EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON LAYER JAPANESE QUAILS (Coturnix coturnix japonica) IN TROPICS

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1 EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON LAYER JAPANESE QUAILS (Coturnix coturnix japonica) IN TROPICS K. Sangilimadan 1, R. Asha Rajini 2, R. Prabakaran 3, V. Balakrishnan 4 and M. Murugan 5 Department of Poultry Science Madras Veterinary College,Chennai ABSTRACT A biological experiment was conducted using Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from day old to thirty weeks of age to identify the dietary protein requirement of layer Japanese quail reared in cages under a hot and humid tropical climate. Hen day egg production and hen housed egg production were significantly (P<0.01) influenced by dietary protein combinations, the best protein combination was 26/20/22, Japanese quails aged 11 to 14 weeks had the highest hen day egg production and hen housed egg production. The best feed efficiency per dozen table eggs, ranging from 0.51 to Birds aged 11 to 18 weeks recorded significantly (P<0.01) the best feed efficiency per dozen table eggs and feed efficiency per kilogram egg mass. Higher grower (22 per cent) and layer dietary protein levels of 19 and 22 per cent respectively had significantly (P<0.01) influenced egg weight. Heavier eggs of and 12.39g were laid by 26/22/22 and 24/22/22 protein combinations respectively. Per cent livability in layer Japanese quails was not influenced by dietary protein combinations, nor by individual protein levels. Dietary protein combination of 24/ 20/19 recorded the lowest feed cost per 100 table eggs and the best egg feed price ratio in layer Japanese quails recorded in the age group of weeks. Key words : Japanese quail, Dietary protein, Hen day egg production, Hen housed egg production Feed efficiency INTRODUCTION Japanese quail, a small-domesticated avian species, has assumed importance world wide as bird and is commercially exploited for meat and egg production, (Wilson et al., 1961). The major constraint for rapid development of quail industry is the escalating feed cost which at present accounts for nearly percent of total cost of quail production. Such an unparalleled escalation in the 1. Assistant Professor,IPPM,Part of Ph.D., thesis submitted to the TANUVAS, MMC,Chennai Professor, Department of Poultry Science, MVC, Chennai Vice-Chancellor, TANUVAS, MMC, Chennai Professor and Head, Department of Animal Nutrition, MVC, Chennai Assistant Professor,SRRS, Tiruneveli

2 Effect of... feed cost is threatening the rapid development of quail industry, and necessitates reduction in the feed cost by adopting optimal scientific dietary protein. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to study the dietary protein, requirement of layer Japanese quails for optimum egg production under our hot and humid climatic conditions of Chennai. MATERIALS AND METHODS The biological experiments were conducted using Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from day old to thirty weeks of age to identify the dietary protein requirement of layer Japanese quail reared in cages under a hot and humid tropical climate. The biological experiments were conducted at the Institute of Poultry Production and Management (IPPM), Nandanam, Chennai straight run Japanese quail chicks belonging to a single hatch were reared in a brooder cum grower multi tiered cage up to six weeks of age. The chicks were divided into two groups of six hundred, each with twelve replicates of 50 chicks per treatment. All the birds were provided with a dietary metabolizable energy level of 2750 kcal/kg. Each of the 600 birds were fed with a dietary protein of 26 and 24 per cent from 0 to 3 weeks of age; on the fourth week of age, these two groups of 600 birds were further divided into two sub groups of 300 birds each and provided with 20 and 22 per cent of dietary protein up to six weeks of age. During this period all the treatment groups received a lower dietary metabolizable energy of 2600kcal/kg. During the growing period of 4 to 6 weeks of age, the metabolizable energy level in the feed was brought down to 2600 Kcal/kg as per the recommendations of Shrivastav and Panda (1999). The sexes were separated at six weeks of age and 480 female Japanese quails were randomly chosen and allotted to 12 treatments in layer cages. Each group of 300 birds provided 120 female layer quails, which were randomly allotted to three dietary protein levels each of 16, 19 and 22 per cent, all the 480 layer quails were fed with a constant metabolizable energy level of 2700 kcal/kg (Table1). Each treatment comprised of 40 birds with two replicates of 20 birds each. After ompleting six weeks of age (42nd day), the birds were transferred to four tier (four compartments per tier) layer colony cages and maintained in these cages up to 30 weeks of age. A uniform managemental practice was adopted in all the experimental groups. The reproduction parameters in terms of age at sexual maturity age at 50 per cent production, body weight at sexual maturity and production parameters in terms of egg number, egg weight, feed intake and feed efficiency, livability were recorded during different periods of production. The economics of 100 table eggs and feed price ratio were worked out to study the optimum dietary protein requirement of layer Japanese quail. The data were grouped and subjected to factorial experimental design. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 1. Effect on sexual maturity Age at sexual maturity, 50 per cent egg production and weight at sexual maturity The over all mean age at sexual maturity, 50 percent egg production, weight at sexual maturity was ± 0.32 days, ± 0.55 days and g ± 0.96 respectively (Table 2). No significant influence of dietary protein on age at sexual maturity and age at 50 per cent egg production was observed. Bhanja et al. (2006) concurred with the present finding that the age at sexual maturity and 50 percent hen day egg production. 2. Effect on egg production Hen day egg production The dietary protein groups of 26/20/22, 24/ 20/19 and 24/20/22 recorded significantly (P<0.01) the highest hen day egg production of 74.26±1.22, 72.98±1.08 and ±1.11 per cent respectively (Table 2). The lowest hen day egg production of 272

