(2) plus 1 (the last two terms made a selection index of 1 correspond to an observed-to-expected ratio of 1). We calculated 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals of selection indices for each habitat during wet (winter spring) and dry (summer fall) seasons. Spatial relationships We investigated overlap of adjacent bobcat and coyote annual 90% AK home ranges. We used the proportion of a bobcat home range overlapped by a neighboring coyote home range as a measure of interspecific spatial overlap (Bradley and Fagre 1988). Quantification of home range overlap is useful as a descriptor and may indicate the likelihood of encounters. However, with the possible exception of adjacent but non-overlapping home ranges with shared boundaries (indicative of strong interspecific territoriality), this metric is too coarse to indicate anything about avoidance (or attraction) behavior. Previous studies (Major and Sherburne 1987, Litvaitis and Harrison 1989) have attempted (and failed) to detect avoidance or attraction between coyotes and bobcats using a modification of the nearest neighbor analysis (Clark and Evans 1954, Keenan 1981) whereby separation distances of paired simultaneous locations of bobcats and coyotes with adjoining or overlapping home ranges are compared to randomly paired locations of the same two individuals. We used this technique (using locations separated by 1 h) in preliminary analyses and similarly found no avoidance. However, if the distance at which a bobcat would alter its course due to the presence of a coyote is short (e.g., 150 m) relative to radiotelemetry error (which seems likely, especially in dense vegetation or rugged topography), this technique would be extremely insensitive. Further, the distance between two simultaneous locations that are widely separated in time (up to 4 h; Litvaitis and Harrison 1989) is unlikely to differ in any meaningful way from that between randomly paired locations. Therefore, to determine whether bobcats avoided coyotes, we compared use versus availability of coyote core areas by spatially overlapping bobcats. We chose the core area of coyotes because this was the most intensively used portion of the home range, and therefore where territorial behavior would be expected to be most apparent. [We also conducted the analyses using coyote home ranges; results were similar and therefore, to avoid duplication, were not presented here.] Availability of coyote core areas was calculated for each bobcat, corresponding to the proportion of a bobcat s annual 95% MCP overlapping core areas of resident female coyotes. Because coyotes shifted their core areas seasonally, these were calculated separately for each season. Use was indicated by proportions of radiotelemetry locations falling inside coyote cores. Ratios of observed (use) to expected (available) proportions of locations within coyote core areas were used to calculate selection indices as described above (under Habitat selection ). Selection indices were calculated for bobcats with 20 locations in a season. Canids tend to be most territorial towards conspecifics during breeding (winter) and pup-rearing (spring) (Jaeger et al. 1996); it is unknown whether interspecific territoriality between coyotes and bobcats also reflects similar seasonality. Therefore, we tested for seasonal differences in bobcat selection indices for coyote core areas using analysis of variance. Acti ity To evaluate overlap between bobcats and coyotes in time, we examined diel activity patterns during wet and dry seasons. Activity (active, inactive, or ambiguous) was assessed at the time of radiolocation, and was inferred from amplitude fluctuation and bearing shift (Andelt 1985, Major and Sherburne 1987) or pulse-rate variation for a subset of animals (5 bobcats, 1 coyote) that wore motion-sensitive transmitters (Telonics, Inc., Mesa, AZ, USA). Environmental conditions such as high winds can influence amplitude fluctuation. Therefore, we only evaluated activity for locations in which we were confident the animal was active or inactive (55% of locations; Sacks 1996). We calculated proportions of these locations coded as active during eight 3-h diel periods. Only animals with 20 activity-coded locations in a diel period were included in calculations of diel period averages. OIKOS 94:2 (2001) 239

5 Table 1. Proportional biomass (percent of the estimated total biomass of prey consumed represented by each food item) and frequency of occurrence (percent of scats containing each food item) of food items a in bobcat and coyote scats, Jul Dec For direct comparison with proportional biomass, the relative frequency of occurrence of food items (number of occurrences of a food item/total number of occurrences of all items in sample, expressed as percent) is given in parentheses. Values for composite groups are left-justified for clarity. Bobcat Coyote biomass (%) freq. of occ. (%) biomass (%) freq. of occ. (%) n=226 scats n=226 scats, n=311 scats n=537 scats, 416 occurrences 865 occurrences Ungulate a (9.1) (25.6) Deer (6.0) (14.5) Sheep (2.6) (11.6) Lagomorph b (15.1) (5.6) Rodent a (41.3) (26.3) Squirrel c (6.3) (2.5) Woodrat (14.3) (6.4) Pocket gopher (6.1) (5.1) Kangaroo rat (3.0) (1.2) Chipmunk (0.6) (0.4) Vole (13.8) (9.6) Mice d (10.9) (5.3) Bird (6.0) (4.8) Insect (4.6) (7.3) Reptile n/a 17.2 (9.3) n/a 7.8 (4.8) Manzanita (1.3) (20.9) a Ungulate and rodent categories include unidentified large and small mammals, respectively. b Syl ilagus bachmani and Lepus californicus. c Sciurus griseus and Spermophilus beecheyi. d Peromyscus sp. and Reithrodontomys megalotis. Results Food habits Most of the biomass consumed by both predators was represented by three mammalian taxa (ungulates, rodents, and lagomorphs; Table 1). The two predators differed in their relative consumption of large and small prey, with small mammals dominating the bobcat diet and ungulates dominating the coyote diet (Fig. 1). The slope of the regression line in Fig. 1 indicated that for coyotes the proportion of total biomass composed by rodents was 54% that of bobcats. Within the rodent category, however, relative ranking of species was quite similar for bobcats and coyotes (revealed by the close fit of points about the trend line for rodents). Based on biomass, overall niche breadth was 6.71 for bobcats and 4.91 for coyotes; overall niche overlap was Based on frequency of occurrence, overall niche breadth was 8.84 for bobcats and 8.35 for coyotes; overall niche overlap was Prey selection by bobcats and coyotes changed over time, but was not generally linked to season per se (i.e., showing similarity between successive summers or falls). Ungulate consumption by bobcats, although much lower, roughly paralleled that of coyotes over time (Fig. 2A). Bobcats displayed a decreasing trend in rodent consumption and an increasing trend in lagomorph consumption, whereas no consistent trends were evident for coyote consumption of these prey (Fig. 2B, C). Seasonality of manzanita berries in coyote scats was apparent in frequency of occurrence data, which showed manzanita berries frequently consumed by coyotes during summer and fall seasons; in contrast, manzanita berries composed only a small proportion of the biomass consumed in all seasons (Fig. 3). Bobcat seasonal niche breadth, based on biomass, paralleled bob- Fig. 1. Consumption of ungulate, rodent, and lagomorph prey by coyotes versus bobcats, expressed as proportion of the estimated total fresh biomass of prey consumed, Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Filled circles represent rodent species, open circles represent deer and sheep. Rodent regression line intercept was constrained to the origin. 240 OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

6 cat-coyote niche overlap and both decreased during the latter part of the study; no pattern was evident in coyote niche breadth (Fig. 4A). Seasonal breadth and overlap measures based on frequency of occurrence showed no obvious trends (Fig. 4B). Radiotelemetry study We captured and monitored 13 coyotes and 11 bobcats. Bobcats were categorized by sex and estimated age class at capture, and weights were calculated for adult females (X SE= kg, n=3), subadult males ( kg, n=5), and adult males ( kg, n=3). Average weights ( SE) of coyotes were 9.77 ( 0.34) kg for females and ( 0.63) kg for males. We obtained 2770 radiolocations of bobcats and 4498 radiolocations of coyotes. Of the radiocollared Fig. 2. Proportion of prey biomass consumed by bobcats and coyotes consisting of (A) ungulate, (B) rodent, and (C) lagomorph prey during six seasons, Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Seasonal sample sizes for bobcat and coyote scats, respectively: 34, 52 (summer 1994); 20, 52 (fall 1994); 76, 53 (winter 1995); 49, 51 (spring 1995); 27, 51 (summer 1995); and 20, 52 (fall 1995). bobcats, there was one death (cause undetermined) during the study period. All bobcats appeared to be in good condition at initial capture, subsequent captures, and during visual observations. Habitat selection Habitat composition of the 95% MCP was similar for bobcats and coyotes, although coyote home ranges tended to include more grassland and less forest than did bobcat home ranges (Fig. 5). Habitat selection Fig. 3. Seasonal use of manzanita berries by coyotes, as measured by occurrence in scats versus biomass consumed, Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December OIKOS 94:2 (2001) 241

