Key concepts of Article 7(4): Version 2008

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1 Species no. 62: Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans Distribution: The Yellow-legged Gull inhabits the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and South Western France, the Azores and Madeira. Within this range four subspecies are recognised. Movements: Most of the populations are sedentary, but many birds from the Mediterranean move outside the breeding season northwards to Central Europe and the coasts of the Channel and Southern North Sea. Population size and trends: The European breeding population comprises 310, ,000 pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004A). Of these 230, ,000 breed in EU 27 (BirdLife int. 2004A, 2004B). Since 1895, the populations of Yellow-legged Gulls - like many other gull species world-wide - has been increasing rapidly (especially since 1975), mainly through its increased role as urban scavenger, but also as a consequence of greater protection. During the increase continued (BirdLife 2004A). The subspecies L.c. michahellis comprising the resident population in West and South Europe, the Mediterranean and NW Africa has been estimated at 630, ,000 birds with an increasing trend (Delany & Scott 2006). Biological and behavioural aspects: clutch size is 2-3 eggs; incubation: days; full flight of young birds at days; broods: one brood: independence: usually becomes independent soon after fledging. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 371 *

2 Movements Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans Member State REDENT MIANT Breeding Passage Wintering FI SE EE LT PL SK few DK UK IE DE Few NL Few BE Few Very few AT 1 Few 1, 2 1, 2 Few FR PT RO BG HR 1 1 1, 2 1, Larus michahellis 2 Larus cachinnans s. str Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 372 *

3 Definition of period of reproduction Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans Member State FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT Period of reproduction begins with Occuption of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Courtship display at breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites Comments References RO 3 BG Occupation of breeding 5, 6, 13, 15 sites HR Courtship display at breeding sites 7, 12, 13 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 373 *

4 Period of reproduction Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT 1 FR PT RO BG HR 1 HR 2 J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y 1. Larus michahellis J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C Comments and conclusions 1) The period of reproduction starts with courtship display at breeding sites (i.e. 3 decades before egg laying). 2) The end of the reproduction period ranges from the 1 st decade of June (SK) to the 3 rd decade of September (PL). The full flight of young birds marks the end of the period of reproduction. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 374 *

5 Definition of prenuptial migration Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans Difficulty in identifying the beginning of the period of return to the rearing grounds? Member Y NO References State FI SE EE LT PL X 3 SK Mixing of wintering and migrating 14 birds Mixing of wintering, migrating and breeding birds DK 5 UK IE DE X 4 NL BE Mixing of wintering and breeding birds during migration; subadults and non-breeding adults are present throughout the year AT Mixing of non breeders and immatures from the Adriatic 13 FR PT Some birds from NW Iberia move south during the winter but it is extremely difficult to estimate their return chronology 5 RO 3 BG X 5, 6, 15 HR L.c. michahellis partly sedentary L.c. cachinnans Difficult to separate local wintering population and returning migrants 13 7, 12 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 375 *

6 Period of prenuptial migration Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y FI SE EE LT PL SK DK DK 1 UK IE DE? NL BE AT 1 FR PT RO BG HR 1 HR 2 1. Larus c. michahellis 2. Larus c. cachinnans J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C Comments and conclusions 1) Most populations are resident, but many birds from the Mediterranean move northwards outside the breeding season. 2) Return movements to the breeding grounds in the Mediterranean occur mostly in December-January (e.g. in Camargue, all breeders are present by February). Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 376 *

7 Species no. 63: Great Black-Backed Gull Larus marinus Distribution: This gull inhabits marine coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. In Europe it is breeding in France and from the British Isles to the White Sea. Movements: Partially migratory. The birds of the southern part of his distribution are largely sedentary. Those of the north move in a south-west direction in winter. Population size and trends: The European breeding population amounts to 110, ,000 pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004A). The total population of the European Union is estimated at 41,000-51,000 breeding pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004B). In many regions this species has increased during the last decades, and it has colonised some new areas, e.g. in Germany and the Netherlands. Although there was a decline in few countries, e.g. Iceland and Republic of Ireland, the species increased overall in Europe during (BirdLife Int. 2004A). Biological and behavioural aspects: clutch size is 2-3 eggs (1-5); incubation: days; fledging: at 7-8 weeks; independence: soon after fledging; broods: one brood. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 377 *

8 Movements Great Black-Backed Gull Larus marinus Member MIANT REDENT State Breeding Passage Wintering FI SE EE Very few LT PL SK Rare Rare Rare DK UK IE DE Few NL Few BE AT FR PT RO BG Very few Very few HR Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 378 *

