1 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and UNDOMESTICATED FOOD ANIMALS HUNTED AND USED FOR FOOD Herbert W. Ockerman and The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio, USA Keywords: Undomesticat, Animals Hunt, Animals Us For Food Contents 1. Introduction 2. Alligators and crocodiles 3. Amphibians 4. Insects 4.1. Ants (order-hymenoptera) 4.2. Crickets, grasshoppers, leafcutter ants, leafhoppers, locusts, stingless bees, and weevils 4.3. Beetles, dragonflies, June beetles, lemon ants, longhorn beetles, water bugs, white beetles, wing adult ants, and wood worms 4.4. Butterflies 4.5. Nutrition of Insects 4.6. Insects as a food resource 5. Mammals 5.1. Ruminants: antelope, bison, caribou, deer, elk, llama (alpaca), and moose 5.2. Other large mammals: bears, kangaroos, wallabies, seals, whales 5.3. Small Animals 6. Birds 6.1. Large birds: Emu (Australia and New Guinea), ostrich (up to 300 pounds), rhea and turkey 6.2. Small Poultry: Duck, Pheasant and Quail 7. Reptiles 8. Eels Bibliography Biographical Sketches 1. Introduction Many undomesticat, exotic and wild animals are hunt, harvest, and captur by fishing. For those who engage in hunting and/or fishing for pleasure or for trophies, these animals make up only a modest protein or food supply. However, these animals can make up a significant protein supply for indigenous people or aborigines who have little or no access to domesticat animals. The line between these animals and those of the same specie that are farm in captivity is sometimes gray since with proper handling and an adequate fe supply, most of these animals could be farm. This section will concentrate on these animals (with the exclusion of fish) that in general, are not farm.
2 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and The large variety of animals consum in Africa (south of the Sahara), can be found in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 (includes chemical composition), and those popular in aborigine diets in Australia can be found in Table 5 (including lipid content). Table 6 gives a more worldwide perspective of the undomesticat animals us for food in various parts of the world, along with chemical composition, mineral composition, and select vitamin content. Table 7 tabulates chemical composition and mineral content of cook tissue from exotic animals utiliz in various locations around the globe. Species available Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Grey Duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) Royal Antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus) Black Duiker (Cephalophus niger) Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) Bay Duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis) R River-hog (Bush-pig) (Potamochoerus porcus) Brush-tail Porcupine (Atherurus africanus) Pouch Rat (Giant Rat) (Cricetomys gambianus) Monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) Two-spott Palm-civet (Nandinia binotata) Togo Hare (Lepus capensis) Source: Asibey, 1974 Species Rodents Bats Anteaters Primates Birds Reptiles Others Table 1. Bushmeat available in the Kantamanto Market, Accra, Ghana Remarks Besides large rodents such as hares (Lepus spp.), giant rats (Cricetomys spp.), cane rats or grasscutters (Thryonomys spp.), and porcupines (Hystrix spp. and Atherurus spp.), which are generally eaten by the total population, a number of small rodents are also eaten by children. These may include common house rats (Rattus spp.), which are given to children who are suffering from whooping cough as they are believ to have micinal value to such patients. All squirrels (Anomalurus spp., Funisciurus spp., Protoxerus spp., Heliosciurus spp., Idiurus spp., etc.) are eaten. Most fruit-bats (Eidolon spp.) are eaten. They may even be smok and pack in large quantities for markets All species of pangolins (Manis spp.) and ardvark (Orycteropus capensis) are consider to be a delicacy and their meat is expensive. All monkeys (Procolobus spp., Cercopithecus spp., and Papio spp.) as well as Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are includ in the diet where they are available. Most birds, including birds of prey, sunbirds, and all herons, including Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis), are consum All tortoises, turtles, both monitor lizards (Varanus spp.), African Python (Python sebae), Gaboon Viper (Bitis gabonica), Puff Adder (Bitis arietans), and the Night Adder (Causus maculatus), are consum. Children may eat Agama Lizards (Agama agama) Insects such as brown ants are consum, while the maggot of Palm
3 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and Beetle (Phyncophorus phoenicals) is highly priz. African giant snails (Archachatina sp.) are eaten in large quantities, and in some areas they are the major source of protein. Source: Asibey, 1974 Table 2. Wild Animals Eaten in Ghana Center Damongo Techiman Accra Source: Asiby, 1974 Remarks Rural: 16 months of recording. 20 species of animals Urban: 11 months of recording. 30 species of animals, including snakes Capital city: 17 months of recording. 13 species of animals, including mongoose, bats, monkeys, hyraxes, and monitor lizards Table 3. Summary of Bushmeat Found in Some Centers in Ghana Analysis Usta Macrotermes Imbrasia ertli, Rhyncophoru trepsichore, subhyalinus, moth cook s phoenicis, moth cook in termite, fri in water (salt weevil, fri water (salt is in oil is add) in oil add) Moisture, % Protein, % Fat, % Carbohydrate,% Ash, % Chemical score, compar to whole egg Chemical score, compar to FAO reference protein, 1973 Biological value Source: Oliveira, et al Mammals Table 4. Nutritive Value of Insects Consum in Angola Animal species Poly-unsaturates % lipid Monounsaturates Saturates content n-3 n-6 Series Series Anelope Kangaroo Blackfoot rock wallaby Black tail wallaby Bushtail (O)possum Common Not Not