7 within home ranges was very similar for bobcats and coyotes in all seasons (Fig. 6). Grassland tended to be used less than expected (based on availability) by both carnivores, but this was significant only for coyotes in winter spring Forest was marginally selected for by coyotes during winter spring 1995 as was woodland for bobcats. Spatial relationships Annual home range size of bobcats averaged ( SE) km 2 (90% AK) and km 2 (95% MCP). Coyote annual home ranges averaged km 2 (90% AK) and km 2 (95% MCP). An average of 16% (range=2 46%) of a bobcat s home range was overlapped by each neighboring coyote home range, and most bobcat home ranges were overlapped by 2 (radiocollared) coyote territories. Coyote territories were mutually exclusive. Fig. 5. Habitat composition of home ranges of bobcats (n= 11) and coyote pairs (n=4), expressed as proportions of the 95% minimum convex polygon consisting of each of four major habitat types, Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Error bars correspond to 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals. Bobcat use of coyote core areas, as indicated by selection indices, differed seasonally (F=3.40, df= 5,24, P=0.018). In particular, bobcats avoided coyote core areas most during winter and spring (Fig. 7). Although sample sizes were too small (n=3 large males) to include bobcat body size as a factor in statistical analyses, only small bobcats appeared to avoid coyote cores during winter, whereas all bobcats appeared to avoid coyote core areas during spring (Fig. 8). Acti ity Relative to coyotes, diel activity of bobcats was variable, both within and among seasons (Fig. 9). Whereas coyotes were more consistently nocturnal, bobcats were relatively less active during h in both seasons for which data were collected for this diel period. Coyotes were generally least active during h. Diel activity patterns of bobcats and coyotes were not negatively correlated in any season (r=0.11, P= 0.11, summer fall 1994; r=0.06, P=0.90, winter spring 1995; r=0.26, P=0.26, summer fall 1995). Fig. 4. Seasonal estimates of dietary breadth for bobcats and coyotes, and bobcat coyote food niche overlap, based on (A) biomass consumption and (B) frequency of occurrence of food items, Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Discussion Food habits Food use represents a primary mode of resource partitioning between two ecologically similar species. At HREC, overall food niche overlap of bobcats and coyotes was moderate when compared with values from other carnivore studies based on the same index (Jedrzejewska and Jedrzejewski 1998). Dietary differences were primarily associated with prey size. Whereas small 242 OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

8 Fig. 6. Habitat selection indices for bobcats (open circles) and coyotes (closed circles) during summer fall 1994 (A, B), winter spring 1995 (C, D), and summer fall 1995 (E, F), Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Values 1=positive selection, 1=negative selection, 1=no selection. Sample sizes were 7, 8, and 5 bobcats, and 4, 4, and 3 coyotes in chronological order. Error bars correspond to 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals. mammals were the principal prey of bobcats, ungulates comprised the bulk of prey biomass for coyotes. In contrast to bobcats, which tend to be solitary (Bailey 1974, Major and Sherburne 1987), coyotes often hunt in pairs or groups, which likely facilitates predation on ungulates (Gese et al. 1988, Gese and Grothe 1995, Sacks et al. 1999b). Body size is often an important constraint on prey size selection as well (Gittleman 1985). Whereas bobcats tend to be slightly smaller than coyotes on average throughout their ranges (Young 1958, Nowak 1991), bobcats on our study area were substantially smaller than coyotes (roughly half the mass on average), which also may have hindered their ability to kill ungulates. Another difference in the diets of bobcats and coyotes in this study was in consumption of vegetation. Because this difference is characteristic of canids and felids generally (Nowak 1991), it clearly reflected differences in fundamental niches of bobcats and coyotes. Interestingly, although most studies of bobcat and coyote food habits have concluded that fruit in the coyote diet but not bobcat diet was a major seasonal niche difference (e.g., Small 1971, Toweill and Anthony 1984, Witmer and DeCalesta 1986, Major and Sherburne 1987, Litvaitis and Harrison 1989, DiBello et al. 1990), the omnivorous status of the coyote contributed little to differences between bobcat and coyote diets in this study. Although manzanita occurred at a high frequency in coyote scats seasonally, it contributed little biomass. Thus, estimates of coyote niche breadth and bobcat coyote overlap based on frequency of occurrence were biased by undue influence of manzanita berries. Food niches of bobcats and coyotes became less similar over the course of our study, based on prey biomass. This pattern, as well as the decreasing trend in bobcat dietary breadth, may have resulted from the partial replacement of rodent species by lagomorphs OIKOS 94:2 (2001) 243

9 (single taxon) in the bobcat diet. The tight relationship between bobcat and coyote consumption within rodent species (Fig. 1) suggested that these predators perceived rodents as a group, which they differentiated from lagomorphs and ungulates by size. When we calculated the seasonal niche breadth indices using lumped prey categories (i.e., rodent, lagomorph, ungulate), bobcat breadth did not decrease over time. Bobcats may have shifted from rodents to lagomorphs as a prey-switching response to changing relative abundances of these prey (Murdoch 1969), although we did not quantify prey abundance. of grassland by both predators was consistent with previous findings for bobcats (May 1981, Koehler and Hornocker 1991), but was uncharacteristic of coyotes, which tend to selectively use such open habitats (e.g., Major and Sherburne 1987). Negative selection of grassland by coyotes in this study was likely related primarily to avoidance of humans (Sacks 1996). Sheep intensively grazed much of the grassland habitat in our study and density of grassland rodents may have been relatively low in this habitat as a result (Hayward et al. 1997), further reducing its attractiveness to coyotes (and bobcats). Habitat selection Habitat segregation may occur independently of interspecific interactions. For example, felids often rely on dense understory cover to facilitate their stalk and ambush style of predation, in contrast to the open pursuit typical of canids (Kleiman and Eisenberg 1973); thus cover and open habitat types might be expected to be selected by bobcats and coyotes, respectively. In this study there was a slight tendency for bobcat home ranges to include more forest and less grassland than coyote home ranges. Further, bobcat home ranges tended to be located at higher elevations, spread along the primary mountain ridge, suggesting some degree of selection for features associated with these areas, such as steep hillsides and rugged, rocky terrain. Within their home ranges bobcats and coyotes displayed nearly identical habitat selection, suggesting that differences at the landscape scale were not related to interspecific interactions. The slight negative selection Fig. 7. Selection indices of observed versus expected use of overlapping coyote core areas by bobcats during six seasons, Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Values 1=positive selection, 1=negative selection, 1=no selection. Sample sizes were 4, 5, 8, 7, 4, and 2 bobcats in chronological order. Error bars correspond to 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals. Spatial relationships The potential for chance encounters between bobcats and coyotes, and hence interference, on the study area was high due to high densities, small home ranges, and high interspecific home range overlap. Whereas exploitation competition, by definition, requires that a resource (usually food) be limiting, behavior associated with interference competition may be present regardless of current resource levels. For example, agonistic behavior and interspecific killing could be cued by detection of a particular species rather than being caused proximately by resource limitation, although such a response could be the evolutionary consequence of past resource competition. Bobcats displayed some avoidance of the most intensively used parts of coyote home ranges during winter and spring, which coincided with coyote breeding and pup-rearing, when coyotes tend to be most territorial toward conspecifics. Core avoidance during winter (coyote breeding) was only apparent for small bobcats, whereas large and small bobcats avoided coyote cores during spring (pup-rearing), when these areas corresponded to den sites, which were probably actively defended. These findings were consistent with other studies indicating that small bobcats (females and young males) are more vulnerable to agonistic interactions with coyotes (Anderson 1986, Litvaitis 1992). We suspect that the observed spatial avoidance of coyote cores by bobcats in this study reflected indirect (e.g., avoiding coyote scent) as opposed to direct (i.e., being chased) interactions. We found no evidence that bobcats were injured or killed by coyotes. Only one radiocollared bobcat died during our study and, although we recovered the carcass too long after death to determine the cause, we found no evidence of attack by another carnivore (e.g., tooth punctures in the skeleton). In addition to the bobcats captured in our study, many others were captured before and after the study during attempts to capture coyotes for other research (e.g., Sacks et al. 1999a, b); none of these bobcats had injuries indicative of coyote attacks. 244 OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

