Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

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1 (-) Trichomoniasis ( ) (-). Streptopelia C.livia gaddi Columba oenas % decaocto % %,.. Abstract Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul H. S. Al-Bakry Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas), rock mountain dove (C. livia), and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease. Available online at

2 (-) C.livia Streptopelia decaocta Collared dove.() ()..() () () Crop 100X () () Oro-pharyngeal swabs -.(). /.() Fisher Freeman Halton test :...( ) : () %, %.( ) % ( ) %, % %, ( ). Columba livia Streptopelia C.oenas gaddi decaocto.() trichomoniasis Trichomonas gallinae Colubriformas.() Canker.().().() (%-) (-) %-.().(-). ( ) (Crop milk ).(). (-) Stock Columba oenas (L.) dove Rock mountain dove

3 (-) : Trichomonas. gallinae <0.001 < (%),,,,,, : (P<0.001) : - (P<0.001) : -.Fisher Freeman Halton test : Trichomonas. gallinae (%),,,,, Fisher Freeman..Halton test %, % % %.( ) (-). Trichomoniasis :().

4 (-) %- T.gallinae () C.livia % () % / () C.livia () %. (%,) (%) ) ( Wild pigeons Carrier () Columbae T.gallinae T.gallinae ().() () () Crop milk.().() : Trichomonas. gallinae (%),,,,,,,, - - Fisher Freeman Halton test. Trichomoniasis T.gallinae ()...() % % % ()

5 (-) psitaci and Salmonella spp. in Galapagas Island Colubriformis. J Zoo wildlife Med. 2004; 35: Soulsby EJL. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals.7 th ed. London: Baillier Tindall; p Stabler RM. Trichomonas gallinae as a factor in the decline of the pregrine falcon. In: Hickey JJ, editor. Peregrine falcon populations: Their biology and decline. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press; p Jessup DA. Trichomoniasis in great horned owls. Modern Vet Practice. 1980; 61: Levine ND. Veterinary protozoology.2 nd ed. Ames : Iowa State University Press; p Baker JR. Trichomoniasis, a major cause of vomiting in bugerigars. Vet Rec. 1986; 118: Cooper JE, Petty SJ. Trichomoniasis in free-living goshawk (Accipiter gentiles gentiles) from Great Britain. J Wild Dis. 1988; 24: Butcher GD. Pigeon canker. VM75. Veterinary Medicine Large Animal Clinical Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. EDIS Web site at hattp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu Kietzmann GE Jr. Host parasite interactions of Trichomonas gallinae.[dissertation]. Ames: State University of Iowa at Ames; p. 148p. 16. Abdel-Motelib TY, El-Gamal BG. Some studies on Trichomonas gallinae infection in pigeons. Assiut Vet Med. 1993; 30: Dovĉ A, Zorman-Rojos O, Rajat AV, Hribov BV, Krapel U, Dobeic M. Health status of free-living pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in the city of Ljubljana. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica. 2004; 52: Erwin KG, Henke SE, Roberson JA, Kloss C, Lyles J, Felderhoff J, Fedynich AM. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses. J Wildlife Dis. 2000; 36: Steel RGD, Torrie JH. Principles and procedures of statistics;1 st ed New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company; p p. 20. Tasca T, De Carli GA. Scanning electron microscopy study of Trichomonas gallinae. Vet Parasitol. 2003; 118: Cole RA. Trichomoniasis. In: Friend M, Christian JF, editors. Field manual of wild life diseases. Washington DC : U.S. Department of Interior; Tudor DC. Pigeon Health and disease. Iowa State University Press. Ames. Iowa 1991; p Stabler RM, Herman CM. Upper digestive tract trichomoniasis in mourning doves and other birds. North American Wildlife Conference 1951; 16: Rupier DJ, Harmon WM. Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in central California mourning doves. California Fish and Games 1988; 47: () - Carrier () ().. :....- : 2. De Herdt P, De Vriese L. Pigeons. In: Tully Jr TN, Lawton MCP, Dorrestien GM, editors. Avian Medicine.1 st ed. Edinburgh : Butterworth L Heinemann; p Ostrand WD, Bissonette JA, Conover MR. Trichomoniasis as a factor in mourning dove population decline in Filmore, Utah. J Wildlife Dis. 1995; 31: McDougald LR. Trichomoniasis. In: Saif YM, Bornes HJ, Jibson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR, Swayne DE, editors. Diseases of poultry. Iowa: Iowa State Press p Avian.. Columba livia trichomoniasis.. : ( ). 6. Toro H, Savcedo C, Borei C, Gough RE, Acaino H. Health status of free-living pigeons in the city of Santiago, Chile. Avian Pathol. 1999; 28: Padilla LR, Santiago-Alarcon D, Merkel J, Miller RE, Parker PG. A survey for Haemoproteus spp.; Trichomonas gallinae, Chlamydophila

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