Reproductive organ morphology and carcass traits in unselected naturally mating female Bronze turkeys at onset of lay

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Reproductive organ morphology and carcass traits in unselected naturally mating female Bronze turkeys at onset of lay"

Transcription

1 Reproductive organ morphology and carcass traits in unselected naturally mating female Bronze turkeys at onset of lay R. A. Renema 1, V. L. Melnychuk 1, F. E. Robinson 1,3, H. L. Classen 2, and R. D. Crawford 2 1 Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5; 2 Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B5. Received 14 April 1997, accepted 11 December Renema, R. A., Melnychuk, V. L., Robinson, F. E., Classen, H. L. and Crawford, R. D Reproductive organ morphology and carcass traits in unselected naturally mating female Bronze turkeys at onset of lay. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78: A study was conducted examining the rates of development of components of the reproductive tract during sexual maturation in a flock of naturally mating Bronze turkeys. Birds were processed at 7-d intervals beginning at photostimulation (29.5 wk of age), for the following 5 wk, and following their first oviposition. The relatively low BW of this strain (6.6 kg) was associated with a very low lipid content (16.4%), abdominal fat pad weight (107 g), and breast muscle weight (1.15 kg). At sexual maturity the ovary contained 12.2 large yellow follicles with 59% of these follicles being in a multiple hierarchy arrangement. There was an average of 1.4 unreconciled POF (the remnant of the site of ovulation). The presence of unreconciled POF suggests that this may be a natural phenomenon in turkeys and not limited to modern fast growing strains. Birds that laid their first egg quickly were more likely to have ovulated several times prior to their first oviposition than birds commencing lay later (r = 0.64; P < 0.02). Regression analysis of reproductive tract development revealed that the oviduct reached its mature weight 3 d earlier than did the ovary (28.3 vs d) (r 2 = 0.81; P < ). This strain resembled modern female line strains in regard to reproductive traits. Key words: Bronze Turkey, body weight, ovary morphology, reproductive disorders Renema, R. A., Melnychuk, V. L., Robinson, F. E., Classen, H. L. et Crawford, R. D Morphologie des organes reproducteurs et caractères de carcasse au déclenchement de la ponte chez des dindes Bronzées non sélectionnées et conduites en accouplement naturel. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78: Nous avons examiné les taux de développement des organes reproducteurs dans la phase de maturation sexuelle chez des dindes Bronzées conduites en accouplement naturel. Les volailles étaient observées une fois par semaine pendant 5 semaines à partir du début de la stimulation photopériodique à l âge de 29,5 semaines, puis encore après la première ponte. Le poids corporel relativement faible de la souche utilisée (6,6 kg) était associé à une très faible teneur en lipides (16,4 %) de la carcasse, au peu de graisse abdominale (107 g) et au poids très bas du muscle pectoral (1,15 kg). À la maturité de ponte, l ovaire contenait 12,2 grands follicules jaunes dont 59 % disposés selon une hiérarchie multiple. On observait en moyenne 1,4 FPO vides, c est-à-dire n aboutissant pas à l oviposition. La présence de ces FPO vides incite à penser que c est peut-être un phénomène naturel chez les dindes et non pas un phénomène limité aux souches à croissance rapide modernes. Les sujets qui commençaient à pondre tôt avaient plus de chance d avoir ovulé plusieurs fois avant leur première oviposition que ceux qui commençaient à pondre plus tard (r = 0,64; P < 0,02). L analyse par régression du développement des organes reproducteurs a permis de constater que l oviducte atteignait son poids normal trois jours plus tôt que l ovaire, soit 28,3 contre 31,2 j (r 2 = 0,81; P < 0,0001). La souche utilisée ressemblait aux souches femelles modernes pour ce qui est des caractères de reproduction. Mots clés: Dinde Bronzée, poids corporel, morphologie de l ovaire, troubles de reproduction Body weight and egg production are negatively correlated in turkeys (Nestor 1971). Selection for growth parameters has caused an increase in the number of large ovarian follicles, which increases the incidence of multiple follicle sets and multiple ovulations (Nestor et al. 1980; Hocking 1992). The fat content of turkeys has increased due to BW selection (Nestor 1982; Emmans 1989). The BW of breeder parent stocks increased by 25% between 1985 and 1989 (Hester and Stevens 1990) and continues to rise. The egg production potential of male-line parent stock hens is now less than half that of their smaller female line counterparts (Hocking 3 Author to whom correspondence should be sent, ). Feed restriction is a standard practice in broiler breeder management and has been shown to be an effective way to improve egg production (Summers and Robinson 1995), but it has not been used with the same success in turkeys (Hester and Stevens 1990). The heavy turkey strains that could benefit most from feed restriction are also most resistant to its effects (Hocking 1992; Renema et al. 1994, 1995). A recent study with male line turkeys (selected almost exclusively for growth characteristics) demonstrated that Abbreviations: BW, body weight; CP, crude protein; LYF, large yellow follicles; ME, metabolizable energy; POF, post-ovulatory follicles; SEM, standard error of the mean

2 182 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE these birds ovulate up to five times prior to the ovulation resulting in their first oviposition (Renema et al. 1995). In female line stocks, in which reproductive traits are more strongly selected for, 1.6 unexplained ovulations occurred prior to the first one resulting in an egg (Melnychuk et al. 1997). The rates of internal ovulation (follicle ovulated into body cavity) were high in these birds, particularly in early production, when excess large yellow follicles (LYF) were present. Melnychuk et al. (1997) suggested that the development of the oviduct and ovary have become unsynchronized with selection for carcass growth rate. If genetic selection programs continue as they are, these problems may continue to worsen. However, details of reproductive development and the effects of current genetic selection programs have not been well characterized in turkeys. It needs to be clarified what normal is before it can be determined if turkey reproduction is threatened or doing well. This experiment utilized a naturally mating Bronze turkey line which had been unselected for 40 yr. Changes in the state of the reproductive morphology and carcass traits were examined throughout sexual maturation, with particular emphasis on the relative rates of development of the oviduct and ovary. MATERIALS AND METHODS Stocks and Management Forty-two female Bronze turkey poults were obtained from a closed flock of naturally mating birds maintained at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK). These rather primitive stocks originated from a rural Saskatchewan seasonal hatchery supply flock. They are thought to be typical of commercial turkeys of 1940 to Upon arrival at the University of Alberta, bird age ranged from 27 to 30 wk of age due to staggered hatch procedures in the source flock. The birds were housed in a light-controlled facility and allowed ad libitum access to both feed and water. Diets were corn-soybean based and formulated according to commercial breeder guidelines. Birds were fed a 2850 kcal kg 1 ME, 12% CP developer diet (Renema et al. 1994) prior to photostimulation and changed to a 2850 kcal kg 1 ME, 14% CP breeder diet (Renema et al. 1994) for the remainder of the experiment. Individual BW data were recorded at weekly intervals. The flock was maintained on short day conditions (8L:16D) until photostimulation at an average age of 29.5 wk (range of 28 to 31 wk of age), when daylength was increased to 14L:10D. Birds were randomly assigned to a study time (Table 1). The mean BW of birds in each study period was similar at the beginning of the experiment. Beginning at photostimulation, five birds were processed each 7 d for a 35-d period (Group A; n = 30 birds total) to characterize the changes in the reproductive tract and carcass organs. At 09:00 h, birds were euthanized by lethal injection with T-61 Euthanasia (Hoechst Canada Inc., Regina, SK, Canada, S4N 6C2) (3 ml dosage). A second group of birds (Group B) (n = 12 birds) was selected to be processed at sexual maturity (first oviposition) to characterize ovarian and carcass traits at this time. Beginning at 30 wk of age, birds were palpated in the morning for the Table 1. Number of turkeys processed in each study period Mean Time post- Group age (d) photostimulation (d) n A A A A A A B 1 d after first 24 to oviposition presence of a hard-shelled egg in the shell gland. If an egg was present, the turkey was placed in a trap nest ( cm) to ensure positive identification of first oviposition. Following oviposition, Group B birds were deprived of feed and water and processed the following morning as described above. The experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Policy and Welfare Committee of the Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics of the University of Alberta. Reproductive Organ Morphology At processing, birds of both Group A and Group B were individually weighed, and the shank length was recorded. The breast muscle, liver, abdominal fat pad, oviduct, and ovary were removed and weighed. The number, weight, and diameter of large yellow ovarian follicles (LYF) (diameter greater than 10 mm), number of POF (the remnant of the site of ovulation), and the weight of the stroma (ovary minus large yellow follicles) were recorded. Unexplained ovulations were defined as ovulations occurring prior to first oviposition and were calculated by subtracting any eggs that were laid or were in the oviduct from the number of POF found at processing. An assessment of the potential for multiple ovulations to occur was determined by assigning LYF of similar size (differing by less than 1 g or 1 mm diameter) to the same position in the hierarchy (Renema et al. 1995). The total number of positions in the LYF hierarchy and the proportion of LYF in a multiple arrangement were determined using the method of Hocking et al. (1992). The incidence of large follicle atresia or internal ovulation (as evidenced by yolk residue in the body cavity) was recorded. Carcass Composition Dissected organs and tissues were returned to the carcass following processing, which was stored at 15 C until carcass composition analysis was performed. The frozen carcasses were cut in half and the halves pressure-cooked for 6 h. Halves were homogenized in a large industrial blender, recombined, and a 100 g homogenate sample taken and freeze dried for 7 d as described by Yu et al. (1990). Corrections were made for moisture loss during homogenization and freeze drying and samples were analyzed for total dry matter, crude protein, lipid, and ash using standard chemical analysis procedures of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC 1980).