10 Fig. 8. Space use by female and small male bobcats (A, B) and large male bobcats (C, D) with respect to coyote territories during winter (A, C) and spring (B, D) 1995, Hopland Research and Extension Center, January 1995 June Seasonal bobcat locations (dots) and annual 95% MCPs (lines; female ranges have dashed line) are overlaid on seasonal coyote territories (shaded polygons; darker shading in core areas). Activity Partitioning of resources in time is rare relative to partitioning by food or habitat types (Schoener 1974a). Temporal segregation among carnivores is usually not an effective means of partitioning resources per se, because shared resources generally are not renewed within a diel period, and thus exploitation competition is not alleviated (Jaksíc et al. 1981). However, temporal spacing may reflect a response to agonistic interactions as with spatial segregation. Toweill (1986) reported different patterns of activity of bobcats and coyotes which he speculated helped to minimize interspecific contact. At HREC, although bobcats displayed some avoidance of coyotes in space, we found no evidence of a corresponding avoidance in time. Activity patterns of bobcats and coyotes were not negatively correlated and although the two predators displayed different diel patterns of activity, these differences did not coincide with seasons when spatial avoidance was most pronounced. In comparison, transient coyotes, which displayed strong spatial avoidance of residents at our study site (Sacks et al. 1999b), displayed diel activity patterns opposite those of resident coyotes (Sacks 1996). Nocturnal activity of resident coyotes was probably due primarily to high human exploitation. During the year previous to this study, no removal of coyotes OIKOS 94:2 (2001) 245

11 was attempted and coyote activity patterns were less nocturnal (Sacks 1996). Bobcats suffered no exploitation and therefore did not share this pressure for nocturnality. Diurnal activity seems to be generally more typical of unexploited populations of bobcats (Kitchings and Story 1978) and coyotes (Gipson and Sealander 1972, Andelt 1985, Kitchen et al. 2000). Bobcat coyote niche relationships Taken together, our findings indicate that bobcats and coyotes used food and habitat resources independently of each other. The avoidance of coyote cores by bobcats during some seasons provided limited evidence of negative relations. However, the lack of evidence of physical harm or of temporal avoidance suggested that such behavior was not especially important, despite generally high densities of the two predators. It seems likely that prey size differences and/or abundance of food alleviated competition between these two carnivores. Other studies of bobcats and coyotes conducted in environments with mild, relatively stable climates had similar results (Witmer and DeCalesta 1986, Bradley and Fagre 1988). In these studies, as in ours, densities of both predators were high, interspecific home range overlap was extensive, and bobcats and coyotes used foods and habitats similarly. These authors did not report any evidence of interspecific avoidance in space or time, agonistic interactions, or coyote-caused bobcat injury or mortality. Fig. 9. Average diel activity of (A) bobcats and (B) coyotes, during summer fall 1994 (n=11 bobcats, 9 coyotes), winter spring 1995 (n=8, 6), and summer fall 1995 (n=5, 3), Hopland Research and Extension Center, July 1994 December Standard error bars and connecting lines are not shown in summer fall 1995 due to small sample sizes and missing data. 246 OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

12 In contrast, studies in harsh environments characterized by long, severe winters, reported that bobcats and coyotes occurred at relatively low densities and occupied large home ranges (Toweill 1986, Major and Sherburne 1987, Litvaitis and Harrison 1989). Bobcats and coyotes displayed moderate to extensive home range overlap but because of large use areas, chance interspecific encounters were likely rare even in overlap areas. High overlap in one niche dimension (e.g., food use) was often related to low overlap in another (e.g., habitat use; Toweill 1986), indicating niche complementarity. Agonistic interactions included at least one bobcat killed by coyotes in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon (Toweill 1986) and one bobcat killed in a trap by coyotes in eastern Maine (Litvaitis and Harrison 1989). Major and Sherburne (1987) working in western Maine reported no evidence of agonistic behavior, but believed that exploitation competition for deer may have been important, and presented evidence that bobcats were in generally worse condition during winter than coyotes. This may have reflected climatic stress rather than interspecific competition with coyotes, as the study area occurred in the northernmost boundary of the bobcat range. Thus, the importance of interspecific competition between bobcats and coyotes seems generally low but perhaps greater in highly seasonal climates characteristic of northern/northeastern North America and mountainous regions of the western U.S. as compared to mild, stable climates of the southern and west-coastal regions. Although prey biomass tends to be lower in northerly regions, low prey biomass per se does not imply prey scarcity because predator biomass on average tends to correspond to average prey biomass (e.g., Knowlton and Gese 1995). However, in northern North America resources regularly become limiting due to harsh winters and, in boreal regions, multiannual cycles in abundance of primary prey provide additional periods of prey scarcity (and abundance; Keith and Windberg 1978, O Donoghue et al. 1998). In contrast, Mediterranean or semi-arid climates of western and southern North America tend to be more stable and predator and prey populations are likely to be closer to equilibrium more of the time, such that prey are rarely very scarce (or abundant) relative to predator abundance. Acknowledgements We thank M. M. Jaeger and HREC for supporting this study. K. Blejwas, J. Dayton, J. Meisler, J. Poor, Jr., and T. Weller provided valuable field assistance. S. Ardley, J. Theade, E. Voight, and volunteers with the University Research Expedition Program helped with scat collection. M. E. Jaeger, K. Finn and C. Wu assisted with scat analysis. G. Trehey and C. Brooks provided GIS expertise and satellite images. Funding and equipment were provided in large part by the USDA National Wildlife Research Center through cooperative agreements with the U. of Calif. at Berkeley (No CA), and with the Div. of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the U. of Calif. (No CA). Additional support was provided by the Dept of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, the A. Starker Leopold endowed chair, and a graduate fellowship (JN) at the U. of Calif. at Berkeley. We thank V. Bakker, N. Belfiore, K. Blejwas, R. Brock, K. Kauhala, R. Lewison, M. Meyer, S. Riley, T. Schoener, A. Suarez, and D. VanVuren for constructive review of the manuscript. References Andelt, W. F Behavioral ecology of coyotes in south Texas. Wildl. Monogr. 94. Andelt, W. F. and Andelt, S. H Diet bias in scat deposition-rate surveys of coyote density. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12: Anderson, E. M Bobcat behavioral ecology in relation to resource use in southeastern Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO. Bailey, T. N Social organization in a bobcat population. J. Wildl. Manage. 38: Bradley, L. C. and Fagre, D. B Movements and habitat use by coyotes and bobcats on a ranch in southern Texas. Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies 42: Byers, C. R., Steinhorst, R. K. and Krausman, P. R Clarification of a technique for analysis of utilizationavailability data. J. Wildl. Manage. 48: Camenzind, F. J Behavioral ecology of coyotes on the National Elk Refuge, Jackson, Wyoming. In: Bekoff, M. (ed.), Coyotes: biology, behavior and management. Academic Press, pp Clark, P. J. and Evans, F. C Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology 35: Danner, D. A. and Dodd, N Comparison of coyote and gray fox scat diameters. J. Wildl. Manage. 46: DiBello, F. J., Arthur, S. M. and Krohn, W. P Food habits of sympatric coyotes, Canis latrans, red foxes, Vulpes ulpes, and bobcats, Lynx rufus, in Maine. Can. Field-Nat. 104: Fox, L. III, Bonser, G. L., Trehey, G. H. et al A wildlife habitat map and database for the ORCA (Oregon-California) Klamath Bioregion derived from Landsat imagery, version 1.0. Gese, E. M. and Grothe, S Analysis of coyote predation on deer and elk during winter in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Am. Midl. Nat. 133: Gese, E. M., Rongstad, O. J. and Mytton, W. R Relationship between coyote group size and diet in southeastern Colorado. J. Wildl. Manage. 52: Gittleman, J. L Carnivore body size: ecological and taxonomic correlates. Oecologia 67: Gipson, P. S. and Sealander, J. A Home range and activity of the coyote in Arkansas. Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 26: Glass, B. P A key to the skulls of North American mammals. Dept Zoology, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK. Greene, H. W. and Jaksíc, F. M Food-niche relationships among sympatric predators: effects of level of prey identification. Oikos 40: Hairston, N. G., Smith, F. E. and Slobodkin, L. B Community structure, population control, and competition. Am. Nat. 94: Hall, H. T. and Newsom, J. D Summer home ranges and movements of bobcats in bottomland hardwoods of southern Louisiana. Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies 30: Hayward, B., E. Heske, J. and Painter, C. W Effects of livestock grazing on small mammals at a desert cienaga. J. Wildl. Manage. 61: OIKOS 94:2 (2001) 247