3 Sangilimadan et.al., 56.17±1.05 per cent was recorded by 26/20/16 dietary protein group and this was not significantly (P<0.01) different from the two low dietary protein groups. Shrivastav et al. (1993) observed no significant variation in different combinations of protein studied on hen day egg production. The dietary protein groups during the laying period fed with 22 per cent protein recorded significantly (P<0.01) the highest hen day egg production of 70.99±0.64, followed by groups fed 19 and 16 per cent dietary protein with 67.16±0.67 and 58.27±0.57 per cent respectively (Table 3). Japanese quails in the age group of 11 to 14 weeks had significantly (P<0.01) higher hen day egg production of 76.93±0.46. These findings agreed with that of Kaur et al. (2005).The overall mean hen day egg production was per cent, Ipek et al. (2007) also observed a similar rate in egg production.pre layer feeding did not significantly affect per cent hen day egg production. These findings agreed with that of Soares et al. (2003). Layer Japanese quail provided with 16 per cent dietary protein during laying performed poorly and this agreed with the findings of Abaza et al. (2009). As per the present study, the protein combination of 24/20/19 had also recorded significantly a high per cent hen day egg production and this same combination of 24/20/19 dietary protein has been recommended by Shrivastav et al. (1994). Yalcin et al. (2007) recommended a dietary protein of 19 per cent for layer Japanese quails. Hen housed egg production The dietary protein groups of 26/20/22 and 24/20/19 recorded significantly (P<0.01) highest hen housed egg production of 70.52±1.21 and 68.69±1.11 per cent respectively (Table 2). No literature could be traced on the influence of dietary protein level on hen housed egg production. Between periods, weeks aged layer quails recorded significantly (P<0.01) highest hen housed egg production of 75.06±0.46 (Table 3). Kaur et al. (2005) also observed the same trend. Among the six periods of lay studied, the hen housed egg production was significantly (P<0.01) the lowest in the first and fifth period studied. The dietary protein group fed with 20 per cent protein during growing recorded significantly (P< 0.05) higher hen housed egg production (61.05±0.54 per cent) Japanese quails fed with 22 percent dietary protein during lay recorded significantly (P<0.01) higher hen housed egg production of 65.63±0.63 per cent. Individual layer dietary proteins also had a significant (P<0.01) effect on quail hen housed egg production with 22 per cent dietary protein giving significantly (P<0.01) the highest production. A higher level of dietary protein maximizes the amount of body protein available for egg formation and egg production (Joseph et al., 2000). 3. Effect of feed consumption and feed efficiency Feed consumption The overall mean feed consumption of layer Japanese quail per day was 31.42±0.08g (Table 2), the various dietary protein combinations did not have any significant effect on feed intake, but between periods, weeks aged layer quails recorded significantly (P<0.01) the highest feed intake of 32.14±0.06g (Table 3). There was no significant difference in feed consumption of layer Japanese quails. This agreed with the findings of Vidal et al. (2000). Older birds consumed significantly (P<0.01) more feed (32.14g ± 0.06) than the younger birds. The present findings do not concur with Kaur et al. (2005) as the highest daily feed intake was found during 27 to 30 weeks. Feed efficiency The dietary protein groups fed with 22 and 19 per cent protein recorded comparable feed efficiency of 0.53± 0.01 and 0.57±0.02 (Table 3) while the layer group fed 16 per cent dietary crude protein recorded significantly (P<0.01) the lowest feed efficiency per dozen table eggs ( 0.64±0.01). The best and significant (P<0.01) feed efficiency for per dozen table eggs in Japanese quails was observed 273