3 RENEMA ET AL. ONSET OF LAY IN BRONZE TURKEY HENS 183 Table 2. Carcass traits of Bronze turkey females beginning at photostimulation and proceeding throughout sexual maturation (Group A), and at first oviposition (Group B) Body Abdominal Absolute weight (kg) Relative weight (% of BW) weight Breast muscle fatpad Carcass Carcass Carcass Carcass Carcass Carcass Group (kg) (% of BW) (% of BW) protein lipid ash protein lipid ash A a c A ab bc A b c A ab ab A c a A bc ab SEM B SEM a c Means within a column with no common letters differ significantly (P < 0.05). Statistical Analysis Data were evaluated by analyses of variance using the General Linear Models (GM) procedures of the SAS Institute, Inc. (1992). Preliminary analysis of variance using bird age as the main effect indicated that variability in bird starting age had no effect on any of the parameters measured. Sources of experimental variation were age (processing time) and error variation of birds within time period. Differences between means were evaluated with Fisher s protected LSD procedure (Peterson 1985). Pearson correlation coefficients (Steel and Torrie 1980) were computed between reproductive and carcass parameters. Growth curves for the oviduct, ovary, and LYF were compared as actual weights and as percentages of mature weights using Kolmogorov-Smirnoff analysis (SAS Institute, Inc. 1992). Mature organ data were obtained from the Group B birds processed at first oviposition. Regression analysis (SAS Institute, Inc. 1992) was performed on oviduct, ovary, and LYF weight maturation curves between 7 and 35 d after photostimulation. Day 0 values were deleted from this analysis because the rapid phase of development was determined to commence after day 7. Unless otherwise stated, all statements of significance were based on testing at the P < 0.05 level. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Carcass Traits The turkeys reached sexual maturity 29.8 d after photostimulation on average. This time to mature was slightly longer than the 25.8 d reported for heavily growth selected maleline turkeys (Renema et al. 1994), and the 26.9 and 27.3 d reported for female and male lines, respectively (Melnychuk et al. 1997). In 1968, Bacon and Cherms stated that sexual maturity should occur between 19 and 31 d after photostimulation. A reduced time to sexual maturity could come about through selection for reproductive traits, and a delay in the onset of production may be possible through selection for growth traits (Nestor 1971). Hocking (1992) found a range of 24 to 42 d to sexual maturity between light and heavy strains and suggested the difference to be due to decreased light sensitivity. The birds in the current study came into production in the middle of the range of recently reported values, which supports the existence of reduced days to sexual maturation in modern stocks selected for reproduction and an increased time period for stocks selected for growth. Sexual maturity was reached at a BW of 6.58 kg (Table 2) with no significant changes in BW being seen throughout the study period in Group A birds. Body weight would be expected to increase during this period due to both development of the reproductive tract and to further growth of the bird. This is supported by a significant increase in the weight of carcass ash in Group A birds (Table 2), which suggests that the birds were increasing in frame size. An alternative explanation is that the amount of medullary bone may have been increasing at this time. A 600 g (10%) numerical increase in BW was noted in Group A birds (Table 2) during this period. This lack of statistical significance is contributed to by a small sample size within a variable unselected population. The sexually mature BW of 6.58 kg was about 50% that of values reported for modern female-line birds (Melnychuk et al. 1997), and similar to the 7.4 kg Hocking (1992) reported for the BUT 5 traditional strain at sexual maturity. The breast muscle (pectoralis major and minor), which reflects changes in lean body mass, weighed 1.15 kg on average at sexual maturity. This value is low compared with modern turkey stocks, where breast muscle weights have been reported from 3.06 to 4.67 kg in female line stocks and male line stocks respectively (Melnychuk et al. 1997), which represents 25% and 29% of total BW. The proportion of breast muscle was 17.5% in the Bronze birds. The breast muscle content of modern strains of closer to 30% of BW demonstrates the effects of genetic selection pressure on this trait. Although breast muscle weight correlated strongly with body weight (r = 0.89, P < ), it declined significantly in Group A birds throughout sexual maturation (Table 2). Turkeys lose body mass once egg production commences, and breast muscle has been shown to shrink significantly prior to 40 wk of age in a laying flock (Renema et al. 1994). In the present study, the total carcass protein content was 24.7% of BW and did not change in Group A birds (Table 2).

4 184 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE Table 3. Reproductive traits of Bronze turkey females beginning at photostimulation and proceeding throughout sexual maturation (Group A), and at first oviposition (Group B) Mean LYF Multiple Oviduct Ovary Stroma Number of weight arrangement Group (g) (g) (g) LYF 1 (g/follicle) (% of LYF) 2 A0 2.0d 3.2c 3.2c 0.0b 0.00c 0.0d A7 7.3d 5.1c 5.1c 0.0b 0.00c 0.0d A c 17.7c 8.4bc 2.0b 1.37c 5.0cd A b 78.1b 12.1b 9.8a 6.45b 63.4a A b 119.8a 19.0a 11.0a 9.17a 46.2ab A a 124.8a 20.5a 10.2a 10.22a 29.4bc SEM B SEM LYF = large yellow follicles of > 10 mm diameter. 2 Multiple LYF present at the same positions in the hierarchy (differ by less than 1 g and 1 mm diameter). a d Means within a column with no common letter differ significantly (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat pad weighed g, or 1.6% of BW (Table 2). This lipid depot is the bird s major lipid storage site and is most responsive to changes in energy availability. It can be closely related to total carcass lipids and may thereby indicate changes in carcass lipid deposition. Total carcass lipids represented 16.4% of BW and numerically increased with time in Group A birds (Table 2). This change was due more to ovarian development, as absolute abdominal fat pad weight was unaffected. The lipid content of these birds was considerably lower than that of current turkey stocks. Renema et al. (1994) reported a carcass lipid content of 15% at sexual maturity in a male line heavily selected for feed conversion capabilities, but an abdominal fat pad weight of 269 g, or 1.9% of BW. The four strains examined by Hocking (1992) had a mean carcass lipid content of 24.2%, and the abdominal fat pad of the smallest strain (BUT 5) was about 300% heavier than that of the current experiment. Melnychuk et al. (1997) reported similar values, and stated that female line hens had a higher percentage total carcass fat and a heavier abdominal fat pad (as a percent of BW) than male line hens did. This is supported by Emmans (1989), who found higher carcass lipid levels in heavier BW than in lower BW turkey strains. Selection for increased BW results in an increased abdominal fat pad weight both on an actual and a percentage basis (Nestor 1982). Reproductive Traits At sexual maturity, the average Bronze hen oviduct weighed 83.9 g and the ovary weighed g (Table 3). Between 7 and 14 d after photostimulation both the oviduct and ovary entered a rapid growth phase which culminated in oviposition. Oviduct and ovary weights increased by 283% and 441%, respectively, in the week of 14 to 21 d after photostimulation (Table 3). As large yolky follicles first appeared at 14 d in Group A birds (53% of ovary weight), this rapid growth phase corresponded with the onset of yolk deposition. Bacon and Cherms (1968) reported that rapid yolk deposition commenced between 4 and 11 d after photostimulation. The most rapid period of yolk deposition has been reported to occur between 18 and 21 d after photostimulation in female line birds (Melnychuk et al. 1997). The data of the current study concur with both of these observations. The ovary contained an average of 12.2 LYF at sexual maturity, with 58.6% of the large follicles present in a multiple hierarchy (as evidenced by two follicles within 1 g and 1 mm diameter). The production of multiple follicle sets was more likely to occur with increased follicle numbers (Nestor et al. 1980). Multiple follicle sets are a major cause of decreased egg production through the production of defective eggs (Nestor and Bacon 1972), which have poor hatchability (Stephenson and Krause 1988). Hocking et al. (1992) reported that 24% of the 9.5 LYF in a small BW turkey strain to be in a multiple hierarchy arrangement at sexual maturity. Renema et al. (1995) reported that 95% of 19.1 LYF at sexual maturity were in a multiple hierarchical arrangment in a larhe BW male line hen. The LYF were combined in 8.5 positions on the ovary. This value represents the maximum number of follicles the ovary could potentially maintain without forming multiple follicle sets. Hocking et al. (1992), reported eight positions to be present in 7.5 kg birds having 10 LYF (> 8 mm). As LYF growth is expected to take 11 to 13 d (Bacon et al. 1972; Hocking et al. 1987), the presence of only 8.5 LYF positions suggests that there may be some non-laying days in the birds future. The potential egg production of these birds having 10 to 12 LYF does not appear to be severely compromised. However, in ad libitum fed male line hens with 17.6 LYF, Renema et al. (1995) reported non-laying days to occur 3.8 d per week. Clearly the ovary was not able to accommodate a greatly increased number of LYF without compromising physiological control of egg production. Internal ovulation or follicular atresia are two possible outcomes for follicles in multiple arrangements. Each occurred in 42% of birds at sexual maturity. Internal ovulation has been theorized to be the result of compromised hormonal control over ovulation (Renema et al. 1995), which may lead to a lack of synchronicity of the oviduct with the ovulation process. The incidence is lower in turkey meattype and egg-type strains with lower LYF numbers (23% and 13%, respectively) (Bacon et al. 1972). The ovaries of the Group B birds contained an average of 1.4 unreconciled POF at sexual maturity, indicating that