13 Henke, S. E. and Bryant, F. C Effects of coyote removal on the faunal community in western Texas. J. Wildl. Manage. 63: Hurlbert, S. H Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 54: Jachowski, R. L Proposal to remove the bobcat from Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Federal Register 46: Jaksíc, F. M., Greene, H. W. and Yanez, J. L The guild structure of a community of predatory vertebrates in central Chile. Oecologia 52: Jaeger, M. M., Pandit, R. K. and Haque, E Seasonal differences in territorial behavior by golden jackals in Bangladesh: howling versus confrontation. J. Mammal. 77: Jedrzejewska, B. and Jedrzejewski, W Predation in vertebrate communities: the bialowieza primeval forest as a case study. Springer-Verlag. Keenan, R. J Spatial use of home range among red foxes (Vulpes ulpes) in south-central Ontario. In: Chapman, J. A. and Pursley, D. (eds), Proceedings of the Worldwide Furbearer Conference, Frostburg, MD, Worldwide Furbearer Conference, Inc., pp Keith, L. B. and Windberg, L. A A demographic analysis of the snowshoe hare cycle. Wildl. Monogr. 58: Kelly, B. T Carnivore scat analysis: an evaluation of existing techniques and the development of predictive models of prey consumed. M.S. thesis, Univ. Idaho, Moscow, ID. Kie, J. G., Baldwin, J. A. and Evans, C. J Calhome: a program for estimating animal home ranges. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24: Kitchen, A. M., Gese, E. M. and Schauster, E. R Changes in coyote activity patterns due to reduced exposure to human persecution. Can. J. Zool. 78: Kitchings, J. T. and Story, J. D Preliminary studies of bobcat activity patterns. Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies 32: Kleiman, D. G. and Eisenberg, J. F Comparisons of canid and felid social systems from an evolutionary perspective. Anim. Behav. 21: Knick, S. T Ecology of bobcats relative to exploitation and a prey decline in southeastern Idaho. Wildl. Monogr Knowlton, F. F. and Tzilkowski, W. M Trends in bobcat visitations to scent-station survey lines in western United States, Bobcat Res. Conf. Proc., Natl. Wildl. Fed. Sci. Tech. Ser. 6: Knowlton, F. F. and Gese, E. M Coyote population processes revisited. In: Rollins, D., Richardson, C., Blankenship, T. et al. (eds), Coyotes in the southwest: a compendium of our knowledge. Symposium Proc., Dec , 1995, San Angelo, TX, pp Koehler, G. M. and Hornocker, M. G Seasonal resource use among mountain lions, bobcats, and coyotes. J. Mammal. 72: Krebs, C. J Ecological methodology. Harper and Row. Lembeck, M Long term behavior and population dynamics of an unharvested bobcat population in San Diego County. In: Miller, S. D. and Everett, D. D. (eds), Cats of the World: biology, conservation and management. National Wildlife Federation, pp Linhart, S. B. and Robinson, W. B Some relative carnivore densities in areas under sustained coyote control. J. Mammal. 53: Litvaitis, J. A Niche relations between coyotes and sympatric Carnivora. In: Boer, A. H. (ed.), Ecology and management of the eastern coyote. Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. New Brunswick, pp Litvaitis, J. A. and Harrison, D. J Bobcat-coyote niche relationships during a period of coyote population increase. Can. J. Zool. 67: Litvaitis, J. A., Titus, K. and Anderson, E. M Measuring vertebrate use of terrestrial habitats and foods. In: Bookhout, T. A. (ed.), Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats. The Wildlife Society, pp Lovell, C. D., Leopold, B. D. and Shropshire, C. C Trends in Mississippi predator populations, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 26: Main, M. B., Walsh, P. B., Portier, K. M. and Coates, S. F Monitoring the expanding range of coyotes in Florida: results of the statewide scent station surveys. Fla. Field Nat. 27: Major, J. T. and Sherburne, J. A Interspecific relationships of coyotes, bobcats and red foxes in western Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. 51: May, D. W Habitat utilization by bobcats in eastern Maine. M.S. thesis, Univ. Maine. Mayer, W. V The hair of California mammals with keys to the dorsal guard hairs of California mammals. Am. Midl. Nat. 48: Murdoch, W. W Switching in general predators: experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecol. Monogr. 39: Murie, O. J A field guide to animal tracks. Houghton Mifflin. Murphy, A. H. and Heady, H. F Vascular plants of the Hopland Field Station, Mendocino County, California. Wasmann J. Biol. 41: Neale, J. C. C Comparative resource use by sympatric bobcats and coyotes: food habits, habitat use, activity, and spatial relationships. M.S. thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA. Neale, J. C. C., Sacks, B. N., Jaeger, M. M. and McCullough, D. R A comparison of bobcat and coyote predation on lambs in north-coastal California. J. Wildl. Manage. 62: Neu, C. W., Byers, C. R. and Peek, J. M A technique for analysis of utilization-availability data. J. Wildl. Manage. 38: Nowak, R. M Walker s Mammals of the World. Vol. II, 5th edn. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. Nunley, G. L The effects of coyote control operations on non-target species in New Mexico. Proc. Great Plains Wildl. Damage Control Workshop 3: O Donoghue, M., Boutin, S., Krebs, C. J. et al Functional responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle. Ecology 79: Oksanen, L., Fretwell, S. D., Arruda, J. and Niemelä, P Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. Am. Nat. 118: Palomares, F. and Caro, T. M Interspecific killing among mammalian carnivores. Am. Nat. 153: Parker, G Eastern coyote: the story of its success. Nimbus. Pianka, E. R The structure of lizard communities. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4: Sacks, B. N Ecology and behavior of coyotes in relation to depredation and control on a California sheep ranch. M.S. thesis, Univ. California, Berkeley, CA. Sacks, B. N Increasing prevalence of canine heartworm in coyotes from California. J. Wildl. Dis. 34: Sacks, B. N., Blejwas, K. M. and Jaeger, M. M. 1999a. Relative vulnerability of coyotes to removal methods on a northern California ranch. J. Wildl. Manage. 63: OIKOS 94:2 (2001)

Coyote. Canis latrans. Other common names. Introduction. Physical Description and Anatomy. Eastern Coyote

Coyote. Canis latrans. Other common names. Introduction. Physical Description and Anatomy. Eastern Coyote Coyote Canis latrans Other common names Eastern Coyote Introduction Coyotes are the largest wild canine with breeding populations in New York State. There is plenty of high quality habitat throughout the

More information

Behavioral interactions between coyotes, Canis latrans, and wolves, Canis lupus, at ungulate carcasses in southwestern Montana

Behavioral interactions between coyotes, Canis latrans, and wolves, Canis lupus, at ungulate carcasses in southwestern Montana Western North American Naturalist Volume 66 Number 3 Article 12 8-10-2006 Behavioral interactions between coyotes, Canis latrans, and wolves, Canis lupus, at ungulate carcasses in southwestern Montana

More information

Lab 8 Order Carnivora: Families Canidae, Felidae, and Ursidae Need to know Terms: carnassials, digitigrade, reproductive suppression, Jacobson s organ

Lab 8 Order Carnivora: Families Canidae, Felidae, and Ursidae Need to know Terms: carnassials, digitigrade, reproductive suppression, Jacobson s organ Lab 8 Order Carnivora: Families Canidae, Felidae, and Ursidae Need to know Terms: carnassials, digitigrade, reproductive suppression, Jacobson s organ Family Canidae Canis latrans ID based on skull, photos,

More information

Some Foods Used by Coyotes and Bobcats in Cimarron County, Oklahoma 1954 Through

Some Foods Used by Coyotes and Bobcats in Cimarron County, Oklahoma 1954 Through .180 PROOf OF THE QKLA. ACAD. OF SCI. FOR 1957 Some Foods Used by Coyotes and Bobcats in Cimarron County, Oklahoma 1954 Through 1956 1 RALPH J. ELLIS and SANFORD D. SCBEMNITZ, Oklahoma Cooperative Wildlife

More information

Bobcat. Lynx Rufus. Other common names. Introduction. Physical Description and Anatomy. None

Bobcat. Lynx Rufus. Other common names. Introduction. Physical Description and Anatomy. None Bobcat Lynx Rufus Other common names None Introduction Bobcats are the most common wildcat in North America. Their name comes from the stubby tail, which looks as though it has been bobbed. They are about

More information

Original Draft: 11/4/97 Revised Draft: 6/21/12

Original Draft: 11/4/97 Revised Draft: 6/21/12 Original Draft: 11/4/97 Revised Draft: 6/21/12 Dear Interested Person or Party: The following is a scientific opinion letter requested by Brooks Fahy, Executive Director of Predator Defense. This letter

More information

Coyote (Canis latrans)

Coyote (Canis latrans) Coyote (Canis latrans) Coyotes are among the most adaptable mammals in North America. They have an enormous geographical distribution and can live in very diverse ecological settings, even successfully

More information

Allen Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Journal of Wildlife Management.