9 Definition of period of reproduction Great Black-Backed Gull Larus marinus Member Period of reproduction Comments References State begins with FI Construction of the nest 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SE Occupation breeding sites 1, 2, 23 EE Occupation breeding sites 5 LT PL SK DK Occupation of breeding sites UK Construction of the nest 2 IE Construction of the nest 1, 4, 5, 6 DE Occupation of breeding sites 4 NL Very rare breeder BE AT FR PT RO BG HR Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 379 *

10 Period of reproduction Great Black-Backed Gull Larus marinus FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT HR J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C Comments and conclusions 1) Migrant breeder in FI and SE, resident in north-western maritime countries. 2) The period of reproduction starts with courtship display at breeding sites (i.e. 3 decades before egg laying). 3) The end of the reproduction period ranges from the 3 rd decade of July (FI, EE, DK, ) to the 3 rd decade of August (UK, DE). The full flight of young birds marks the end of the period of reproduction. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 380 *

11 Prenuptial migration Great Black-Backed Gull Larus marinus Difficulty in identifying the beginning of the period of return to the rearing grounds? Member State Y NO References FI Partial migrant. Over-winters in seaareas 1, 2, 3, 4 and coastal cities. SE X 1, 18 EE Mixing of wintering and migrating birds LT PL 3 SK DK X UK Mixed populations of residents & 1 migrants in north and west of UK IE X 1 DE X 4, 10 NL No data BE No sufficient data AT FR PT Very small wintering numbers RO BG Very small numbers of birds 5, 6, 15 HR Few. Difficult to separate local wintering population and returning migrants 7, 10, 11, 14 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 381 *

12 Period of prenuptial migration Great Black-Backed Gull Larus marinus J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG????????????????????? HR Comments and conclusions 1) From completely migratory north of the Arctic Circle to merely dispersive in southern parts of breeding range. 2) The beginning of the prenuptial migration period ranges from the 1 st (FI, BE, PL, HR) to the 3 rd decade of February (IE, DE). Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 382 *

13 Species no. 64: Rock Dove Columba livia Apart from its natural range, the Rock Dove has developed feral populations, through human intervention. All the natural populations have to some extend hybridised with feral pigeons in such a way that it is nearly impossible today to get an idea of the real situation of this species. This difficulty is increased by the fact that only few studies have been conducted of the Rock Dove. Distribution: The species naturally inhabits coastal and inland cliffs in southern and Western Europe, Africa - north of the Equator - and a major part of southern Asia. Movements: Free-ranging populations are resident or even totally sedentary. Population size and trends (Rock Dove-Feral Pigeon): The European population amounts to million breeding pairs, Russia excluded (BirdLife 2004A). The total population of the European Union can be estimated at million breeding pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004B). Trends are poorly known but the populations seem to be stable or increasing. Biological and behavioural aspects: clutch size is 2 eggs (1); incubation: days; full-flight of young birds: days; independence: young become independent at or soon after fledging; broods: probably up to 5 broods. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 383 *

14 Movements Rock Dove Columba livia Member State REDENT Wild populations = Rock Dove REDENT Feral populations = Feral Pigeon FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE? NL BE AT? FR PT RO BG HR Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 384 *

15 Definition of period of reproduction Rock Dove Columba livia Member State Period of reproduction begins with Comments References FI Construction of the nest 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SE Occupation of breeding sites 2 EE Construction of the nest 1 LT Only feral birds 7 PL Only feral birds 1 SK Only feral birds Only feral birds DK Only feral birds 5 UK Construction of the nest 2 IE Construction of the nest Feral birds outnumber wild 1, 2, 3, 6 DE Nuptial parade 4 NL Only feral birds BE Only feral birds Only feral birds AT Construction of the nest FR Construction of the nest 5 PT Construction of the nest Large majority of feral Construction of the nest 27 RO BG Occupation of breeding sites Construction of nests Large majority of feral 8, 9, 13 HR Construction of the nest Data are given for wild populations, feral birds breed almost year round 16 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 385 *

16 Period of reproduction Rock Dove Columba livia FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C Comments and conclusions 1) Feral pigeons may breed all year round (, HR). 2) The period of reproduction starts with the construction of the nest in most countries and ends with the full flight of young birds. 3) There is very little information available on chronology of reproduction for the Rock Dove but the beginning of the reproduction period seems to range from early March to mid April and the end from late August to early October. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 386 *