5 RENEMA ET AL. ONSET OF LAY IN BRONZE TURKEY HENS 185 some early ovulations did not result in ovipositions. A high of 4.9 unreconciled POF has been reported in male line hens (Renema et al. 1995) and 1.6 in female line hens (Melnychuk et al. 1997). The majority of these missing follicles are thought to be lost to internal ovulation (Melnychuk et al. 1997). There was a good correlation between POF and internal ovulation in this experiment (r = 0.67; P < 0.02), which supports this line of reasoning. The fact that unreconciled POF are present at all in this traditional turkey stock suggests that this may be a natural phenomenon in turkeys. The similarity of unexplained POF numbers between these birds and female line birds as opposed to those of male-line birds may indicate that genetic selection for growth parameters has accelerated ovarian relative to oviduct development, or slowed oviductal relative to ovary development, resulting in the loss of initial ovulations due to oviductal incompetence in male line hens. Unreconciled POF were more likely to be present in birds coming into production earlier (r = 0.64; P = 0.02) than in birds that were late in initiating lay. Early onset of lay has been associated with increased numbers of LYF (Hocking 1992; Hocking et al. 1992), which could explain the increase in lost follicles in early maturing birds. In the current experiment, the highest incidence of follicles in a multiple arrangement was seen at 21 d after photostimulation and decreased thereafter (Table 3). Inadequate growth of the oviduct may also be a factor as an increased degree of multiple follicle arrangement was negatively correlated with oviduct weight (r = -0.68; P = 0.01). Oviduct weight continued to increase throughout the experiment. As the birds aged, physiological control of the ovary may also have been improving. The negative correlation between multiple follicle arrangement and large follicle atresia (r = 0.79; P < 0.002) suggests that with age, management of excess LYF is switching to a more controlled process. Renema et al. (1995) observed a similar trend in the ovarian control of male line hens which was found to relate well to body size. Fig. 1. Rate of maturation of oviduct, ovary, and LYF weight for naturally mating Bronze turkeys relative to sexually mature values. Mean age at first oviposition was 29.8 d after photostimulation. To examine the potential for internal ovulation prior to the onset of egg production, maturation rates of the reproductive organs were assessed. The rates of oviductal and ovarian development of Group A birds relative to values for birds processed at sexual maturity (Group B) are presented in Fig. 1. The growth curves of the oviduct and ovary were found to be similar using Kolmogorov-Smirnoff curve comparison analysis. Despite the similarity of the curves, oviduct development was correlated only with ovarian stroma growth (r = 0.57; P = 0.05) and not with total ovary development. Oviduct growth, which is based on cell differentiation and tissue growth, is a very different process than the sequestering of yolk materials associated with LYF growth. It should be pointed out that some of the variability seen was a result of only five different birds being processed each week. Whereas the stroma weight of Group A birds reached the sexually mature weight prior to 28 d after photostimulation, ovary weight never reached the weight achieved by the 12 hens in Group B (Table 3, Fig. 1). Average LYF weight was calculated to compensate for the effects of variability in LYF numbers on ovary weight (Table 3). Oviduct and LYF weight maturation curves both reached the 100% mature size between 28 and 30 d after photostimulation (Fig. 1), which corresponds well with the average 29.8 d to sexual maturity. Regression analysis of oviduct, ovary, and LYF weight maturation curves is presented in Fig. 2 (r 2 = 0.81; P < ). The oviduct and LYF weight regression lines intersected 100% at 28.3 and 31.2 d after photostimulation, respectively, and the ovary line intersected it at 34.6 d. As the oviduct appears to reach mature size before the ovary, substantial loss of initial ovulations due to a lack of maturity would not be expected. Melnychuk et al. (1997) found that female line hens had a 3 d delay in ovary development, whereas male line ovary development was accelerated, possibly leading to the increased reported unreconciled POF. Lilburn and Nestor (1993) found that oviduct weight of egg-

6 186 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE line hens did not change substantially after the onset of lay whereas meat-line oviducts continue to grow through 49 d of production. The 3 d delay in development of the ovary relative to the oviduct in the current study suggests that there should be successful capture and oviposition of follicles by the oviduct. This experiment was performed to characterize the reproductive development of an unselected line of Bronze turkeys. The low BW of this strain was associated with a very low lipid content and breast muscle weight. The ovary, however had an average number of LYF with a fairly high degree of multiple follicle arrangement. The presence of unreconciled POF suggests that this may be a natural phenomenon in turkeys. This strain behaves much like modern female line strains with regard to reproductive traits, especially the 3 d delay in ovary development. The traditional Bronze turkey is a good model for comparison with current turkey stocks, particularly when genetic change brings about unexpected changes in growth or reproductive parameters. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The donation of turkeys for this project from the University of Saskatchewan is gratefully acknowledged. This project was supported in part by the University of Alberta Poultry Research Centre, through funding provided by Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (AAFRD) and the four Alberta poultry marketing boards. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by F. Dennis and B. Tchir in this project. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Official methods of analytical chemists. 13th ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA. Bacon, W. L. and Cherms, F. L Ovarian follicular growth and maturation in the domestic turkey. Poult. Sci. 47: Bacon, W. L., Nestor, K. and Renner, P Further studies on ovarian follicular development in egg and meat type turkeys. Poult. Fig. 2. Regression analysis of oviduct, ovary, and LYF weight for naturally mating Bronze turkeys relative to sexually mature values. The mature weight threshold was reached at 28.3, 34.6, and 31.2 d for the oviduct, ovary, and LYF weight, respectively. Sci. 51: Emmans, G. C The growth of turkeys. Pages in C. Nixey and T. C. Grey, eds. Recent advances in turkey science. Butterworths, London, UK. Hester, P. Y. and Stevens, R. C. W Feed restriction of turkey breeder hens - a review. Poult. Sci. 69: Hocking, P. M Genetic and environmental control of ovarian function in turkeys at sexual maturity. Br. Poult. Sci. 33: Hocking, P. M., Walker, M. A., Waddington, D. and Gilbert, A. B Observations on the size of the follicular hierarchy in the turkey hen and a case of arrested follicular growth. Br. Poult. Sci. 28: Hocking, P. M., Waddington, D. and Walker, M. A Changes in ovarian function of female turkeys photostimulated at 18, 24 or 30 weeks of age and fed ad libitum or restricted until point of lay. Br. Poult. Sci. 33: Lilburn, M. S. and Nestor, K. E The relationship between various indices of carcass growth and development and reproduction in turkey hens. Poult. Sci. 72: Melnychuk, V. L., Robinson, F. E., Renema, R. T., Hardin, R. T., Emmerson, D. A. and Bagley, L. G Carcass traits and reproductive development at the onset of lay in two lines of female turkeys. Poult. Sci. 76: Nestor, K. E Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey 3. Further selection for increased egg production. Poult. Sci. 50: Nestor, K. E The influence of genetic increases in body weight on the abdominal fat pad of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 61: Nestor, K. E. and Bacon, W Production of defective eggs by egg and meat type turkey hens. Poult. Sci. 51: Nestor, K. E., Bacon, W. C. and Renner, P. A The influence of genetic changes in total egg production, clutch length, broodiness and body weight on ovarian follicular development in turkeys. Poult. Sci. 59: Peterson, R. G Design and analysis of experiments. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY. Renema, R. A., Robinson, F. E., Melnychuk, V. L., Hardin, R.T., Bagley, L. G., Emmerson, D. A. and Blackman, J. R.