Allen Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Journal of Wildlife Management. Bighorn Lamb Production, Survival, and Mortality in South-Central Colorado Author(s): Thomas N. Woodard, R. J. Gutiérrez, William H. Rutherford Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Wildlife Management,

More information

Factors that describe and determine the territories of canids Keith Steinmann

Factors that describe and determine the territories of canids Keith Steinmann Factors that describe and determine the territories of canids Keith Steinmann A home range is distinguished as the area of a landscape that an individual or pack resides in. A territory is made distinguishable

More information

LESSON 2: Outfoxed? Red and Gray Fox Niches and Adaptations

LESSON 2: Outfoxed? Red and Gray Fox Niches and Adaptations LESSON 2: Outfoxed? Red and Gray Fox Niches and Adaptations GRADES: 6-8 OBJECTIVE: The goal of wildlife ecologists is to study how wild animals interact with their environment. One of the most common questions

More information

Bobcat Interpretive Guide

Bobcat Interpretive Guide Interpretive Guide Exhibit Talking Point: Our job as interpreters is to link what the visitors are seeing to The Zoo's conservation education messages. Our goal is to spark curiosity, create emotional

More information

Lynx Update May 25, 2009 INTRODUCTION

Lynx Update May 25, 2009 INTRODUCTION Lynx Update May 25, 2009 INTRODUCTION In an effort to establish a viable population of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in Colorado, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW) initiated a reintroduction effort

More information

Loss of wildlands could increase wolf-human conflicts, PA G E 4 A conversation about red wolf recovery, PA G E 8

Loss of wildlands could increase wolf-human conflicts, PA G E 4 A conversation about red wolf recovery, PA G E 8 Loss of wildlands could increase wolf-human conflicts, PA G E 4 A conversation about red wolf recovery, PA G E 8 A Closer Look at Red Wolf Recovery A Conversation with Dr. David R. Rabon PHOTOS BY BECKY

More information

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) Productivity and Home Range Characteristics in a Shortgrass Prairie. Rosemary A. Frank and R.

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) Productivity and Home Range Characteristics in a Shortgrass Prairie. Rosemary A. Frank and R. Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) Productivity and Home Range Characteristics in a Shortgrass Prairie Rosemary A. Frank and R. Scott Lutz 1 Abstract. We studied movements and breeding success of resident

More information

New York State Mammals. Order Lagomorpha Order Rodentia

New York State Mammals. Order Lagomorpha Order Rodentia New York State Mammals Order Lagomorpha Order Rodentia FAMILY: LEPORIDAE Rabbits and hares Conspicuous tail Fenestra appears as bony latticework Some species molt seasonally Presence of a second incisor

More information

Animal Biodiversity. Teacher Resources - High School (Cycle 1) Biology Redpath Museum

Animal Biodiversity. Teacher Resources - High School (Cycle 1) Biology Redpath Museum Animal Biodiversity Teacher Resources - High School (Cycle 1) Biology Redpath Museum Ecology What defines a habitat? 1. Geographic Location The location of a habitat is determined by its latitude and its

More information

A California Education Project of Felidae Conservation Fund by Jeanne Wetzel Chinn 12/3/2012

A California Education Project of Felidae Conservation Fund by Jeanne Wetzel Chinn 12/3/2012 A California Education Project of Felidae Conservation Fund by Jeanne Wetzel Chinn 12/3/2012 Presentation Outline Fragmentation & Connectivity Wolf Distribution Wolves in California The Ecology of Wolves

More information

Monitoring Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Activity at Watering Sites via Camera Traps. Emily P. Shafer ABSTRACT

Monitoring Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Activity at Watering Sites via Camera Traps. Emily P. Shafer ABSTRACT Monitoring Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Activity at Watering Sites via Camera Traps Emily P. Shafer ABSTRACT To more rigorously examine the impact of drought and climate change on terrestrial mammals in Mediterranean

More information

Livestock Guard Dog Case Study

Livestock Guard Dog Case Study Livestock Guard Dog Case Study Jernigan Ranch, Pecos County Dr. Reid Redden Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist Dr. John Tomecek Extension Wildlife Specialist Dr. John Walker Resident Director of Research

More information

Brent Patterson & Lucy Brown Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Wildlife Research & Development Section

Brent Patterson & Lucy Brown Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Wildlife Research & Development Section Coyote & Wolf Biology 101: helping understand depredation on livestock Brent Patterson & Lucy Brown Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Wildlife Research & Development Section 1 Outline 1. Description

More information

Pre-lab homework Lab 8: Food chains in the wild.

Pre-lab homework Lab 8: Food chains in the wild. Pre-lab homework Lab 8: Food chains in the wild. Lab Section: Name: Put your field hat on and complete the questions below before coming to lab! The bits of information you and your classmates collect

More information

American Bison (Bison bison)

American Bison (Bison bison) American Bison (Bison bison) The American Bison's recovery from near extinction parallels what happened to the European Bison, Bison bonasus. Once abundant and widespread in northern latitudes, their decline

More information

THE WOLF WATCHERS. Endangered gray wolves return to the American West

THE WOLF WATCHERS. Endangered gray wolves return to the American West CHAPTER 7 POPULATION ECOLOGY THE WOLF WATCHERS Endangered gray wolves return to the American West THE WOLF WATCHERS Endangered gray wolves return to the American West Main concept Population size and makeup

More information

SKELETONS: Museum of Osteology Tooth and Eye Dentification Teacher Resource

SKELETONS: Museum of Osteology Tooth and Eye Dentification Teacher Resource SKELETONS: Museum of Osteology Tooth and Eye Dentification Teacher Resource Grade Levels: 3 rd 5 th Grade 3 rd Grade: SC.3.N.1.1 - Raise questions about the natural world, investigate them individually

More information

Removal of Alaskan Bald Eagles for Translocation to Other States Michael J. Jacobson U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Juneau, AK

Removal of Alaskan Bald Eagles for Translocation to Other States Michael J. Jacobson U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Juneau, AK Removal of Alaskan Bald Eagles for Translocation to Other States Michael J. Jacobson U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Juneau, AK Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were first captured and relocated from

More information

A Comparison of Bobcat and Coyote Predation on Lambs in North-Coastal California

A Comparison of Bobcat and Coyote Predation on Lambs in North-Coastal California A Comparison of Bobcat and Coyote Predation on Lambs in North-Coastal California Jennifer C. C. Neale; Benjamin N. Sacks; Michael M. Jaeger; Dale R. McCullough The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol.

More information

Coyotes in legend and culture

Coyotes in legend and culture Coyotes: Wild and free on the urban interface Dana Sanchez Extension Wildlife Specialist Dana.Sanchez@oregonstate.edu 541-737-6003 Coyotes in legend and culture Coyote Canis latrans Canis latrans = barking

More information

PREDATION ON RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD EGGS AND NESTLINGS

PREDATION ON RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD EGGS AND NESTLINGS Wilson Bull., 91( 3), 1979, pp. 426-433 PREDATION ON RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD EGGS AND NESTLINGS FRANK S. SHIPLEY The contents of Red-winged Blackbird (Age&us phoeniceus) nests are subject to extensive and

More information

Panther Habitat. Welcome to the. Who Are Florida Panthers? Panther Classification

Panther Habitat. Welcome to the. Who Are Florida Panthers? Panther Classification Welcome to the Panther Habitat Panther Classification Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Puma Species: Concolor Subspecies (Southern U.S): P.c. coryi Who Are Florida Panthers? The

More information

Niche overlap between sympatric coyotes and bobcats in highland zones of Olympic Mountains, Washington

Niche overlap between sympatric coyotes and bobcats in highland zones of Olympic Mountains, Washington bs_bs_bannerjournal of Zoology Niche overlap between sympatric coyotes and bobcats in highland zones of Olympic Mountains, Washington J. Witczuk 1,2, S. Pagacz 2, J. Gliwicz 2 & L. S. Mills 1 * 1 Wildlife