17 Species no. 65: Stock Dove Columba oenas Distribution: This dove inhabits Mediterranean, temperate and boreal regions of Europe and western Asia, eastwards to Mongolia and western China. It is breeding in tree holes of old deciduous (mostly Fagus) and coniferous (mostly Pinus) forests, but it feeds largely in open areas. In some regions it is well adapted to urban habitats. Movements: The birds of Western Europe and the Mediterranean regions are sedentary, while those of northern and central Europe winter in the Mediterranean regions. Population size and trends: The European population is estimated at 520, ,000 pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004A) and of these 485, ,000 breed in EU 27 (BirdLife Int. 2004A, 2004B). Overall, the European population increased during , in particular in France, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom although the population decreased in Northern Scandinavia, Ireland and Eastern Europe (BirdLife Int. 2004A). Biological and behavioural aspects: clutch size is usually 2 eggs, occasionally 1, 3 or 4; incubation: days; fledging period: days; independence: at or shortly after fledging; broods: 2-4 (1-5). Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 387 *

18 Movements Stock Dove Columba oenas Member MIANT REDENT State Breeding Passage Wintering FI SE EE Occasional LT PL SK DK UK Irregular IE DE NL BE AT FR PT Scarce but widespread Few RO BG HR Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 388 *

19 Definition of period of reproduction Stock Dove Columba oenas Member Period of reproduction Comments References State begins with FI Occupation of breeding sites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SE Occupation of breeding sites 8, 11 EE Occupation of breeding sites 3 LT Occupation of breeding sites 7 PL Occupation of breeding sites 1 SK Occupation of breeding sites Occupation of breeding sites DK Occupation of breeding sites UK Construction of of the nest 2 IE Occupation of breeding sites 1, 2, 3 DE Occupation of breeding sites Nuptial parade may occur 4 before occupation of breeding sites NL Occupation of breeding sites 16 BE Occupation of breeding sites First singing may occur in 1, 2, 3, 4 and nuptial parade January -mild winters - in the West of the country. Occupation of breeding sites 1 Occupation of breeding sites AT Occupation of breeding sites 2, 9 FR Construction of the nest Since it breeds in rock 5, 6 cavities, the transport of nesting materials into cavities and nuptial parades are a good indication. First singing may occur in February PT Occupation of breeding sites Not enough data on reproduction period Occupation of breeding sites Rare breeding; few data available RO 3 BG Occupation of breeding sites 9, 23 HR Occupation of breeding sites 23 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 389 *

20 Period of reproduction Stock Dove Columba oenas FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C FR - territorial behaviour may begin in February or March according to the weather conditions; the main period of reproduction ranges from 10 March to 20 August. Fledging of young birds may be noticed in September. Comments and conclusions 1) Occupation of the breeding sites, together with courtship display, indicates the beginning of the period of reproduction. 2) End of the reproduction period ranges from the 3 rd decade of July (EE) to the 3 rd decade of October (NL, UK). Full flight of young birds marks the end of the reproduction period. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 390 *

21 Prenuptial migration Stock Dove Columba oenas Difficulty in identifying the beginning of the period of return to the rearing grounds? Member State Y NO Reference s FI X 1, 2, 3, 4 SE X EE X 3 LT X 5,7 PL X 1 SK X Overlap with wintering birds DK X UK Mixing of residents & migrants 1 IE DE X 4 NL 21 BE Mixed pop. resident/migrants 1, 2, 3, 4 X 1 X AT Overlap with wintering birds X FR No direct observation of birds. Lack of 2, 6 wintering data and monitoring of dormitories Mixed pop. Resident/migrants 1, 5 PT Scarce & difficult to detect, both during winter and spring X RO 3 BG X X 8, 9, 13, 19 HR Mixing of migrating and wintering populations 16 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 391 *

22 Period of prenuptial migration Stock Dove Columba oenas J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR FR, PT - very few data available on migration Comments and conclusions 1) Almost entirely migratory in Fennoscandia and Eastern Europe; less migratory further south and west; mainly resident in southern Europe. Migrants winter especially in southern half of France and in Iberia, and along northern Mediterranean basin. 2) Lack of data, low density and absence of direct observation of birds, makes it difficult to identify the beginning of the prenuptial migration. 3) In the MS where it is hunted (,, FR, PT) birds of different populations are often present (breeding, wintering, passage). 4) Beginning of the prenuptial migration is revealed by the departure of the first migrants, which ranges from the 1st decade of February (SK,, DE, AT, NL, BE, UK,, ) to the 2 nd decade of March (LT). Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 392 *