7 RENEMA ET AL. ONSET OF LAY IN BRONZE TURKEY HENS The use of feed restriction for improving reproductive traits in male-line Large White turkey hens. 1. Growth and carcass characteristics. Poult. Sci. 73: Renema, R. A., Robinson, F. E., Melnychuk, V. L., Hardin, R.T., Bagley, L. G., Emmerson, D. A. and Blackman, J. R The use of feed restriction for improving reproductive traits in male-line Large White turkey hens. 2. Ovary morphology and laying traits. Poult. Sci. 74: SAS Institute, Inc The SAS System for Windows 3.10 Release SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Steel, R. D. G. and Torrie, J. H Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY. Stephenson, A. B. and Krause, G. F Compressed-sided turkey eggs. Poult. Sci. 67: Summers, J. D. and Robinson, F. E Comparative feeding program for poultry reproduction. Pages in P. Hunton, ed. World animal science, C9: Poultry production. Elselvier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Yu, M. W., Robinson, F. E., Clandinin, M. T. and Bodnar, L Growth and body composition of broiler chickens in response to different regimens of feed restriction. Poult. Sci. 69:

Effects of photostimulatory lighting and feed allocation in female broiler breeders 1. Reproductive development

Effects of photostimulatory lighting and feed allocation in female broiler breeders 1. Reproductive development Effects of photostimulatory lighting and feed allocation in female broiler breeders 1. Reproductive development F. E. Robinson 1, R. A. Renema 1, L. Bouvier 1, J. J. R. Feddes 1, J. L. Wilson 2, M. Newcombe

More information

How Does Photostimulation Age Alter the Interaction Between Body Size and a Bonus Feeding Program During Sexual Maturation?

How Does Photostimulation Age Alter the Interaction Between Body Size and a Bonus Feeding Program During Sexual Maturation? 16 How Does Photostimulation Age Alter the Interaction Between Body Size and a Bonus Feeding Program During Sexual Maturation? R A Renema*, F E Robinson*, and J A Proudman** *Alberta Poultry Research Centre,

More information

Effects of altering growth curve and age at photostimulation in female broiler breeders. 2. Egg production parameters

Effects of altering growth curve and age at photostimulation in female broiler breeders. 2. Egg production parameters Effects of altering growth curve and age at photostimulation in female broiler breeders. 2. Egg production parameters R. A. Renema 1, F. E. Robinson 1,3, P. R. Goerzen 1, and M. J. Zuidhof 2 1 Department

More information

Carcass Traits, Ovarian Morphology and Egg Laying Characteristics in Early Versus Late Maturing Strains of Commercial Egg-Type Hens

Carcass Traits, Ovarian Morphology and Egg Laying Characteristics in Early Versus Late Maturing Strains of Commercial Egg-Type Hens Carcass Traits, Ovarian Morphology and Egg Laying Characteristics in Early Versus Late Maturing Strains of Commercial Egg-Type Hens F. E. Robinson,*,1 R. A. Renema,* H. H. Oosterhoff,* M. J. Zuidhof, and

More information

EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION

EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION Effects of Body Weight and Feed Allocation During Sexual Maturation in Broiler Breeder Hens. 1. Growth and Carcass Characteristics R. A. RENEMA,* F. E. ROBINSON,*,1 M. NEWCOMBE,

More information

Hatchability and Early Chick Growth Potential of Broiler Breeder Eggs with Hairline Cracks

Hatchability and Early Chick Growth Potential of Broiler Breeder Eggs with Hairline Cracks 2004 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Hatchability and Early Chick Growth Potential of Broiler Breeder Eggs with Hairline Cracks D. M. Barnett, B. L. Kumpula, R. L. Petryk, N. A. Robinson, R. A. Renema,

More information

Increase of egg weight with age in normal and dwarf, purebred and crossbred laying hens

Increase of egg weight with age in normal and dwarf, purebred and crossbred laying hens Original article Increase of egg weight with age in normal and dwarf, purebred and crossbred laying hens F Minvielle, P Mérat JL Monvoisin G Coquerelle, A Bordas Institut National de la Recherche Agronornique,

More information

Summary. Inheritance of body weight and breast length of age in meat type strains of chickens. Introduction. at 8 weeks. Faculty of agriculture

Summary. Inheritance of body weight and breast length of age in meat type strains of chickens. Introduction. at 8 weeks. Faculty of agriculture Inheritance of body weight and breast length of age in meat type strains of chickens at 8 weeks H. AYOUB M. KHIRELDIN S. SHALASH Faculty of agriculture Ain shams university, Cairo, Egypt Summary Two pure

More information

EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION. The Relationships Among Measures of Egg Albumen Height, ph, and Whipping Volume 1

EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION. The Relationships Among Measures of Egg Albumen Height, ph, and Whipping Volume 1 EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION The Relationships Among Measures of Egg Albumen Height, ph, and Whipping Volume 1 F. G. Silversides*,,2 and K. Budgell *Crops and Livestock Research Centre, Charlottetown, Prince

More information

GENETICS INTRODUCTION. G. B. Havenstein,* 2 P. R. Ferket,* J. L. Grimes,* M. A. Qureshi, and K. E. Nestor

GENETICS INTRODUCTION. G. B. Havenstein,* 2 P. R. Ferket,* J. L. Grimes,* M. A. Qureshi, and K. E. Nestor GENETICS Comparison of the Performance of 1966- Versus 2003-Type Turkeys When Fed Representative 1966 and 2003 Turkey Diets: Growth Rate, Livability, and Feed Conversion 1 G. B. Havenstein,* 2 P. R. Ferket,*

More information

Effect of Precision Feeding on Uniformity and Efficiency of Broiler Breeder. Pullets PAULO ROBERTO DE OLIVEIRA CARNEIRO

Effect of Precision Feeding on Uniformity and Efficiency of Broiler Breeder. Pullets PAULO ROBERTO DE OLIVEIRA CARNEIRO Effect of Precision Feeding on Uniformity and Efficiency of Broiler Breeder Pullets by PAULO ROBERTO DE OLIVEIRA CARNEIRO A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

More information

CHAPTER 3 Effect of restricted feeding and season on the carcass characteristics of Koekoek chickens

CHAPTER 3 Effect of restricted feeding and season on the carcass characteristics of Koekoek chickens CHAPTER 3 Effect of restricted feeding and season on the carcass characteristics of Koekoek chickens Abstract This experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of feed restriction and season on carcass

More information

Summary. investigation programs. Estimation of general and specific combining abilities from a diallel cross of three inbred lines of Fayoumi chicks

Summary. investigation programs. Estimation of general and specific combining abilities from a diallel cross of three inbred lines of Fayoumi chicks week Estimation of general and specific combining abilities from a diallel cross of three inbred lines of Fayoumi chicks M. SOLTAN, F. H. ABDOU, M. ABD-ELLATIF H. AYOUB* Faculty of Agvic., Shebin EL-Kom,

More information

BREEDING AND GENETICS. Comparative Evaluation of Three Commercial Broiler Stocks in Hot Versus Temperate Climates

BREEDING AND GENETICS. Comparative Evaluation of Three Commercial Broiler Stocks in Hot Versus Temperate Climates BREEDING AND GENETICS Comparative Evaluation of Three Commercial Broiler Stocks in Hot Versus Temperate Climates SERVET YALÇIN,* PETEK SETTAR,* SEZEN OZKAN,* and AVIGDOR CAHANER,1 *The Aegean University,

More information

Growth Performance and Mortality in Hybrid Converter Turkeys Reared at High Altitude Region

Growth Performance and Mortality in Hybrid Converter Turkeys Reared at High Altitude Region 241 Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17 (No 2) 2011, 241-245 Agricultural Academy Growth performance and mortality in Hybrid Converter turkeys reared at high altitude region O. YILMAZ 1, H. DENK

More information

Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate long-term feed and water depravation during the neonatal period?

Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate long-term feed and water depravation during the neonatal period? South African Journal of Animal Science 2011, 41 (no 1) Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate long-term feed and water depravation during the neonatal period? F. Abed 1, A. Karimi

More information

quality factors when a one-sided selection for shell quality is practised?

quality factors when a one-sided selection for shell quality is practised? as like we THE CONSEQUENCES OF SELECTION FOR SHELL QUALITY IN POULTRY (1) W. F. van TIJEN Institute for Poultry Research rc Het Spelderholt u, Beekbergen, The Netherlands SUMMARY In two strains, one of

More information

Effect of EM on Growth, Egg Production and Waste Characteristics of Japanese Quail Abstract Introduction Experimental Procedures

Effect of EM on Growth, Egg Production and Waste Characteristics of Japanese Quail Abstract Introduction Experimental Procedures Effect of EM on Growth, Egg Production and Waste Characteristics of Japanese Quail S. Chantsavang, P. Piafupoa and O. Triwutanon Department of Animal Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract

More information

History of the North Carolina Layer Tests. Detailed Description of Housing and Husbandry Changes Made From through 2009

History of the North Carolina Layer Tests. Detailed Description of Housing and Husbandry Changes Made From through 2009 August 7, 2012 History of the North Carolina Layer Tests Detailed Description of Housing and Husbandry Changes Made From 1958 through 2009 Research conducted at the: North Carolina Department of Agriculture

More information

The effect of choice-feeding from 7 weeks of age on the production characteristics of laying hens

The effect of choice-feeding from 7 weeks of age on the production characteristics of laying hens 110 The effect of choice-feeding from 7 weeks of age on the production characteristics of laying hens M. D. Olver and D. D. Malan # ARC Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene

More information

2015 Iowa State Poultry Judging CDE Written Exam Version A 1. What is the name of the portion of the digestive system that secretes hydrochloric acid

2015 Iowa State Poultry Judging CDE Written Exam Version A 1. What is the name of the portion of the digestive system that secretes hydrochloric acid 1. What is the name of the portion of the digestive system that secretes hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin? a. Rumen b. Gizzard c. Proventriculus d. Crop 2. In egg laying operations, production goals

More information

Breeder Cobb 700. The Cobb 700 has been introduced to meet the. Ten years of research to develop Cobb 700. Breeder Performance

Breeder Cobb 700. The Cobb 700 has been introduced to meet the. Ten years of research to develop Cobb 700. Breeder Performance Product Profile Breeder Ten years of research to develop The has been introduced to meet the increasing demand not just for more breast meat, but for breast meat produced at the lowest cost. The need to

More information

Replacement Heifer Development. Changing Minds for the Change In Times Brian Huedepohl, DVM Veterinary Medical Center Williamsburg, Iowa

Replacement Heifer Development. Changing Minds for the Change In Times Brian Huedepohl, DVM Veterinary Medical Center Williamsburg, Iowa Replacement Heifer Development Changing Minds for the Change In Times Brian Huedepohl, DVM Veterinary Medical Center Williamsburg, Iowa Many changes have occurred that have brought about how some beef

More information

To what extent can the age at sexual maturity of broiler breeders be reduced?

To what extent can the age at sexual maturity of broiler breeders be reduced? 73 To what extent can the age at sexual maturity of broiler breeders be reduced? M. Ciacciariello and R.M. Gous # Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa

More information

Can. J. Anim. Sci. Downloaded from by on 11/26/17. For personal use only.

Can. J. Anim. Sci. Downloaded from  by on 11/26/17. For personal use only. IDENTIFICATION OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES AT ESTRUS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR ENSUING CORPORA LUTEA IN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE OVULATING EWES ON TWO FEEDING REGIMES J. J. DUFOURTand P. MATTON'z lresearch Station,

More information

Poultry Grading Monitoring Manual. Prepared by: Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council

Poultry Grading Monitoring Manual. Prepared by: Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council Poultry Grading Monitoring Manual Prepared by: Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council 1.0 Table of Contents Page 1.0 Table of Contents 1 2.0 Introduction 2 3.0 Definitions 2 4.0 Product Sampling Plan

More information

Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing

Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing J. de los Mozos,,1 A. I. García-Ruiz, L. A. den Hartog,, and M. J. Villamide Trouw

More information

Relationships between fat depots and body condition score or live weight in Awassi ewes.

Relationships between fat depots and body condition score or live weight in Awassi ewes. Relationships between fat depots and body condition score or live weight in Awassi ewes. Treacher T., Filo S. in Purroy A. (ed.). Body condition of sheep and goats: Methodological aspects and applications

More information

Impact of Cage Density on Pullet Performance and Blood Parameters of Stress 1

Impact of Cage Density on Pullet Performance and Blood Parameters of Stress 1 Impact of Cage Density on Pullet Performance and Blood Parameters of Stress 1 P. H. PATTERSON,2 and H. S. SIEGEL Department of Poultry Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

More information

The effects of prestorage incubation of quail breeder eggs on hatchability and subsequent growth performance of progeny

The effects of prestorage incubation of quail breeder eggs on hatchability and subsequent growth performance of progeny The effects of prestorage incubation of quail breeder eggs on hatchability and subsequent growth performance of progeny Metin Petek, Serdal Dikmen To cite this version: Metin Petek, Serdal Dikmen. The

More information

Effects of Dietary Modification on Laying Hens in High-Rise Houses: Part II Hen Production Performance

Effects of Dietary Modification on Laying Hens in High-Rise Houses: Part II Hen Production Performance AS 5 ASL R2451 2009 Effects of Dietary Modification on Laying Hens in High-Rise Houses: Part II Hen Production Performance Stacey Roberts Iowa State University Hongwei Li Iowa State University Hongwei

More information

Poultry Skillathon 2016

Poultry Skillathon 2016 Age Divisions: Junior (8-11) Intermediate (12-14) Senior (15-18) Exhibitors will participate in age-based Skillathons. This study guide includes all topics an exhibitor might be tested on. Youth will only

More information

Animal Science Pathway: D , D , D , D4.1, D5.1, 5.3, 5.5, D , D , D , D10.1, D

Animal Science Pathway: D , D , D , D4.1, D5.1, 5.3, 5.5, D , D , D , D10.1, D Revised 6/2008 POULTRY JUDGING Purpose and Standards The poultry Career Development Event seeks to effectively prepare the students for jobs in the poultry workforce. Workers seeking careers in poultry

More information

EFFECT OF CRUDE PROTEIN LEVELS AND FOLLICLE STIMULATION ON EGG PRODUCTION OF AGED HENS

EFFECT OF CRUDE PROTEIN LEVELS AND FOLLICLE STIMULATION ON EGG PRODUCTION OF AGED HENS Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences 19(1-2): 77-81 Physiological Society of Nigeria 2004 77 EFFECT OF CRUDE PROTEIN LEVELS AND FOLLICLE STIMULATION ON EGG PRODUCTION OF AGED HENS V. A. TOGUN *1,,2

More information

Dr. Jerry Shurson Department of Animal Science University of Minnesota

Dr. Jerry Shurson Department of Animal Science University of Minnesota Dr. Jerry Shurson Department of Animal Science University of Minnesota Industry adoption ~ 60% of ethanol plants are currently extracting oil > 70% will be extracting oil by the end or 2012 Oil uses >

More information

IMPLANT PROGRAM EFFECTS ON FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE, CARCASS TRAITS AND SENSORY RATINGS OF SERIALLY SLAUGHTERED HEIFERS

IMPLANT PROGRAM EFFECTS ON FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE, CARCASS TRAITS AND SENSORY RATINGS OF SERIALLY SLAUGHTERED HEIFERS IMPLANT PROGRAM EFFECTS ON FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE, CARCASS TRAITS AND SENSORY RATINGS OF SERIALLY SLAUGHTERED HEIFERS B. R. Schutte 1, W. T. Nichols 2, J. B. Morgan 3, L. L. Guenther 4 and H.G. Dolezal 5

More information

#3 - Flushing By tatiana Stanton, Nancy & Samuel Weber

#3 - Flushing By tatiana Stanton, Nancy & Samuel Weber Fact Sheet Series on Meat Goat Herd Management Practices #3 - Flushing By tatiana Stanton, Nancy & Samuel Weber This fact sheet is about flushing as an on-farm management tool for New York meat goat farms.