4 in the 24/20/19 and 26/20/22 dietary protein groups, while significantly (P<0.01) the lowest feed efficiency for dozen table eggs was noticed in 26/20/16, 24/20/ 16 and 26/20/19 dietary protein group (Table 2). Prelay dietary protein did not influence the feed efficiency per dozen table eggs, but layer dietary protein had a significant (P<0.01) effect, with 19 and 22 per cent giving significantly (P<0.01) the best feed efficiency. Soares et al. (2003) also observed that higher dietary protein levels during the laying period improved feed efficiency per dozen eggs. Between periods, and weeks of age recorded significantly (P<0.01) the best feed efficiency of 0.49±0.01 and 0.52±0.01 respectively ( Table 3). The dietary protein groups of 26/20/22 and 24/20/19 recorded significantly (P<0.01) the best feed efficiency per kilogram eggs of 3.37±0.14 and 3.44± 0.10 respectively. Between periods and weeks of age recorded significantly (P < 0.01) the best feed efficiency of 3.28±0.09 followed by 3.56±0.13 (Table 3 ) respectively. This partly agreed with the findings of Kaur et al. (2005). Throughout this study, layer dietary protein level of 16 per cent had performed poorly. The same trend was observed with feed efficiency per dozen table eggs and per kilogram egg mass. While the 16 per cent dietary protein group recorded significantly (P<0.01) the lowest feed efficiency per kilogram egg mass of 4.50±0.10. Shrivastav et al. (1993) also observed that birds fed with 24/20/19 and 27/24/22 gave the best feed efficiency per kilogram egg mass. Brooder and grower dietary protein did not influence feed efficiency per kilogram egg mass but again layer dietary protein had a significant effect (P<0.01) on feed efficiency. Garcia et al. (2005) observed numerically better feed efficiency per kilogram egg mass with layer dietary protein levels ranging between 19 or Effect on livability The overall mean and cumulative per cent livability of female layer Japanese quails were 97.12±0.22 and 82.5 per cent respectively (Table 2). 274 Effect of... The various dietary protein groups did not significantly influence the livability of female Japanese quails. Between periods, weeks aged birds recorded a significantly (P<0.01) lower livability, the same trend was recorded Abaza et al. (2009). The overall livability was per cent and this was almost similar to Narayanan kutty et al. (1989). Periods played a significant role in livability. The lowest livability was observed during 15 to 22 weeks. 5. Relative Economics The dietary protein group of 24/20/19 recorded the lowest feed cost of Rs.75.56±2.62 followed by the 26/22/16 group with 79.49±3.56 (Table 2). Between periods, weeks of age recorded the lowest fed cost of 71.01±1.02. The dietary protein group fed with 19 per cent protein during lay recorded significantly (P<0.01) the lowest feed cost of Rs.83.60±2.27 (Table 3). This does not agree with Agarwal et al.(2006) who recorded about Rs for 100 eggs. The dietary protein group of 24/20/19 and 26/20/22 recorded the best egg feed price ratio of 1.40 and 1.33 respectively. The lowest egg feed price ratio was recorded in 26/20/16 dietary protein group. Between periods quails aged and recorded higher egg feed price ratio of 1.48 and 1.39 respectively. The best egg feed price ratio (1.40) was observed in 24/20/19 dietary protein combination. Narahari and Rajini (2005) had stated that a feed price ratio of 1.4 and above is economical. Based on the present study, it may reasonably be concluded that the effect of dietary protein requirement of layer Japanese quails in tropics for hen day egg production and hen housed egg production were significantly (P<0.01) influenced by dietary protein combinations. The best feed efficiency per dozen table eggs ranges from 0.51 to Birds aged 11 to 18 weeks recorded significantly (P<0.01) the best feed efficiency per dozen table eggs and feed efficiency per kilogram egg mass. Per cent livability in layer Japanese quails was not influenced by dietary protein combinations,