More information

PROGRESS REPORT for COOPERATIVE BOBCAT RESEARCH PROJECT. Period Covered: 1 October 31 December Prepared by

PROGRESS REPORT for COOPERATIVE BOBCAT RESEARCH PROJECT. Period Covered: 1 October 31 December Prepared by PROGRESS REPORT for COOPERATIVE BOBCAT RESEARCH PROJECT Period Covered: 1 October 31 December 2013 Prepared by John A. Litvaitis, Tyler Mahard, Marian K. Litvaitis, and Rory Carroll Department of Natural

More information

GREATER SAGE-GROUSE BROOD-REARING HABITAT MANIPULATION IN MOUNTAIN BIG SAGEBRUSH, USE OF TREATMENTS, AND REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY ON PARKER MOUNTAIN, UTAH

GREATER SAGE-GROUSE BROOD-REARING HABITAT MANIPULATION IN MOUNTAIN BIG SAGEBRUSH, USE OF TREATMENTS, AND REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY ON PARKER MOUNTAIN, UTAH GREATER SAGE-GROUSE BROOD-REARING HABITAT MANIPULATION IN MOUNTAIN BIG SAGEBRUSH, USE OF TREATMENTS, AND REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY ON PARKER MOUNTAIN, UTAH Abstract We used an experimental design to treat greater

More information

Predator-prey interactions in the spinifex grasslands of central Australia

Predator-prey interactions in the spinifex grasslands of central Australia University of Wollongong Research Online University of Wollongong Thesis Collection 1954-2016 University of Wollongong Thesis Collections 2005 Predator-prey interactions in the spinifex grasslands of central

More information

The Greater Sage-grouse: Life History, Distribution, Status and Conservation in Nevada. Governor s Stakeholder Update Meeting January 18 th, 2012

The Greater Sage-grouse: Life History, Distribution, Status and Conservation in Nevada. Governor s Stakeholder Update Meeting January 18 th, 2012 The Greater Sage-grouse: Life History, Distribution, Status and Conservation in Nevada Governor s Stakeholder Update Meeting January 18 th, 2012 The Bird Largest grouse in North America and are dimorphic

More information

PROGRESS REPORT for COOPERATIVE BOBCAT RESEARCH PROJECT. Period Covered: 1 April 30 June Prepared by

PROGRESS REPORT for COOPERATIVE BOBCAT RESEARCH PROJECT. Period Covered: 1 April 30 June Prepared by PROGRESS REPORT for COOPERATIVE BOBCAT RESEARCH PROJECT Period Covered: 1 April 30 June 2013 Prepared by John A. Litvaitis, Gregory Reed, Tyler Mahard, and Marian K. Litvaitis Department of Natural Resources

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3 Population Size 450. Slide 4

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3 Population Size 450. Slide 4 Slide 1 Slide 2 The science behind management of game birds, predators, and landscapes of the Midwest: the ups and downs of pheasant populations William R. Clark Iowa State University Iowa DNR, DU- IWWR,

More information

Analysis of Sampling Technique Used to Investigate Matching of Dorsal Coloration of Pacific Tree Frogs Hyla regilla with Substrate Color

Analysis of Sampling Technique Used to Investigate Matching of Dorsal Coloration of Pacific Tree Frogs Hyla regilla with Substrate Color Analysis of Sampling Technique Used to Investigate Matching of Dorsal Coloration of Pacific Tree Frogs Hyla regilla with Substrate Color Madeleine van der Heyden, Kimberly Debriansky, and Randall Clarke

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FOR A PRESENCE/ ABSENCE SURVEY FOR THE DESERT TORTOISE (Gopherus agassizii),

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FOR A PRESENCE/ ABSENCE SURVEY FOR THE DESERT TORTOISE (Gopherus agassizii), C.5 Desert Tortoise EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FOR A PRESENCE/ ABSENCE SURVEY FOR THE DESERT TORTOISE (Gopherus agassizii), on the proposed Alta Oak Creek Mojave Wind Generation Project near Mojave, Kern County,

More information

Y Use of adaptive management to mitigate risk of predation for woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

Y Use of adaptive management to mitigate risk of predation for woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia Y093065 - Use of adaptive management to mitigate risk of predation for woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia Purpose and Management Implications Our goal was to implement a 3-year, adaptive

More information

Lynx Home Range and Movements in Montana and Wyoming: Preliminary Results

Lynx Home Range and Movements in Montana and Wyoming: Preliminary Results Chapter 11 Lynx Home Range and Movements in Montana and Wyoming: Preliminary Results John R. Squires, University of Montana, Forestry Science Laboratory, 800 E. Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59807 Tom Laurion,

More information

January 2001, we monitored 14 radio-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) (7 males and 7

January 2001, we monitored 14 radio-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) (7 males and 7 JOHN CHRISTOPHER GRIFFIN Bobcat Ecology on Developed and Less-developed Portions of Kiawah Island, South Carolina (Under the Direction of ROBERT J. WARREN) Kiawah Island is a 3,200 ha coastal barrier island

More information

FIELD GUIDE TO NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS Bailey's Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus baileyi)

FIELD GUIDE TO NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS Bailey's Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus baileyi) Bailey's Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus baileyi) Bailey's Pocket Mice are solitary, nocturnal, and live in burrows. Pocket Mice mostly eat seeds, using their "pockets," fur lined, external cheek pouches, to

More information

Livestock Guard Dog Case Study

Livestock Guard Dog Case Study Livestock Guard Dog Case Study Lewis Ranch, Val Verde County Dr. Reid Redden Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Dr. John Tomecek Extension Wildlife Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife

More information

In the News. Feral Hogs (Sus scrofa) in Texas. From the Field. What is in a name? 11/15/2013

In the News. Feral Hogs (Sus scrofa) in Texas. From the Field. What is in a name? 11/15/2013 Feral Hogs (Sus scrofa) in Texas In the News Mark Tyson, M.S. Extension Associate Texas A&M AgriLife Extension From the Field What is in a name? Wild Boar Wild Hog Wild Pig Feral Pig Feral Hog Razorback

More information

698 THE WILSON BULLETIN l Vol. 103, No. 4, December 1991

698 THE WILSON BULLETIN l Vol. 103, No. 4, December 1991 698 THE WILSON BULLETIN l Vol. 103, No. 4, December 1991 Wilson Bull., 103(4), 1991, pp. 698-702 Foraging behavior of a guild of Neotropical vultures.-coexistence of two ecologically similar species within

More information

Wild Fur Identification. an identification aid for Lynx species fur

Wild Fur Identification. an identification aid for Lynx species fur Wild Fur Identification an identification aid for Lynx species fur Wild Fur Identifica- -an identification and classification aid for Lynx species fur pelts. Purpose: There are four species of Lynx including

More information

TERRAPINS AND CRAB TRAPS

TERRAPINS AND CRAB TRAPS TERRAPINS AND CRAB TRAPS Examining interactions between terrapins and the crab industry in the Gulf of Mexico GULF STATES MARINE FISHERIES COMMISSION October 18, 2017 Battle House Renaissance Hotel Mobile,

More information

Fact Sheet: Oustalet s Chameleon Furcifer oustaleti

Fact Sheet: Oustalet s Chameleon Furcifer oustaleti Fact Sheet: Oustalet s Chameleon Furcifer oustaleti Description: Size: o Males: 2.5 ft (68.5 cm) long o Females:1 ft 3 in (40 cm) long Weight:: 14-17 oz (400-500g) Hatchlings: 0.8 grams Sexual Dimorphism:

More information

Module 2.4: Small Mammals Interpreting with Chinchillas

Module 2.4: Small Mammals Interpreting with Chinchillas Module 2.4: Small Mammals Interpreting with Chinchillas Interpreting with Chinchillas: The theme of your conversations may differ from group to group depending on the program, and the age of your audience.