More information

Abstract. Introduction

Abstract. Introduction BIONOMICS OF LIPOSCELIS PAETUS IN STORED GRAIN (PSOCOPTERA: LIPOSCELIDAE). Vanessa PIKE, David REES and Richard HATCH. Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB,

More information

Inheritance of coat and colour in the Griffon Bruxellois dog

Inheritance of coat and colour in the Griffon Bruxellois dog Inheritance of coat and colour in the Griffon Bruxellois dog R Robinson To cite this version: R Robinson. Inheritance of coat and colour in the Griffon Bruxellois dog. Genetics Selection Evolution, BioMed

More information

MEATS NOTES UNIT B. Remember terminology relevant to % C1 STANDARD:

MEATS NOTES UNIT B. Remember terminology relevant to % C1 STANDARD: 1 MEATS NOTES COURSE: AA21 Animal Science I UNIT B Animal Evaluation ESSENTIAL Remember terminology relevant to 3.00 10% C1 STANDARD: animal agriculture. OBJECTIVE: 3.02 4% C1 Recall retail and wholesale

More information

Low Temperature Effects on Embryonic Development and Hatch Time 1

Low Temperature Effects on Embryonic Development and Hatch Time 1 Low Temperature Effects on Embryonic Development and Hatch Time M. E. SUAREZ/ H. R. WILSON,^ B. N. MCPHERSON,* F. B. MATHER,+ and C. J. WILCOXt *Programa de Ganaderia, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo,

More information

New Zealand Society of Animal Production online archive

New Zealand Society of Animal Production online archive New Zealand Society of Animal Production online archive This paper is from the New Zealand Society for Animal Production online archive. NZSAP holds a regular An invitation is extended to all those involved

More information

ADAPTATION EXPERIMENTS OF HUNGARIAN TURKEY BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSES IN VIETNAM (MGE-NEFE project, Hungary Vietnam, )

ADAPTATION EXPERIMENTS OF HUNGARIAN TURKEY BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSES IN VIETNAM (MGE-NEFE project, Hungary Vietnam, ) ADAPTATION EXPERIMENTS OF HUNGARIAN TURKEY BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSES IN VIETNAM (MGE-NEFE project, Hungary Vietnam, 26-27) Dong Xuan 1,2, K.D.T. Szalay 1,2, I.T. Duc Tien 3, P. Minh Thu 3, P.T. 1 Association

More information

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Claude Toudic Broiler Specialist June 2006

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Claude Toudic Broiler Specialist June 2006 Evaluating uniformity in broilers factors affecting variation During a technical visit to a broiler farm the topic of uniformity is generally assessed visually and subjectively, as to do the job properly

More information

IDR : VOL. 10, NO. 1, ( JANUARY-JUNE, 2012) : ISSN :

IDR : VOL. 10, NO. 1, ( JANUARY-JUNE, 2012) : ISSN : IDR : VOL. 10, NO. 1, ( JANUARY-JUNE, 2012) : 45-53 ISSN : 0972-9437 A STUDY ON PROBLEMS OF PRACTICING POULTRY FARMING IN NAMAKKAL DISTRICT E. P. Vijayakumar * & V. Ramamoorthy ** ABSTRACT Poultry farming

More information

E. Alava, M. Hersom, J. Yelich 1

E. Alava, M. Hersom, J. Yelich 1 Effect of Adding Rumen Degradable Protein to a Dried Distillers Grain Supplement on Growth, Body Composition, Blood Metabolites, and Reproductive Performance in Yearling and Heifers E. Alava, M. Hersom,

More information

SELECTION IN TWO ENVIRONMENTS IN RELATION

SELECTION IN TWO ENVIRONMENTS IN RELATION if SELECTION IN TWO ENVIRONMENTS IN RELATION TO PLATEAUING IN EGG PRODUCTION (1) M. VAN ALBADA M. P. F. C. A. TIMMERMANS Department of Poultvy Husbandry Agric. University Wageningen (The Netherlands) SUMMARY

More information

Breeder. Arbor Acres. Management Guide

Breeder. Arbor Acres. Management Guide Contents Section 1 Brooding and Rearing Management (0-15 weeks) Controlling and Monitoring Broiler Growth......4 Brooding (0-10 Days)..............................10 Rearing From 10 Days - 15 Weeks....................16

More information

MEAT & POULTRY. Food Material Science 2010/11 Inneke Hantoro

MEAT & POULTRY. Food Material Science 2010/11 Inneke Hantoro MEAT & POULTRY Food Material Science 2010/11 Inneke Hantoro M E A T INTRODUCTION Meat is the post-mortem aspect of the 300 or so anatomically distinct muscles of the body, together with the connective

More information

Laying Hen Manure Characteristics and Air Emissions as Affected by Genetic Strains

Laying Hen Manure Characteristics and Air Emissions as Affected by Genetic Strains Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering 2006 Laying Hen Manure Characteristics and Air Emissions as Affected by Genetic Strains

More information

Performance evaluation and crossbreeding effects for body weight and conformation traits in different breeds of ducks

Performance evaluation and crossbreeding effects for body weight and conformation traits in different breeds of ducks Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 82 (11): 1372 1376, November 2012 Performance evaluation and crossbreeding effects for body weight and conformation traits in different breeds of ducks M K PADHI 1 and

More information

Unit C: Poultry Management. Lesson 2: Feeding, Management and Equipment for Poultry

Unit C: Poultry Management. Lesson 2: Feeding, Management and Equipment for Poultry Unit C: Poultry Management Lesson 2: Feeding, Management and Equipment for Poultry 1 1 Terms Grit Palatability 2 2 I. Properly feeding poultry will supply all of the nutrients the birds need to adequately

More information

The critical importance of incubation temperature

The critical importance of incubation temperature The critical importance of incubation temperature Nick A. French AVIAN BIOLOGY RESEARCH 2 (1/2), 2009 55 59 Aviagen Turkeys Ltd, Chowley Five, Chowley Oak Business Park, Tattenhall, Cheshire, CH3 9GA,

More information

EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF CHICKEN LINES FROM THE NATIONAL GENE POOL

EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF CHICKEN LINES FROM THE NATIONAL GENE POOL TRAKIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 10, No 1, pp 38-42, 2012 Copyright 2012 Trakia University Available online at: http://www.uni-sz.bg ISSN 1313-7050 (print) ISSN 1313-3551 (online)

More information

COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE EGG PRODUCTION IN TWO JAPANESE QUAIL BREEDS PHARAOH AND MANCHURIAN GOLDEN

COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE EGG PRODUCTION IN TWO JAPANESE QUAIL BREEDS PHARAOH AND MANCHURIAN GOLDEN TRAKIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 10, No 1, pp 48-56, 2012 Copyright 2012 Trakia University Available online at: http://www.uni-sz.bg ISSN 1313-7050 (print) ISSN 1313-3551 (online)

More information

Antibiotic Use in Poultry Production

Antibiotic Use in Poultry Production Antibiotic Use in Poultry Production Donna K. Carver, DVM, PhD, Dip. ACPV Professor and Extension Poultry Veterinarian North Carolina State University The Conundrum Protect antibiotics that are used in

More information

Dr. Jerry Shurson 1 and Dr. Brian Kerr 2 University of Minnesota, St. Paul 1 and USDA-ARS, Ames, IA 2

Dr. Jerry Shurson 1 and Dr. Brian Kerr 2 University of Minnesota, St. Paul 1 and USDA-ARS, Ames, IA 2 Dr. Jerry Shurson 1 and Dr. Brian Kerr 2 University of Minnesota, St. Paul 1 and USDA-ARS, Ames, IA 2 Oil extraction in the ethanol industry: ~50% of plants are currently extracting oil ~75% will be extracting