4 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and wombat Dugong Eastern gray kangaroo Eastern walloroo Not Not Not e d Koala Not ,8 Long nos potoroo Platypus Not R kangaroo Not Ringtail possum Birds Emu Pacific black duck Reptiles Freshwater crocodile Gould s goanna Northern snake neck turtle Pacific black duck R belli black snake Perente Fish and Black crustacea bream ns Bluebone Freshwater barramundi Mangrove ray Yabbie Insects Witchetty grub Molluscs Land snails Mussel Source: Naughton et al Table 5. Lipid Content of the Muscle of Some Food Animals Us in Aboriginal Diets in Australia
5 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and Meat Moisture % Fat % Ash % Protein % Na Mg P K Ca Mn Fe Cu Zn Sr Nanogram/g of αtoco pherol Micrograms/ g Ribo-flavin Micrograms /g Thiamine Alligator Ant Ant, flying female Ant, flying male Ant, r Antelope Bear Bee maggot Beetles Bison Boar, wild Caiman Caribou Caterpillar Cricket Deer Duck, wild Dung beetle Elk
6 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and Emu 74 Frog legs 83.6 Grassopper Grubs Bandicoot June beetle Lizard Locust Monitor, iguana Moose Moth Ostrich Pheasant Quail Rabbit, wild Silkworm Snake Squirrel Swiflet nest, dri Tail Termites
7 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and Turkey, Bush Turtle, snapping Turtle, Soft shell Wallaby , Water beetle giant Weevil Whale Source: Lakritz et al. 1998; Leung et al. 1968, 1972; Ohtsuka et al. 1984; Sabry and Rizek, 1982; USDA 1999; USDA. 1989; USDA, 1979; + other scatter sources Table 6. Hunt Animal Raw Proximate Analysis Food Method of cooking Moisture, % Protein, % Fat, % Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, P, S, Cl, Bear Simmer, flesh Bison Roast, flesh Boar, wild Roast, flesh Caribou Roast, flesh Deer Roast, flesh Elk Roast, flesh Grouse Roast, flesh Hippopotamus Smok Hare Roast, flesh Stew, flesh Moose Roast, flesh Partridge Roast, flesh Pheasant Roast, flesh Crab Boil, flesh
8 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and Eels, elvers Raw, whole Tr Eels, silver Raw, flesh Eels, yellow Raw, flesh Lobster Boil, flesh Mussels Raw, flesh Boil, flesh Ostrich Cook, flesh Oysters Raw, flesh Scallops Steam, flesh Caterpillars Smok Dehydrat 63 House flies Dri Locust Fri Dri Silkworn Dri 60 Dri, De-oil 76 Termites Dri Fri Source: Leung et al. (1968); McCance and Widdowson (1960); and other scatter sources. Table 7. Analysis of food value of various animals, cook or raw (as indicat)
9 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and TO ACCESS ALL THE 18 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER, Visit: Bibliography Asibey, E. O. A Wildlife as a source of protein in Africa south of the Sahara. Biological Conservation 6(1) DeFoliart, G. R Is there a greater role for insects as food? Iowa Science Teachers Journal. 16(3) Lakritz, L., Fox, J. B., and Thayer, D. W Thiamin, riboflavin and α-tocopherol content of exotic meats and loss due to gamma radiation. J. Food Protection, 61(12) Leung, W. T. W., Butram, R. R., and Chang, F. H Food composition table for use in East Asia. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare and FAO of UN. McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M The composition of foods. Her Majesty s Stationery Office, London. Naughton, J. N., O Dea, K., and Sinclair, A. J Animal Foods in Traditional Australian Aboriginal Diets. Lipids 21(11) Ohtsuka, R., Kawabe, T., Indaoka, T., Suzuki, T., Hongo, T. Akimichi, T. and Sugahara, T Composition of local and purchas foods consum by the Gidra in Lowland Papua. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 15(2) Oliveira, J. F. S., de Carvalho, J. P., de Sousa, R. F. X. B, and Simao, M. M Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 5, Ramos-Elorduy, J., Moreno, J. M. P., Parado, E. E., Perez, M. A., Otero, J. L. and Guevara O. L Nutritional Value of Edible Insects from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. J of Food Composition and Analysis 10, Sabry, Z. I. And Rizek, R. L Food composition tables for the Near East. FAO of UN and. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Human Nutrition Information Div. Consumer Nutrition Center. Scott, T. and Foster, B. G Salmonella spp. in free-ranging and fam alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Texas and Louisiana, USA. Aquaculture 156: USDA USDA, food composition data. USDA Composition of foods: lamb, veal and game products. USDA Composition of foods: poultry products. Biographical Sketches Dr. Herbert W. Ockerman is a Professor at The Ohio State University in the Meat Science Area of the Department of Animal Sciences, Columbus, Ohio, USA. He is involv in both food teaching and research and his areas of specialty include, Food Biochemistry, Food Microbiology, Statistics, and International Education. Prof. has receiv 26 local and national honors as well as 67 international honors
10 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES - Vol. I - Undomesticat Food Animals Hunt and Us For Food - Herbert W. Ockerman and from 6 continents. His publications exce 1,650 scientific and industry focus articles, including 80+ books or chapters in books. He belongs to 24 professional societies and is list in 56 biographical listings. He has establish five International University Endowments and his hobby is shipping textbooks to his alumni around the word who are currently Secretary of Agriculture, numerous University s Deans of Agriculture, numerous Departmental Chairmans, and numerous Faculty members both at Universities, National Research Originations, and Private Businesses. He currently has advis 98 international students from 32 countries and supervis 61 visiting professors from 24 courtiers. He has been invit to give 100+ international presentations, keynote speeches, short courses, and seminars in his discipline. is a Ph. D. Student from India in The Department of Animal Sciences, also specializing in Meat Science and International Education at the Ohio State University.