More information

Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters in a Competition Model

Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters in a Competition Model Applied and Computational Mathematics 215; (5): 363-36 Published online September 21, 215 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/acm) doi: 1.116/j.acm.2155.15 ISSN: 232-565 (Print); ISSN: 232-5613 (Online)

More information

Introduction to the Cheetah

Introduction to the Cheetah Lesson Plan 1 Introduction to the Cheetah CRITICAL OUTCOMES CO #1: Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking. CO #2: Work effectively with others as members of

More information

Result Demonstration Report

Result Demonstration Report Result Demonstration Report 2014 Texas Quail Index Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Kent County Cooperator: Reserve Ranch Jay Kingston, County Extension Agent for Kent County Becky Ruzicka, Extension

More information

EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE LAYING RATE OF BROWN-HEADED COWBIRDS

EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE LAYING RATE OF BROWN-HEADED COWBIRDS EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE LAYING RATE OF BROWN-HEADED COWBIRDS D. M. SCOTT AND C. DAVISON ANKNEY Department of Zoology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5B7 AnSTI

More information

THE FOOD OF THE RED FOX (VULPES VULPES L) AND THE MARTEN (MARTES FOINA, ERXL) IN THE SPRING-SUMMER PERIOD IN OSOGOVO MOUNTAIN

THE FOOD OF THE RED FOX (VULPES VULPES L) AND THE MARTEN (MARTES FOINA, ERXL) IN THE SPRING-SUMMER PERIOD IN OSOGOVO MOUNTAIN PROCEEDINGS OF THE BALKAN SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE OF BIOLOGY IN PLOVDIV (BULGARIA) FROM 19 TH TILL 21 ST OF MAY 2005 (EDS B. GRUEV, M. NIKOLOVA AND A. DONEV), 2005 (P. 481 488) THE FOOD OF THE RED FOX (VULPES

More information

Snowshoe Hare and Canada Lynx Populations

Snowshoe Hare and Canada Lynx Populations Snowshoe Hare and Canada Lynx Populations Ashley Knoblock Dr. Grossnickle Bio 171 Animal Biology Lab 2 December 1, 2014 Ashley Knoblock Dr. Grossnickle Bio 171 Lab 2 Snowshoe Hare and Canada Lynx Populations

More information

Territory size of wolves Canis lupus: linking local (Bialowieża Primeval Forest, Poland) and Holarctic-scale patterns

Territory size of wolves Canis lupus: linking local (Bialowieża Primeval Forest, Poland) and Holarctic-scale patterns Ecography 30: 6676, 2007 doi: 10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04826.x Copyright # Ecography 2007, ISSN 0906-7590 Subject Editor: Douglas Kelt. Accepted 22 October 2006 Territory size of wolves Canis lupus: linking

More information

Culverts and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions and Maintain Permeability

Culverts and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions and Maintain Permeability Culverts and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions and Maintain Permeability Objectives: Identify culvert use by taxonomic groups Identify seasonal variation in culvert use Identify factors that

More information

Oregon Wolf Conservation and Management 2014 Annual Report

Oregon Wolf Conservation and Management 2014 Annual Report Oregon Wolf Conservation and Management 2014 Annual Report This report to the Oregon Fish and Wildlife Commission presents information on the status, distribution, and management of wolves in the State

More information

Pre-lab Homework Lab 9: Food Webs in the Wild

Pre-lab Homework Lab 9: Food Webs in the Wild Lab Section: Name: Pre-lab Homework Put your field hat on and complete the questions below before coming to lab! As always, it is expected that you have supplemented your understanding by reading about

More information

OREGON WOLF CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN (DRAFT)

OREGON WOLF CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN (DRAFT) Working Copy of April 0 Draft Wolf Plan Update (//0) OREGON WOLF CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN (DRAFT) OREGON DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE DRAFT, APRIL 0 Working Copy (//0) Working Copy of April

More information

High sward height (6 cm) Weaning weight (kg) Drafted at weaning (%) Age at sale (days) Creep intake (kg)

High sward height (6 cm) Weaning weight (kg) Drafted at weaning (%) Age at sale (days) Creep intake (kg) Creep Feeding Concentrate to Lambs at Pasture Does it Pay? Tim Keady Animal & Grassland Research & Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Mellows Campus,, Athenry, Co. Galway The objective in mid-season prime lamb

More information

Station #4. All information Adapted from:http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/activities/makeitahabitat/adaptations.html and other sites

Station #4. All information Adapted from:http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/activities/makeitahabitat/adaptations.html and other sites Adaptation Homework Station #1 GOAL: Avoid the Sun s heat and keep themselves cool. Animals spend the daylight hours hiding in burrows or behind boulders. They come out at night to hunt and forage for

More information

PLAGUE. Dan Salkeld. Postdoc, Lane Lab Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management UC Berkeley

PLAGUE. Dan Salkeld. Postdoc, Lane Lab Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management UC Berkeley PLAGUE Dan Salkeld Postdoc, Lane Lab Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management UC Berkeley Yersinia pestis Many hosts (>200 species) Many fleas (>250 species) Multiple modes of transmission

More information

The Post-Release Success of Captive bred Louisiana Pine Snakes

The Post-Release Success of Captive bred Louisiana Pine Snakes The Post-Release Success of Captive bred Louisiana Pine Snakes By Amy C. Davis Keeper IV-Reptiles Audubon Nature Institute 6500 Magazine Street New Orleans, LA 70118 Abstract The Louisiana pine snake is

More information

COYOTES IN YOUR COMMUNITY

COYOTES IN YOUR COMMUNITY COYOTES IN YOUR COMMUNITY AGENDA COYOTE IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOR WHY ARE COYOTES IN MY NEIGHBORHOOD? WHAT CAN I DO? WHAT DOES OC ANIMAL CARE RECOMMEND? WHEN DO I CALL? QUESTIONS? Orange County Animal

More information

8 Fall 2014

8 Fall 2014 Do Wolves Cause National Park Service J Schmidt Garrey Faller R G Johnsson John Good 8 Fall 2014 www.wolf.org Trophic Cascades? Ever since wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park, scientific

More information

SLOW DOWN, LOVE WIZARD. HERE S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE HORNED LIZARD.

SLOW DOWN, LOVE WIZARD. HERE S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE HORNED LIZARD. SLOW DOWN, LOVE WIZARD. HERE S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE HORNED LIZARD. Horned lizards predominately eat ants. In small doses the ants venom does not harm the lizard; however, a swarm can kill an

More information

High Risk Behavior for Wild Sheep: Contact with Domestic Sheep and Goats

High Risk Behavior for Wild Sheep: Contact with Domestic Sheep and Goats High Risk Behavior for Wild Sheep: Contact with Domestic Sheep and Goats Introduction The impact of disease on wild sheep populations was brought to the forefront in the winter of 2009-10 due to all age

More information

5/10/2013 CONSERVATION OF CRITICALLY ENDANGERED RUFFORD SMALL GRANT. Dr. Ashot Aslanyan. Project leader SPECIES OF REPTILES OF ARARAT VALLEY, ARMENIA

5/10/2013 CONSERVATION OF CRITICALLY ENDANGERED RUFFORD SMALL GRANT. Dr. Ashot Aslanyan. Project leader SPECIES OF REPTILES OF ARARAT VALLEY, ARMENIA 5/10/2013 RUFFORD SMALL GRANT Project leader CONSERVATION OF CRITICALLY ENDANGERED Dr. Ashot Aslanyan SPECIES OF REPTILES OF ARARAT VALLEY, ARMENIA Yerevan, 2013 Application ID: 11394-1 Organization: Department

More information

Time of Day. Teacher Lesson Plan Nocturnal Animals Pre-Visit Lesson. Overview

Time of Day. Teacher Lesson Plan Nocturnal Animals Pre-Visit Lesson. Overview Teacher Lesson Plan Nocturnal Animals Pre-Visit Lesson Duration: 40-50 minutes Minnesota State Science Standard Correlations: 3.4.1.1.2. Wisconsin State Science Standard Correlations: B 4.6, C.4.1, C.4.2

More information

Everglades Invasive Reptile and Amphibian Monitoring Program 1

Everglades Invasive Reptile and Amphibian Monitoring Program 1 WEC386 Everglades Invasive Reptile and Amphibian Monitoring Program 1 Rebecca G. Harvey, Mike Rochford, Jennifer Ketterlin, Edward Metzger III, Jennifer Nestler, and Frank J. Mazzotti 2 Introduction South

More information

Rubber Boas in Radium Hot Springs: Habitat, Inventory, and Management Strategies

Rubber Boas in Radium Hot Springs: Habitat, Inventory, and Management Strategies : Habitat, Inventory, and Management Strategies ROBERT C. ST. CLAIR 1 AND ALAN DIBB 2 1 9809 92 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6E 2V4, Canada, email rstclair@telusplanet.net 2 Parks Canada, Box 220, Radium Hot

More information

Call of the Wild. Investigating Predator/Prey Relationships

Call of the Wild. Investigating Predator/Prey Relationships Biology Call of the Wild Investigating Predator/Prey Relationships MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP calculator computer spoon, plastic 100 beans, individual pinto plate, paper ABOUT THIS LESSON This

More information

LONG RANGE PERFORMANCE REPORT. Abstract

LONG RANGE PERFORMANCE REPORT. Abstract State: Georgia Grant Number: 08-953 Study Number: 6 LONG RANGE PERFORMANCE REPORT Grant Title: State Funded Wildlife Survey Period Covered: July 1, 2012 - June 30, 2013 Study Title: Wild Turkey Production

More information

Wolf Recovery Survey New Mexico. June 2008 Research & Polling, Inc.