More information

PRODUCTIVITY OF RABBIT DOES OF A WHITE POPULATION IN ALGERIA

PRODUCTIVITY OF RABBIT DOES OF A WHITE POPULATION IN ALGERIA ISSN reference of this on line version is 2308-1910 (ISSN for all the on-line versions of the proceedings of the successive World Rabbit Congresses) ZERROUKI N., HANNACHI R., LEBAS F., BERCHICHE M. PRODUCTIVITY

More information

1 of 9 7/1/10 2:08 PM

1 of 9 7/1/10 2:08 PM LIFETIME LAMB AND WOOL PRODUCTION OF TARGHEE OR FINN-DORSET- TARGHEE EWES MANAGED AS A FARM OR RANGE FLOCK N. Y. Iman and A. L. Slyter Department of Animal and Range Sciences SHEEP 95-4 Summary Lifetime

More information

Laying performance of six pure lines of chickens and four commercial hybrids at the Agassiz Research Centre

Laying performance of six pure lines of chickens and four commercial hybrids at the Agassiz Research Centre Laying performance of six pure lines of chickens and four commercial hybrids at the Agassiz Research Centre F. G. Silversides Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz Research Centre, P. O. Box 1000,

More information

Studies on the Energy Content of Pigeon Feeds II. Determination of the Incorporated Energy

Studies on the Energy Content of Pigeon Feeds II. Determination of the Incorporated Energy Studies on the Energy Content of Pigeon Feeds II. Determination of the Incorporated Energy S. FEKETE,*,1 I. MELEG, I. HULLAR,* L. ZOLDAG* *Department of Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Laboratory Animal

More information

BrevdueNord.dk. The moult and side issues Author: Verheecke Marc - Foto Degrave Martin.

BrevdueNord.dk. The moult and side issues Author: Verheecke Marc - Foto Degrave Martin. BrevdueNord.dk This article are shown with permission from: http://www.pipa.be/ The moult and side issues Author: Verheecke Marc - Foto Degrave Martin Last week I had a visit from my veterinarian. He did

More information

Alfred Gadama, Hendrina Kassim, Thokozani Malimwe, Timothy Gondwe & Jonathan Tanganyika

Alfred Gadama, Hendrina Kassim, Thokozani Malimwe, Timothy Gondwe & Jonathan Tanganyika EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN AND MAIZE BRAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION, FERTILITY AND CARCASS YIELD OF LOCAL CHICKENS UNDER SCAVENGING CONDITION IN LILONGWE, MALAWI Alfred Gadama, Hendrina Kassim, Thokozani Malimwe,

More information

SHEEP SIRE REFERENCING SCHEMES - NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEDIGREE BREEDERS AND LAMB PRODUCERS a. G. Simm and N.R. Wray

SHEEP SIRE REFERENCING SCHEMES - NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEDIGREE BREEDERS AND LAMB PRODUCERS a. G. Simm and N.R. Wray SHEEP SIRE REFERENCING SCHEMES - NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEDIGREE BREEDERS AND LAMB PRODUCERS a G. Simm and N.R. Wray The Scottish Agricultural College Edinburgh, Scotland Summary Sire referencing schemes

More information

Impaired intestinal villi growth in broiler chicks with unhealed navels

Impaired intestinal villi growth in broiler chicks with unhealed navels Impaired intestinal villi growth in broiler chicks with unhealed navels L. T. Kawalilak, A. M. Ulmer Franco, and G. M. Fasenko 1 Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of

More information

Simplified Rations for Farm Chickens

Simplified Rations for Farm Chickens CIRCULAR 66 (Reprinted August 936) JUNE 934 Simplified Rations for Farm Chickens By D. F. KING Assistant Professor Poultry Husbandry G. A. TROLLOPE Professor Poultry Husbandry AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

More information

A-l. Students shall examine the circulatory and respiratory systems of animals.

A-l. Students shall examine the circulatory and respiratory systems of animals. Animal Science A-l. Students shall examine the circulatory and respiratory systems of animals. 1. Discuss the pathway of blood through the heart and circulatory system. 2. Describe and compare the functions

More information

CLUSTERING AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BODY RESERVES CHANGES THROUGHOUT PRODUCTIVE CYCLES IN MEAT SHEEP

CLUSTERING AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BODY RESERVES CHANGES THROUGHOUT PRODUCTIVE CYCLES IN MEAT SHEEP CLUSTERING AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BODY RESERVES CHANGES THROUGHOUT PRODUCTIVE CYCLES IN MEAT SHEEP MACE Tiphaine 1, Gonzalez-Garcia E. 2, Carriere F. 3, Douls S. 3, Foulquié D. 3, Robert-Granié C. 1,

More information

Poultry Skillathon 2017

Poultry Skillathon 2017 Age Divisions: Junior (8-11) Intermediate (12-14) Senior (15-18) Exhibitors will participate in age-based Skillathons. This study guide includes all topics an exhibitor might be tested on. Youth will only

More information

Investigating the effect of forcing reproduction of lay-off broiler breeders at the middle of production period on economic performance of flock

Investigating the effect of forcing reproduction of lay-off broiler breeders at the middle of production period on economic performance of flock Vol. 8(23), pp. 2843-2848, 20 June, 2013 DOI: 10.5897/AJAR09.059 ISSN 1991-637X 2013 Academic Journals http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar African Journal of Agricultural Research Full Length Research

More information

Selecting Laying Hens

Selecting Laying Hens Selecting Laying Hens Authors Thompson, R. B. Publisher College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) Download date 26/04/2018 15:39:49 Link to Item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/196570 of COLLEGE

More information

Human-Animal Interactions in the Turkey Industry

Human-Animal Interactions in the Turkey Industry Human-Animal Interactions in the Turkey Industry Dr. Naomi A. Botheras 1, Ms. Jessica A. Pempek 2, Mr. Drew K. Enigk 2 1 PI, 222E Animal Sciences Building, 2029 Fyffe Court, Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 292-3776;

More information

The Relation between Patterns of Ovarian Follicle Growth and Ovulation Rate in Sheep

The Relation between Patterns of Ovarian Follicle Growth and Ovulation Rate in Sheep Aust. J. Bioi. Sci., 1978, 31, 649-55 The Relation between Patterns of Ovarian Follicle Growth and Ovulation Rate in Sheep K. E. Turnbull, P. E. Mattner, J. M. George and R. J. Scaramuzzi Division of Animal

More information

Estimation of the genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism of body weight in label chickens and Muscovy ducks

Estimation of the genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism of body weight in label chickens and Muscovy ducks Original article Estimation of the genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism of body weight in label chickens and Muscovy ducks Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau Jean-Paul Poivey Catherine Beaumont Hubert de Rochambeau

More information

Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 49 (2006) Special Issue, Department of Poultry Breeding, Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland

Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 49 (2006) Special Issue, Department of Poultry Breeding, Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 49 (2006) Special Issue, 325-331 Department of Poultry Breeding, Agricultural University of Szczecin, Poland ZOFIA TARASEWICZ, MAREK LIGOCKI, DANUTA SZCZERBIŃSKA, DANUTA MAJEWSKA

More information

Maturity and Other Reproductive Traits of the Kanahebi Lizard Takydromus tachydromoides (Sauria, Lacertidae) in Mito

Maturity and Other Reproductive Traits of the Kanahebi Lizard Takydromus tachydromoides (Sauria, Lacertidae) in Mito Japanese Journal of Herpetology 9 (2): 46-53. 1981. Maturity and Other Reproductive Traits of the Kanahebi Lizard Takydromus tachydromoides (Sauria, Lacertidae) in Mito Sen TAKENAKA SUMMARY: Reproduction

More information

SUMMARY OF THESIS. Chapter VIII "The place of research, its purpose, the biological material and method"

SUMMARY OF THESIS. Chapter VIII The place of research, its purpose, the biological material and method SUMMARY OF THESIS Raising Japanese quail is a global activity still limited compared with growth of hens and broilers, but with great prospects for the development of characteristics and adaptability of

More information

2009 MN Cattle Feeder Days Jolene Kelzer University of Minnesota Beef Team

2009 MN Cattle Feeder Days Jolene Kelzer University of Minnesota Beef Team 2009 MN Cattle Feeder Days Jolene Kelzer University of Minnesota Beef Team 101.8 M total US cattle and calves (July 1) Down 1% from 2008 (103.3 M) 11.6 M total US cattle on feed (July 1) Down 5% from 2008