23 Species no. 66: Woodpigeon Columba palumbus Distribution: This pigeon inhabits the major part of Europe, north to 67 N, and its distribution reaches Kazakhstan and Bangladesh. It is also known to occur in North Africa. The population of the European Union belongs mainly to the nominate race palumbus but on the Azores breeds the race azorica which is a rare endemic to this islands. Originally the Woodpigeon was a bird of forest and densely wooded regions, but it has adapted to agricultural habitats and more recently to urban areas. Movements: The birds of urban areas and of southern and western Europe are mainly sedentary. Those living in forested areas of the north and the north east are migratory, leapfrogging the mainly sedentary West European population to winter mainly on the Iberian Peninsula. Population size and trends: The European population of Woodpigeon is estimated at 9 17 million breeding pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004A). The population breeding in EU 27 numbers million pairs BirdLife Int. 2004B). Overall this species has undergone a very strong increase and an extension of its distribution since the beginning of the century. In particular the core populations in Germany and United Kingdom increased during resulting in an overall increase of the European population in this period (BirdLife Int. 2004A). Biological and behavioural aspects: clutch size is usually 1-2 eggs; incubation: 17 days; fledging period: variable, days for undisturbed birds, but range days; independence: at least one week after fledging; broods: 2-3. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 393 *

24 Movements Woodpigeon Columba palumbus Member MIANT REDENT State Breeding Passage Wintering FI SE EE Occasional LT PL SK Few Few DK UK IE Varying numbers, depending on weather conditions in Europe DE NL BE AT Regular wintering in southern parts FR PT RO BG HR Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 394 *

25 Definition of period of reproduction Woodpigeon Columba palumbus Member Period of reproduction Comments References State begins with FI Occupation of breeding sites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SE Occupation of breeding sites 1, 8, 12, 15, 16 EE Occupation of breeding sites LT Occupation of breeding sites 7 PL Occupation of breeding sites 1, 3 SK Occupation of breeding sites 2, 4, 5 Occupation of breeding sites DK Occupation of breeding sites 1, 2, 3, 4 UK Construction of the nest 2 IE Construction of the nest 1, 2, 3 DE Occupation of breeding sites 1 NL Construction of the nest 3, 4, 5, 6 BE Occupation of breeding sites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & nuptial parade Occupation of breeding sites 1 Occupation of breeding sites AT Occupation of breeding sites 2, 9 FR 5, 6 Construction of the nest and mainly laying of first egg In mild winters, singing and nuptial parade may be noticed from January, but without attempt to breed. Construction of the nest 1, 6 PT Occupation of breeding sites Construction of the nest Construction of the nest 1, 2, 3 Occupation of breeding sites RO 1 BG Occupation of breeding sites 9, 13 HR Occupation of breeding sites 17 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 395 *

26 Period of reproduction Woodpigeon Columba palumbus J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR AT - no woodpigeon populations associated with human settlements. Comments and conclusions 1) Occupation of breeding sites (in Northern countries, where it is mainly migratory), and construction of the nest (in southern and western countries, where it is mainly resident) identifies the beginning of the period of reproduction. 2) End of reproduction period ranges from the 3 rd decade of July (EE,, PL) to the 2 nd decade of November (NL). Full flight of young birds should be used to identify the end of the period of reproduction. 3) Most of the breeding success occurs in autumn. The late breeding dates (November and December) normally correspond to populations associated with human settlements. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 396 *

27 Prenuptial migration Woodpigeon Columba palumbus Difficulty in identifying the beginning of the period of return to the rearing grounds? Member Y NO References State FI Passage in Eastern Karelia, thought not X 1, 2, 3, 4 probably in substantial numbers SE X 1, 12 DK Overlap of migratory birds with breeders 1, 2, 3, 4 EE X 3 LT X 5,7 PL X 1,3 SK X 2, 4 X UK Small migratory population & large 1 resident population IE X 1, 2 DE X 1 NL Pre-nuptial migration is the case for 6 Scandinavian breeding birds, wintering in Spain and France. Their passage through NL in spring is not well studied. BE High wintering numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Movements due to food resources and weather conditions X 1 X AT X 2 X FR X 6 Mixing of residents and migrants 1, 10, 13, 15 PT X Mixing of resident, migrating and (partly) 1, 2, 3 wintering populations Some difficulty due to overlap of wintering and migrating populations RO 3 BG X 9, 19, 22 HR Difficult to separate local wintering population and returning migrants 19 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 397 *