Wolf Recovery Survey New Mexico. June 2008 Research & Polling, Inc. Wolf Recovery Survey New Mexico June 2008 Research & Polling, Inc. Methodology Research Objectives: This research study was commissioned by conservation and wildlife organizations, including the New Mexico

More information

Estimation of Successful Breeding Pairs for Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

Estimation of Successful Breeding Pairs for Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA Management and Conservation Article Estimation of Successful Breeding Pairs for Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA MICHAEL S. MITCHELL, 1 United States Geological Survey, Montana Cooperative Wildlife

More information

MAMMALS OF MISSISSIPPI 10:1 9. Coyote (Canis latrans) CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE

MAMMALS OF MISSISSIPPI 10:1 9. Coyote (Canis latrans) CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE MAMMALS OF MISSISSIPPI 10:1 9 Coyote (Canis latrans) CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, 39762, USA Abstract Canis latrans

More information

Folder 1. Turtles. Folder 2

Folder 1. Turtles. Folder 2 Folder 1 Characteristics Of reptiles My K-W-L cards About Reptiles Good Point Turtle defense What they eat Life Cycle turtles Turtles Lizards Folder 2 My Reptile Report Snake Defense Crocodilia Testudines

More information

Spatial organization and social relations in the Eurasian lynx population in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland

Spatial organization and social relations in the Eurasian lynx population in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland Acta Theriologica 42 (3): 289-312,1997. PL ISSN 0001-7051 Spatial organization and social relations in the Eurasian lynx population in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland Krzysztof SCHMIDT, Włodzimierz

More information

BOBWHITE QUAIL HABITAT EVALUATION

BOBWHITE QUAIL HABITAT EVALUATION BOBWHITE QUAIL HABITAT EVALUATION Introduction The Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) is the most well known and popular upland game bird in Oklahoma. The bobwhite occurs statewide and its numbers

More information

Central Florida Invasive Mammals

Central Florida Invasive Mammals Central Florida Invasive Mammals Cause Harm Invasive species is an umbrella term referring to alien, exotic, nonindigenous, and non-native species. Invasive species are those that are not native to the

More information

Lizard malaria: cost to vertebrate host's reproductive success

Lizard malaria: cost to vertebrate host's reproductive success Parasilology (1983), 87, 1-6 1 With 2 figures in the text Lizard malaria: cost to vertebrate host's reproductive success J. J. SCHALL Department of Zoology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405,

More information

The Blacklegged tick (previously called the Deer tick ) or Ixodes scapularis,

The Blacklegged tick (previously called the Deer tick ) or Ixodes scapularis, Ticks with black legs and the discovery of Ixodes affinis in North Carolina Bruce A. Harrison PhD Public Health Pest Management Winston Salem, NC Acknowledgments Walker Rayburn Jr., Perquimans County PHPM

More information

On-Farm Salmonella Control Measures For. Pest Control

On-Farm Salmonella Control Measures For. Pest Control On-Farm Salmonella Control Measures For Layers Pest Control Rodents And Other Animals All animals, including birds and reptiles, can carry Salmonella spp. Control of Salmonella spp. from mammals such as

More information

Wolves coyotes foxes: a cascade among carnivores

Wolves coyotes foxes: a cascade among carnivores Ecology, 93(4), 2012, pp. 921 929 Ó 2012 by the Ecological Society of America Wolves coyotes foxes: a cascade among carnivores TAAL LEVI 1 AND CHRISTOPHER C. WILMERS Environmental Studies Department, 1156

More information

Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why

Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection

More information

Postilla PEABODY MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY YALE UNIVERSITY NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.

Postilla PEABODY MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY YALE UNIVERSITY NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A. Postilla PEABODY MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY YALE UNIVERSITY NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A. Number 117 18 March 1968 A 7DIAPSID (REPTILIA) PARIETAL FROM THE LOWER PERMIAN OF OKLAHOMA ROBERT L. CARROLL REDPATH

More information

Mexican Wolf Reintroduction Project Monthly Update May 1-31, 2016

Mexican Wolf Reintroduction Project Monthly Update May 1-31, 2016 Mexican Wolf Reintroduction Project Monthly Update May 1-31, 2016 The following is a summary of Mexican Wolf Reintroduction Project (Project) activities in the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area

More information

Field Development of the Sex Pheromone for the Western Avocado Leafroller, Amorbia cuneana

Field Development of the Sex Pheromone for the Western Avocado Leafroller, Amorbia cuneana California Avocado Society 1981 Yearbook 65: 143-151 Field Development of the Sex Pheromone for the Western Avocado Leafroller, Amorbia cuneana J. B. Bailey, M. P. Hoffman, L. M. McDonough Principal investigator,

More information

Care For Us Arc$c Wolf (Canis lupus arctos)

Care For Us Arc$c Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) Care For Us Arc$c Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) Animal Welfare Animal welfare refers to an animal s state or feelings. An animal s welfare state can be positive, neutral or negative. An animal s welfare has

More information

Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores

Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores Oecologia (2000) 125:258 270 DOI 10.1007/s004420000448 Jose M. Fedriani Todd K. Fuller Raymond M. Sauvajot Eric C. York Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores Received: 19

More information

Criteria for Selecting Species of Greatest Conservation Need

Criteria for Selecting Species of Greatest Conservation Need Criteria for Selecting Species of Greatest Conservation Need To develop New Jersey's list of Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN), all of the state's indigenous wildlife species were evaluated

More information

Where Animals and Plants Are Found

Where Animals and Plants Are Found Section 8: Physical Systems Where Animals and Plants Are Found About Animals and Plants What I Need to Know Vocabulary ecosystem food chain food web marine prairie Many animals live on Earth. Many plants

More information

THE RED BOOK OF ANIMALS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

THE RED BOOK OF ANIMALS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA THE RED BOOK OF ANIMALS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA Dear compatriots, The future and public welfare of our country are directly linked with the splendour and richness of its natural heritage. In the meantime,

More information

Red-Tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis

Red-Tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Red-Tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis This large, dark headed, broad-shouldered hawk is one of the most common and widespread hawks in North America. The Red-tailed hawk belongs to the genus (family) Buteo,

More information

RESPONSES OF BELL S VIREOS TO BROOD PARASITISM BY THE BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD IN KANSAS

RESPONSES OF BELL S VIREOS TO BROOD PARASITISM BY THE BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD IN KANSAS Wilson Bull., 11 l(4), 1999, pp. 499-504 RESPONSES OF BELL S VIREOS TO BROOD PARASITISM BY THE BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD IN KANSAS TIMOTHY H. PARKER J ABSTRACT-I studied patterns of cowbird parasitism and responses

More information

I the BUSSEY INSTITUTION of HARVARD UNIVERSITY, it was found that

I the BUSSEY INSTITUTION of HARVARD UNIVERSITY, it was found that THE RELATION OF ALBINISM TO BODY SIZE IN MICE W. E. CASTLE Division of Genetics, University of Calijornia, Berkeley, California Received January 24, 1938 N PREVIOUS studies made in cooperation with former

More information

Snowshow Hare, Flying Squirrel, Mouse, Insects Beaver, Snowshow Hare, Flying Squirrel, Mouse, Weasel, Caribou

Snowshow Hare, Flying Squirrel, Mouse, Insects Beaver, Snowshow Hare, Flying Squirrel, Mouse, Weasel, Caribou Rev. 9/22/11 Making a Food Web: Tundra Lemmings Lichens, Grasses Polar Bear Artic fox Artic Hares Lichens and grasses Artic Wolf Artic fox, Caribou, Musk Ox Musk Ox Grasses Artic Fox Lemming, Insects Caribou

More information

Supporting Online Material for

Supporting Online Material for www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/314/5802/1111/dc1 Supporting Online Material for Rapid Temporal Reversal in Predator-Driven Natural Selection Jonathan B. Losos,* Thomas W. Schoener, R. Brian Langerhans,

More information