More information

Correlation of. Animal Science Biology & Technology, 3/E, by Dr. Robert Mikesell/ MeeCee Baker, 2011, ISBN 10: ; ISBN 13:

Correlation of. Animal Science Biology & Technology, 3/E, by Dr. Robert Mikesell/ MeeCee Baker, 2011, ISBN 10: ; ISBN 13: Correlation of Animal Science Biology & Technology, 3/E, by Dr. Robert Mikesell/ MeeCee Baker, 2011, ISBN 10: 1435486374; ISBN 13: 9781435486379 to Indiana s Agricultural Education Curriculum Standards

More information

Economic Significance of Fasciola Hepatica Infestation of Beef Cattle a Definition Study based on Field Trial and Grazier Questionnaire

Economic Significance of Fasciola Hepatica Infestation of Beef Cattle a Definition Study based on Field Trial and Grazier Questionnaire Economic Significance of Fasciola Hepatica Infestation of Beef Cattle a Definition Study based on Field Trial and Grazier Questionnaire B. F. Chick Colin Blumer District Veterinary Laboratory, Private

More information

The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage

The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage P. Y. Hester,* 1 S. A. Enneking,* K. Y. Jefferson-Moore, M. E. Einstein,* H. W. Cheng, and

More information

Purpose and focus of the module: Poultry Definition Domestication Classification. Basic Anatomy & Physiology

Purpose and focus of the module: Poultry Definition Domestication Classification. Basic Anatomy & Physiology Module: Poultry Production Code: AP21 Purpose and focus of the module: It aims at providing students with adequate knowledge and skills in poultry husbandry techniques and farm management. Skill Objectives

More information

Post-weaning Growth and Carcass Traits of St. Croix White and Dorper X St. Croix White Lambs Fed a Concentrate Diet in the U.S.

Post-weaning Growth and Carcass Traits of St. Croix White and Dorper X St. Croix White Lambs Fed a Concentrate Diet in the U.S. Volume 20, 2005 Post-weaning Growth and Carcass Traits of St. Croix White and Dorper X St. Croix White Lambs Fed a Concentrate Diet in the U.S. Virgin Islands R.W. Godfrey 1 and A.J. Weis Agricultural

More information

Effect of feed form, formulation, and restriction on the performance of laying hens

Effect of feed form, formulation, and restriction on the performance of laying hens Effect of feed form, formulation, and restriction on the performance of laying hens T. A. Scott 1,4, F. G. Silversides 2, D. Tietge 3, and M. L. Swift 3 1 Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agassiz, British

More information

CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes. Line R

CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes. Line R Line R Male Line R Female Line R 255 Line R (Spain) M. Baselga Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, Apartado 22012, 46071 Valencia, Spain SUMMARY A

More information

The effect of duration of thermal manipulation during broiler chick embryogenesis on body weight and body temperature of post-hatched chicks

The effect of duration of thermal manipulation during broiler chick embryogenesis on body weight and body temperature of post-hatched chicks Anim. Res. 54 (2005) 105 111 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2005 DOI: 10.1051/animres:2005004 105 Original article The effect of duration of thermal manipulation during broiler chick embryogenesis on body weight

More information

Quality Standards for Beef, Pork and Poultry

Quality Standards for Beef, Pork and Poultry Quality Standards for Beef, Pork and Poultry Objective I CAN: I WILL: General Information A. The United States Department of Agriculture sets forth quality features for beef, pork and poultry. B. The quality

More information

';!:l,io9l'f."'jt:';nf;,"';:lj:;,y;'fr:r"";t,mribution

';!:l,io9l'f.'jt:';nf;,';:lj:;,y;'fr:r;t,mribution EFFECTS OF VARIABI"E INCUBATING TEMPERATURES, NUMBER' AND PROXIMITY OF EGGS DURING HATCHING ON THE HATCHABILITY OF CHICKEN EGGS F. G. PROUDFOOT Research station' ';!:l,io9l'f."'jt:';nf;,"';:lj:;,y;'fr:r"";t,mribution

More information

Milk yield measured by oxytocin plus hand milking and weigh-suckle-weigh methods in ewes originating from local crossbred in Turkey

Milk yield measured by oxytocin plus hand milking and weigh-suckle-weigh methods in ewes originating from local crossbred in Turkey Milk yield measured by oxytocin plus hand milking and weigh-suckle-weigh methods in ewes originating from local crossbred in Turkey N. ÜNAL *, F. ATASOY, H. AKÇAPINAR, S. KOÇAK, A. YAKAN, H. EROL and M.

More information

Comparative efficacy of DRAXXIN or Nuflor for the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in feeder cattle

Comparative efficacy of DRAXXIN or Nuflor for the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in feeder cattle Treatment Study DRAXXIN vs. Nuflor July 2005 Comparative efficacy of DRAXXIN or Nuflor for the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in feeder cattle Pfizer Animal Health, New York,

More information

Food & Allied. Poultry Industry. Industry Profile Industry Structure Industry Performance Regulatory Structure Key Challenges

Food & Allied. Poultry Industry. Industry Profile Industry Structure Industry Performance Regulatory Structure Key Challenges Food & Allied Poultry Industry Industry Profile Industry Structure Industry Performance Regulatory Structure Key Challenges February 2018 Poultry Industry Industry Process Flow Edible Oil Maize Oilseed

More information

India s Trade Performance in Poultry Products

India s Trade Performance in Poultry Products International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 10 (2017) pp. 451-460 Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.610.055

More information

POULTRY EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT EVENT

POULTRY EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT EVENT POULTRY EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT EVENT RULES AND REGULATIONS TEAM COMPETITION ALABAMA FFA ASSOCIATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Purpose and Objectives... 1 Eligibility and Regulations... 1 State Awards...

More information

There are very serious welfare issues in the breeding and intensive rearing of meat chickens:

There are very serious welfare issues in the breeding and intensive rearing of meat chickens: BACKGROUND Worldwide, a total of around 50 billion chickens are slaughtered annually for meat, including nine billion in the USA, over five billion in the EU27 and around 800 million in the UK. Commercial

More information

POULTRY EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT EVENT

POULTRY EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT EVENT POULTRY EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT EVENT Revised 2/17 Live birds will be part of the contest. There will be a judging class of past production layers. Boneless and Bone-in Processed Poultry Meat Products

More information

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Poultry Diseases/Veterinary Medicine

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Poultry Diseases/Veterinary Medicine Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Poultry Diseases/Veterinary Medicine The Master Degree in Poultry Diseases /Veterinary Medicine, is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University

More information

Nova-Tech Engineering. Overview of Industry and NTE Value Propositions Animal Welfare Update

Nova-Tech Engineering. Overview of Industry and NTE Value Propositions Animal Welfare Update Nova-Tech Engineering Overview of Industry and NTE Value Propositions Animal Welfare Update Nova Tech Purpose Statement We create revolutionary solutions that advance our customer s ability to feed the

More information

INFLUENCE OF A TWICE A DAY FEEDING REGIMEN AFTER PHOTOSTIMULATION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER BREEDER HENS JESSICA MARIE SPRADLEY

INFLUENCE OF A TWICE A DAY FEEDING REGIMEN AFTER PHOTOSTIMULATION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER BREEDER HENS JESSICA MARIE SPRADLEY INFLUENCE OF A TWICE A DAY FEEDING REGIMEN AFTER PHOTOSTIMULATION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER BREEDER HENS by JESSICA MARIE SPRADLEY (Under the direction of Adam J. Davis) ABSTRACT In a

More information

The Effect of Ram Exposure on Uterine Involution and Luteal Function During the Postpartum Period of Hair Sheep Ewes in the Tropics 1

The Effect of Ram Exposure on Uterine Involution and Luteal Function During the Postpartum Period of Hair Sheep Ewes in the Tropics 1 The Effect of Ram Exposure on Uterine Involution and Luteal Function During the Postpartum Period of Hair Sheep Ewes in the Tropics 1 R. W. Godfrey 2, M. L. Gray, and J. R. Collins Agricultural Experiment

More information

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SERUM PROTEINS, LIPIDS AND CHOLESTEROL DURING THE COURSE

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SERUM PROTEINS, LIPIDS AND CHOLESTEROL DURING THE COURSE DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SERUM PROTEINS, LIPIDS AND CHOLESTEROL DURING THE COURSE OF FORCE FEEDING IN GEESE K. A. YAMANI, I. F. M. MARAI S. LOSONCSY Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture

More information