28 Period of prenuptial migration Woodpigeon Columba palumbus J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT??? RO BG HR PT - preliminary results of recent studies seem to indicate that pre-nuptial migration doesn't start before March; to be confirmed and cross-checked with neighbouring countries (, FR). Comments and conclusions 1) One part of the Fennoscandian population is migratory and winters mostly in Iberia, the other is resident to irruptive. It is often difficult to make difference between migratory and dispersive movements during prenuptial migration. 2) Along the flyway (Fennoscandia to Iberia) there is a mixture of resident and migratory birds. 3) Beginning of the prenuptial migration period ranges generally from the 1 st decade of February (, DK, IE, BE,, AT,,, PT?), with the exception of Hungary where the migration starts in last decade of January, to the 1 st decade of March in northern countries (FI, EE, SE, LT, PL). Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 398 *

29 Species no. 67: Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto Distribution: Since the beginning of last century the Collared Dove, originally a bird of the Indian subcontinent, has colonised Europe via Turkey. It inhabits now most of the continent, reaching 65 N. This dove inhabits mainly suburban areas, small towns and large villages. It is particularly widespread in northern and southern regions and has recently expanded strongly in the south. Movements: Breeding adults are largely resident as are a proportion of young birds. Other immature birds make pronounced dispersal without return movements towards natal area. Population size and trends: The European breeding population amounts to million pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004A). The EU 27 population numbers million pairs (BirdLife Int. 2004A, 2004B). During the population were decreasing in the northern range but the key populations increased resulting in an overall population increase during this period (BirdLife Int. 2004A). Biological and behavioural aspects: clutch size is 2 eggs (1); incubation: days; full flight of young birds at days; independence: about one week after fledging; broods: 3-6. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 399 *

30 Movements Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto Member MIANT REDENT State Breeding Passage Wintering FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE Few DE NL BE AT FR?? PT RO BG HR Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 400 *

31 Definition of period of reproduction Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto Member State FI Period of reproduction begins with Occupation of breeding sites Comments Partial migrant (3 rd decade of March to 1 st decade of May), but mainly resident References 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SE Construction of the nest Mainly resident, but small 8 numbers migrate EE Construction of the nest 1 LT Construction of the nest 7 PL Occupation of breeding 1 sites SK Occupation of breeding 2, 4, 5 sites Construction of the nest DK Construction of the nest Partial migrant (2 nd decade of March to 2 nd decade of June), but mainly resident UK Construction of the nest 2 IE Construction of the nest 1, 4, 6 DE Occupation of breeding 4 sites NL Laying 12, 25 BE Construction of the nest 3, 5 Construction of the nest AT Construction of the nest 1, 2 FR 5 PT Construction of the nest No data on breeding chronology Construction of the nest Occupation of breeding 5 site Construction of the nest RO 3 BG Occupation of breeding 8, 9, 17 sites Construction of the nest HR Construction of the nest 9, 19 Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 401 *

32 Period of reproduction Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C Comments and conclusions 1) Birds associated to human settlements may breed all year round. 2) The period of reproduction starts with the occupation of the breeding sites where it is mainly migratory and the construction of the nest elsewhere. 3) The end of the reproduction period ranges from the 3 rd decade of July (EE) to the 3 rd decade of December (). The full flight of young birds marks the end of the period of reproduction. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 402 *

33 Prenuptial migration Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto Difficulty in identifying the beginning of the period of return to the rearing grounds? Member Y NO References State FI Partial migrant (3 rd decade of March to 1 st X 1, 2, 3, 4 decade of May), but mainly resident SE Mainly resident, but small numbers migrate EE Partly migrant X 4 LT X 5,7 PL SK Mainly resident but partly migrant 2 DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR Partial migrant (2 nd decade of March to 2 nd decade of June), but mainly resident No information but migrants recorded in April, May and June X Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 403 *

34 Period of prenuptial migration Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto FI SE EE LT PL SK DK UK IE DE NL BE AT FR PT RO BG HR J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A U G S E P O C T N O V D E C Comments and conclusions 1) Largely resident with return movements recorded in several areas (e.g. 'Point de la Grave, Gironde' in FR). 2) Prenuptial migration phenology and chronology not well documented. Reproduction & Prenuptial Migration * 404 *

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