5 Sangilimadan et.al., or by individual protein levels. Dietary protein combination of 24/20/19 recorded the lowest feed cost per 100 table eggs and the best egg feed price ratio in layer Japanese quails recorded in the age group of weeks. REFERENCES Abaza,I.M., W.Ezzat, M.S. Shoeib, A.A. Ei-Zaiat and I.I. Hassan, Effects of Copper Sulphate on productive, reproductive performance and blood constituents of laying Japanese quail fed optimal and sub-optimal Protein.Inter.J.Poult.Sci.,8 (1): Agarwal,S., S.C. Gupta and S.K.Chopra., Replacement of maize by wheat and bajra on the egg production performance of Japanese quails. Indian J. Poult.Sci., 41 (1): Bhanja, S.K., S.K.Agarwal and S.Majumdar, Effect of cage floor space on the egg production performance of Japanese quail during winter. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 41(2): Garcia, E.A., A.A.Mendes, C.C. Pizzolante Saldanha, J.Moreira, C. Mori and A.C. Pavan, Protein, methionine plus cystine and lysine levels for Japanese quails during the production phase. Rev.Bras.Cienc.Avic., 7 (1):1-9. Ipek,A., O.Canbolat and A.Karabulut,2007.The effect of Vitamin E and Vitamin C on the performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared under heat stress during growth and egg production period. Asian.Aust.J.Anim.Sci., 20 (2): Josesph.N.S.,F.E.Robinson,D.R.Korver and R.A.Renema,2000.Effect of dietary protein intake during the pullet-to-breeder transition period on early egg weight and production in broiler breeders.poult.sci.,79: Kaur,S; Mandal, A.B; Singh, K.B and Kadam, M.M Response of Japanese quails to dietary protein quality during different phases of egg production.indian.j. Ani.Nutr. 22 (3) : Narahari, D.,R.Asha Rajini,2005.Poultry projects and economics Pixie. Publication, India (p),karnal.second edi Narayanan kutty., K. A.Jalaludeen and A.Ramakrishnan, Effect of age on quality characteristics of Japanese quail eggs. Cheiron, 18(2): Shrivastav, A.V., M.V.L.N.Raju and T.S.Johri, Effect of varied dietary protein on certain production and reproduction traits in breeding Japanese quail. Indian J.Poult.Sci., 28 (1) : Shrivastava,S.K,,S.D.Ahuja, R.P.Singh and U.K.Bandyopadhyay, Influence of rearing mixed and separate sexes of Japanese quail on egg production and egg quality. Indian J.Poult.Sci., 29 (2) : Shrivastav,A.K. and B. Panda, A review of quail nutrition research in India. World's Poult.Sci.J., 55: Soares, R da TRN JB, Fonseca Santos, AS de O dos and MB. Mercandante Protein requirement of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during rearing and laying periods. Brazilian J. Poult.Sci.,5 (2): Vidal, J.M., Y.L.Silva,ACS.Figueiredo,2000.Influenciea de diferentea niveis de proteina bruta e energia metabolizavel da racao no desempenho de codornas (Coturnix coturnix japonica) na fase final de postura. In:2nd Congresso de Producao e Consumo de Ovos. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.Brasil.p.196. Wilson,W.O.,U.K.Abbott and H.Abplanap, 1961.Evalution of Coturnix (Japanese quail) as a pilot animal for poultry.poult.sci.,40: Yalcin,S, Ilyas on basilar, Adnam Sehu and Suzan yalcin,2007. The effects of dietary garlic powder on the performance of, egg traits and blood serum cholesterol of laying quails. Asian- Aust.J.Anim.Sci., 20(6):

6 Sl. No Table.1 Per cent ingredient composition and nutrient composition of diet Ingredient Brooder (0-3 weeks) Effect of... Per cent Inclusion Level Grower ( 4-6 weeks) Layer (7-30 weeks) T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T3 1 Maize Bajra De Oiled Rice Bran Soya bean meal Sun Flower oil cake Dry Fish Mineral Mixture Shell grit Calcite Di Calcium Phosphate Total Nutrient Composition 1 Crude protein (%)* Metabolizable Energy ** ( kcal / kg ) 3 Calcium (%)* Available Phosphorous (%)* Lysine (%) ** Methionine (%) ** Crude fibre(%)* * Mean of the analyzed values, ** Calculated values Feed Supplements 1 Ultra Vite-M Ultra Sil-TCF Ultra Phos-D Ultra-B12-FS

7 Sangilimadan et.al., Table2 Protein combination effect on various Productive performance of layer Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) ** -Mean for levels bearing different superscript with different column differ significantly(p<0.01), * -Mean for levels bearing different superscript with different column differ significantly(p<0.05),ns-not Significantly (P>0.05) 277

8 Effect of... Table 3 Age and individual protein effect of different productive performance of layer Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) ** -Mean for levels bearing different superscript with different column differ significantly(p<0.01), * -Mean for levels bearing different superscript with different column differ significantly(p<0.05),ns-not Significantly (P>0.05) 278

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